Provided by: libdbd-sqlite3-perl_1.62-3_amd64 bug

NAME

       DBD::SQLite::Cookbook - The DBD::SQLite Cookbook

DESCRIPTION

       This is the DBD::SQLite cookbook.

       It is intended to provide a place to keep a variety of functions and formals for use in
       callback APIs in DBD::SQLite.

AGGREGATE FUNCTIONS

   Variance
       This is a simple aggregate function which returns a variance. It is adapted from an
       example implementation in pysqlite.

         package variance;

         sub new { bless [], shift; }

         sub step {
             my ( $self, $value ) = @_;

             push @$self, $value;
         }

         sub finalize {
             my $self = $_[0];

             my $n = @$self;

             # Variance is NULL unless there is more than one row
             return undef unless $n || $n == 1;

             my $mu = 0;
             foreach my $v ( @$self ) {
                 $mu += $v;
             }
             $mu /= $n;

             my $sigma = 0;
             foreach my $v ( @$self ) {
                 $sigma += ($v - $mu)**2;
             }
             $sigma = $sigma / ($n - 1);

             return $sigma;
         }

         # NOTE: If you use an older DBI (< 1.608),
         # use $dbh->func(..., "create_aggregate") instead.
         $dbh->sqlite_create_aggregate( "variance", 1, 'variance' );

       The function can then be used as:

         SELECT group_name, variance(score)
         FROM results
         GROUP BY group_name;

   Variance (Memory Efficient)
       A more efficient variance function, optimized for memory usage at the expense of
       precision:

         package variance2;

         sub new { bless {sum => 0, count=>0, hash=> {} }, shift; }

         sub step {
             my ( $self, $value ) = @_;
             my $hash = $self->{hash};

             # by truncating and hashing, we can comsume many more data points
             $value = int($value); # change depending on need for precision
                                   # use sprintf for arbitrary fp precision
             if (exists $hash->{$value}) {
                 $hash->{$value}++;
             } else {
                 $hash->{$value} = 1;
             }
             $self->{sum} += $value;
             $self->{count}++;
         }

         sub finalize {
             my $self = $_[0];

             # Variance is NULL unless there is more than one row
             return undef unless $self->{count} > 1;

             # calculate avg
             my $mu = $self->{sum} / $self->{count};

             my $sigma = 0;
             while (my ($h, $v) = each %{$self->{hash}}) {
                 $sigma += (($h - $mu)**2) * $v;
             }
             $sigma = $sigma / ($self->{count} - 1);

             return $sigma;
         }

       The function can then be used as:

         SELECT group_name, variance2(score)
         FROM results
         GROUP BY group_name;

   Variance (Highly Scalable)
       A third variable implementation, designed for arbitrarily large data sets:

         package variance3;

         sub new { bless {mu=>0, count=>0, S=>0}, shift; }

         sub step {
             my ( $self, $value ) = @_;
             $self->{count}++;
             my $delta = $value - $self->{mu};
             $self->{mu} += $delta/$self->{count};
             $self->{S} += $delta*($value - $self->{mu});
         }

         sub finalize {
             my $self = $_[0];
             return $self->{S} / ($self->{count} - 1);
         }

       The function can then be used as:

         SELECT group_name, variance3(score)
         FROM results
         GROUP BY group_name;

SUPPORT

       Bugs should be reported via the CPAN bug tracker at

       <http://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/ReportBug.html?Queue=DBD-SQLite>

TO DO

       ·   Add more and varied cookbook recipes, until we have enough to turn them into a
           separate CPAN distribution.

       ·   Create a series of tests scripts that validate the cookbook recipes.

AUTHOR

       Adam Kennedy <adamk@cpan.org>

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright 2009 - 2012 Adam Kennedy.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself.

       The full text of the license can be found in the LICENSE file included with this module.