Provided by: libdbm-deep-perl_2.0016-1_all bug

NAME

       DBM::Deep - A pure perl multi-level hash/array DBM that supports transactions

VERSION

       2.0016

SYNOPSIS

         use DBM::Deep;
         my $db = DBM::Deep->new( "foo.db" );

         $db->{key} = 'value';
         print $db->{key};

         $db->put('key' => 'value');
         print $db->get('key');

         # true multi-level support
         $db->{my_complex} = [
             'hello', { perl => 'rules' },
             42, 99,
         ];

         $db->begin_work;

         # Do stuff here

         $db->rollback;
         $db->commit;

         tie my %db, 'DBM::Deep', 'foo.db';
         $db{key} = 'value';
         print $db{key};

         tied(%db)->put('key' => 'value');
         print tied(%db)->get('key');

DESCRIPTION

       A unique flat-file database module, written in pure perl. True multi-level hash/array
       support (unlike MLDBM, which is faked), hybrid OO / tie() interface, cross-platform
       FTPable files, ACID transactions, and is quite fast.  Can handle millions of keys and
       unlimited levels without significant slow-down. Written from the ground-up in pure perl --
       this is NOT a wrapper around a C-based DBM. Out-of-the-box compatibility with Unix, Mac OS
       X and Windows.

VERSION DIFFERENCES

       NOTE: 2.0000 introduces Unicode support in the File back end. This necessitates a change
       in the file format. The version 1.0003 format is still supported, though, so we have added
       a db_version() method. If you are using a database in the old format, you will have to
       upgrade it to get Unicode support.

       NOTE: 1.0020 introduces different engines which are backed by different types of storage.
       There is the original storage (called 'File') and a database storage (called 'DBI'). q.v.
       "PLUGINS" for more information.

       NOTE: 1.0000 has significant file format differences from prior versions.  There is a
       backwards-compatibility layer at "utils/upgrade_db.pl". Files created by 1.0000 or higher
       are NOT compatible with scripts using prior versions.

PLUGINS

       DBM::Deep is a wrapper around different storage engines. These are:

   File
       This is the traditional storage engine, storing the data to a custom file format. The
       parameters accepted are:

       ·   file

           Filename of the DB file to link the handle to. You can pass a full absolute filesystem
           path, partial path, or a plain filename if the file is in the current working
           directory. This is a required parameter (though q.v. fh).

       ·   fh

           If you want, you can pass in the fh instead of the file. This is most useful for doing
           something like:

             my $db = DBM::Deep->new( { fh => \*DATA } );

           You are responsible for making sure that the fh has been opened appropriately for your
           needs. If you open it read-only and attempt to write, an exception will be thrown. If
           you open it write-only or append-only, an exception will be thrown immediately as
           DBM::Deep needs to read from the fh.

       ·   file_offset

           This is the offset within the file that the DBM::Deep db starts. Most of the time, you
           will not need to set this. However, it's there if you want it.

           If you pass in fh and do not set this, it will be set appropriately.

       ·   locking

           Specifies whether locking is to be enabled. DBM::Deep uses Perl's flock() function to
           lock the database in exclusive mode for writes, and shared mode for reads. Pass any
           true value to enable. This affects the base DB handle and any child hashes or arrays
           that use the same DB file. This is an optional parameter, and defaults to 1 (enabled).
           See "LOCKING" below for more.

       When you open an existing database file, the version of the database format will stay the
       same. But if you are creating a new file, it will be in the latest format.

   DBI
       This is a storage engine that stores the data in a relational database. Funnily enough,
       this engine doesn't work with transactions (yet) as InnoDB doesn't do what DBM::Deep needs
       it to do.

       The parameters accepted are:

       ·   dbh

           This is a DBH that's already been opened with "connect" in DBI.

       ·   dbi

           This is a hashref containing:

           ·   dsn

           ·   username

           ·   password

           ·   connect_args

           These correspond to the 4 parameters "connect" in DBI takes.

       NOTE: This has only been tested with MySQL and SQLite (with disappointing results). I plan
       on extending this to work with PostgreSQL in the near future. Oracle, Sybase, and other
       engines will come later.

   Planned engines
       There are plans to extend this functionality to (at least) the following:

       ·   BDB (and other hash engines like memcached)

       ·   NoSQL engines (such as Tokyo Cabinet)

       ·   DBIx::Class (and other ORMs)

SETUP

       Construction can be done OO-style (which is the recommended way), or using Perl's tie()
       function. Both are examined here.

   OO Construction
       The recommended way to construct a DBM::Deep object is to use the new() method, which gets
       you a blessed and tied hash (or array) reference.

         my $db = DBM::Deep->new( "foo.db" );

       This opens a new database handle, mapped to the file "foo.db". If this file does not
       exist, it will automatically be created. DB files are opened in "r+" (read/write) mode,
       and the type of object returned is a hash, unless otherwise specified (see "Options"
       below).

       You can pass a number of options to the constructor to specify things like locking,
       autoflush, etc. This is done by passing an inline hash (or hashref):

         my $db = DBM::Deep->new(
             file      => "foo.db",
             locking   => 1,
             autoflush => 1
         );

       Notice that the filename is now specified inside the hash with the "file" parameter, as
       opposed to being the sole argument to the constructor. This is required if any options are
       specified.  See "Options" below for the complete list.

       You can also start with an array instead of a hash. For this, you must specify the "type"
       parameter:

         my $db = DBM::Deep->new(
             file => "foo.db",
             type => DBM::Deep->TYPE_ARRAY
         );

       Note: Specifying the "type" parameter only takes effect when beginning a new DB file. If
       you create a DBM::Deep object with an existing file, the "type" will be loaded from the
       file header, and an error will be thrown if the wrong type is passed in.

   Tie Construction
       Alternately, you can create a DBM::Deep handle by using Perl's built-in tie() function.
       The object returned from tie() can be used to call methods, such as lock() and unlock().
       (That object can be retrieved from the tied variable at any time using tied() - please see
       perltie for more info.)

         my %hash;
         my $db = tie %hash, "DBM::Deep", "foo.db";

         my @array;
         my $db = tie @array, "DBM::Deep", "bar.db";

       As with the OO constructor, you can replace the DB filename parameter with a hash
       containing one or more options (see "Options" just below for the complete list).

         tie %hash, "DBM::Deep", {
             file => "foo.db",
             locking => 1,
             autoflush => 1
         };

   Options
       There are a number of options that can be passed in when constructing your DBM::Deep
       objects. These apply to both the OO- and tie- based approaches.

       ·   type

           This parameter specifies what type of object to create, a hash or array. Use one of
           these two constants:

           ·   "DBM::Deep->TYPE_HASH"

           ·   "DBM::Deep->TYPE_ARRAY"

           This only takes effect when beginning a new file. This is an optional parameter, and
           defaults to "DBM::Deep->TYPE_HASH".

       ·   autoflush

           Specifies whether autoflush is to be enabled on the underlying filehandle.  This
           obviously slows down write operations, but is required if you may have multiple
           processes accessing the same DB file (also consider enable locking).  Pass any true
           value to enable. This is an optional parameter, and defaults to 1 (enabled).

       ·   filter_*

           See "FILTERS" below.

       The following parameters may be specified in the constructor the first time the datafile
       is created. However, they will be stored in the header of the file and cannot be
       overridden by subsequent openings of the file - the values will be set from the values
       stored in the datafile's header.

       ·   num_txns

           This is the number of transactions that can be running at one time. The default is one
           - the HEAD. The minimum is one and the maximum is 255. The more transactions, the
           larger and quicker the datafile grows.

           Simple access to a database, regardless of how many processes are doing it, already
           counts as one transaction (the HEAD). So, if you want, say, 5 processes to be able to
           call begin_work at the same time, "num_txns" must be at least 6.

           See "TRANSACTIONS" below.

       ·   max_buckets

           This is the number of entries that can be added before a reindexing. The larger this
           number is made, the larger a file gets, but the better performance you will have. The
           default and minimum number this can be is 16. The maximum is 256, but more than 64
           isn't recommended.

       ·   data_sector_size

           This is the size in bytes of a given data sector. Data sectors will chain, so a value
           of any size can be stored. However, chaining is expensive in terms of time. Setting
           this value to something close to the expected common length of your scalars will
           improve your performance. If it is too small, your file will have a lot of chaining.
           If it is too large, your file will have a lot of dead space in it.

           The default for this is 64 bytes. The minimum value is 32 and the maximum is 256
           bytes.

           Note: There are between 6 and 10 bytes taken up in each data sector for bookkeeping.
           (It's 4 + the number of bytes in your "pack_size".) This is included within the
           data_sector_size, thus the effective value is 6-10 bytes less than what you specified.

           Another note: If your strings contain any characters beyond the byte range, they will
           be encoded as UTF-8 before being stored in the file. This will make all non-ASCII
           characters take up more than one byte each.

       ·   pack_size

           This is the size of the file pointer used throughout the file. The valid values are:

           ·   small

               This uses 2-byte offsets, allowing for a maximum file size of 65 KB.

           ·   medium (default)

               This uses 4-byte offsets, allowing for a maximum file size of 4 GB.

           ·   large

               This uses 8-byte offsets, allowing for a maximum file size of 16 XB (exabytes).
               This can only be enabled if your Perl is compiled for 64-bit.

           See "LARGEFILE SUPPORT" for more information.

       ·   external_refs

           This is a boolean option. When enabled, it allows external references to database
           entries to hold on to those entries, even when they are deleted.

           To illustrate, if you retrieve a hash (or array) reference from the database,

             $foo_hash = $db->{foo};

           the hash reference is still tied to the database. So if you

             delete $db->{foo};

           $foo_hash will point to a location in the DB that is no longer valid (we call this a
           stale reference). So if you try to retrieve the data from $foo_hash,

             for(keys %$foo_hash) {

           you will get an error.

           The "external_refs" option causes $foo_hash to 'hang on' to the DB entry, so it will
           not be deleted from the database if there is still a reference to it in a running
           program. It will be deleted, instead, when the $foo_hash variable no longer exists, or
           is overwritten.

           This has the potential to cause database bloat if your program crashes, so it is not
           enabled by default. (See also the "export" method for an alternative workaround.)

TIE INTERFACE

       With DBM::Deep you can access your databases using Perl's standard hash/array syntax.
       Because all DBM::Deep objects are tied to hashes or arrays, you can treat them as such
       (but see "external_refs", above, and "Stale References", below). DBM::Deep will intercept
       all reads/writes and direct them to the right place -- the DB file. This has nothing to do
       with the "Tie Construction" section above. This simply tells you how to use DBM::Deep
       using regular hashes and arrays, rather than calling functions like "get()" and "put()"
       (although those work too). It is entirely up to you how to want to access your databases.

   Hashes
       You can treat any DBM::Deep object like a normal Perl hash reference. Add keys, or even
       nested hashes (or arrays) using standard Perl syntax:

         my $db = DBM::Deep->new( "foo.db" );

         $db->{mykey} = "myvalue";
         $db->{myhash} = {};
         $db->{myhash}->{subkey} = "subvalue";

         print $db->{myhash}->{subkey} . "\n";

       You can even step through hash keys using the normal Perl "keys()" function:

         foreach my $key (keys %$db) {
             print "$key: " . $db->{$key} . "\n";
         }

       Remember that Perl's "keys()" function extracts every key from the hash and pushes them
       onto an array, all before the loop even begins. If you have an extremely large hash, this
       may exhaust Perl's memory. Instead, consider using Perl's "each()" function, which pulls
       keys/values one at a time, using very little memory:

         while (my ($key, $value) = each %$db) {
             print "$key: $value\n";
         }

       Please note that when using "each()", you should always pass a direct hash reference, not
       a lookup. Meaning, you should never do this:

         # NEVER DO THIS
         while (my ($key, $value) = each %{$db->{foo}}) { # BAD

       This causes an infinite loop, because for each iteration, Perl is calling FETCH() on the
       $db handle, resulting in a "new" hash for foo every time, so it effectively keeps
       returning the first key over and over again. Instead, assign a temporary variable to
       "$db->{foo}", then pass that to each().

   Arrays
       As with hashes, you can treat any DBM::Deep object like a normal Perl array reference.
       This includes inserting, removing and manipulating elements, and the "push()", "pop()",
       "shift()", "unshift()" and "splice()" functions.  The object must have first been created
       using type "DBM::Deep->TYPE_ARRAY", or simply be a nested array reference inside a hash.
       Example:

         my $db = DBM::Deep->new(
             file => "foo-array.db",
             type => DBM::Deep->TYPE_ARRAY
         );

         $db->[0] = "foo";
         push @$db, "bar", "baz";
         unshift @$db, "bah";

         my $last_elem   = pop @$db;   # baz
         my $first_elem  = shift @$db; # bah
         my $second_elem = $db->[1];   # bar

         my $num_elements = scalar @$db;

OO INTERFACE

       In addition to the tie() interface, you can also use a standard OO interface to manipulate
       all aspects of DBM::Deep databases. Each type of object (hash or array) has its own
       methods, but both types share the following common methods: "put()", "get()", "exists()",
       "delete()" and "clear()". "fetch()" and "store()" are aliases to "put()" and "get()",
       respectively.

       ·   new() / clone()

           These are the constructor and copy-functions.

       ·   put() / store()

           Stores a new hash key/value pair, or sets an array element value. Takes two arguments,
           the hash key or array index, and the new value. The value can be a scalar, hash ref or
           array ref. Returns true on success, false on failure.

             $db->put("foo", "bar"); # for hashes
             $db->put(1, "bar"); # for arrays

       ·   get() / fetch()

           Fetches the value of a hash key or array element. Takes one argument: the hash key or
           array index. Returns a scalar, hash ref or array ref, depending on the data type
           stored.

             my $value = $db->get("foo"); # for hashes
             my $value = $db->get(1); # for arrays

       ·   exists()

           Checks if a hash key or array index exists. Takes one argument: the hash key or array
           index. Returns true if it exists, false if not.

             if ($db->exists("foo")) { print "yay!\n"; } # for hashes
             if ($db->exists(1)) { print "yay!\n"; } # for arrays

       ·   delete()

           Deletes one hash key/value pair or array element. Takes one argument: the hash key or
           array index. Returns the data that the element used to contain (just like Perl's
           "delete" function), which is "undef" if it did not exist. For arrays, the remaining
           elements located after the deleted element are NOT moved over. The deleted element is
           essentially just undefined, which is exactly how Perl's internal arrays work.

             $db->delete("foo"); # for hashes
             $db->delete(1); # for arrays

       ·   clear()

           Deletes all hash keys or array elements. Takes no arguments. No return value.

             $db->clear(); # hashes or arrays

       ·   lock() / unlock() / lock_exclusive() / lock_shared()

           q.v. "LOCKING" for more info.

       ·   optimize()

           This will compress the datafile so that it takes up as little space as possible.
           There is a freespace manager so that when space is freed up, it is used before
           extending the size of the datafile. But, that freespace just sits in the datafile
           unless "optimize()" is called.

           "optimize" basically copies everything into a new database, so, if it is in version
           1.0003 format, it will be upgraded.

       ·   import()

           Unlike simple assignment, "import()" does not tie the right-hand side. Instead, a copy
           of your data is put into the DB. "import()" takes either an arrayref (if your DB is an
           array) or a hashref (if your DB is a hash). "import()" will die if anything else is
           passed in.

       ·   export()

           This returns a complete copy of the data structure at the point you do the export.
           This copy is in RAM, not on disk like the DB is.

       ·   begin_work() / commit() / rollback()

           These are the transactional functions. "TRANSACTIONS" for more information.

       ·   supports( $option )

           This returns a boolean indicating whether this instance of DBM::Deep supports that
           feature. $option can be one of:

           ·   transactions

           ·   unicode

       ·   db_version()

           This returns the version of the database format that the current database is in. This
           is specified as the earliest version of DBM::Deep that supports it.

           For the File back end, this will be 1.0003 or 2.

           For the DBI back end, it is currently always 1.0020.

   Hashes
       For hashes, DBM::Deep supports all the common methods described above, and the following
       additional methods: "first_key()" and "next_key()".

       ·   first_key()

           Returns the "first" key in the hash. As with built-in Perl hashes, keys are fetched in
           an undefined order (which appears random). Takes no arguments, returns the key as a
           scalar value.

             my $key = $db->first_key();

       ·   next_key()

           Returns the "next" key in the hash, given the previous one as the sole argument.
           Returns undef if there are no more keys to be fetched.

             $key = $db->next_key($key);

       Here are some examples of using hashes:

         my $db = DBM::Deep->new( "foo.db" );

         $db->put("foo", "bar");
         print "foo: " . $db->get("foo") . "\n";

         $db->put("baz", {}); # new child hash ref
         $db->get("baz")->put("buz", "biz");
         print "buz: " . $db->get("baz")->get("buz") . "\n";

         my $key = $db->first_key();
         while ($key) {
             print "$key: " . $db->get($key) . "\n";
             $key = $db->next_key($key);
         }

         if ($db->exists("foo")) { $db->delete("foo"); }

   Arrays
       For arrays, DBM::Deep supports all the common methods described above, and the following
       additional methods: "length()", "push()", "pop()", "shift()", "unshift()" and "splice()".

       ·   length()

           Returns the number of elements in the array. Takes no arguments.

             my $len = $db->length();

       ·   push()

           Adds one or more elements onto the end of the array. Accepts scalars, hash refs or
           array refs. No return value.

             $db->push("foo", "bar", {});

       ·   pop()

           Fetches the last element in the array, and deletes it. Takes no arguments.  Returns
           undef if array is empty. Returns the element value.

             my $elem = $db->pop();

       ·   shift()

           Fetches the first element in the array, deletes it, then shifts all the remaining
           elements over to take up the space. Returns the element value. This method is not
           recommended with large arrays -- see "Large Arrays" below for details.

             my $elem = $db->shift();

       ·   unshift()

           Inserts one or more elements onto the beginning of the array, shifting all existing
           elements over to make room. Accepts scalars, hash refs or array refs.  No return
           value. This method is not recommended with large arrays -- see <Large Arrays> below
           for details.

             $db->unshift("foo", "bar", {});

       ·   splice()

           Performs exactly like Perl's built-in function of the same name. See "splice" in
           perlfunc for usage -- it is too complicated to document here. This method is not
           recommended with large arrays -- see "Large Arrays" below for details.

       Here are some examples of using arrays:

         my $db = DBM::Deep->new(
             file => "foo.db",
             type => DBM::Deep->TYPE_ARRAY
         );

         $db->push("bar", "baz");
         $db->unshift("foo");
         $db->put(3, "buz");

         my $len = $db->length();
         print "length: $len\n"; # 4

         for (my $k=0; $k<$len; $k++) {
             print "$k: " . $db->get($k) . "\n";
         }

         $db->splice(1, 2, "biz", "baf");

         while (my $elem = shift @$db) {
             print "shifted: $elem\n";
         }

LOCKING

       Enable or disable automatic file locking by passing a boolean value to the "locking"
       parameter when constructing your DBM::Deep object (see "SETUP" above).

         my $db = DBM::Deep->new(
             file => "foo.db",
             locking => 1
         );

       This causes DBM::Deep to "flock()" the underlying filehandle with exclusive mode for
       writes, and shared mode for reads. This is required if you have multiple processes
       accessing the same database file, to avoid file corruption.  Please note that "flock()"
       does NOT work for files over NFS. See "DB over NFS" below for more.

   Explicit Locking
       You can explicitly lock a database, so it remains locked for multiple actions. This is
       done by calling the "lock_exclusive()" method (for when you want to write) or the
       "lock_shared()" method (for when you want to read).  This is particularly useful for
       things like counters, where the current value needs to be fetched, then incremented, then
       stored again.

         $db->lock_exclusive();
         my $counter = $db->get("counter");
         $counter++;
         $db->put("counter", $counter);
         $db->unlock();

         # or...

         $db->lock_exclusive();
         $db->{counter}++;
         $db->unlock();

   Win32/Cygwin
       Due to Win32 actually enforcing the read-only status of a shared lock, all locks on Win32
       and cygwin are exclusive. This is because of how autovivification currently works.
       Hopefully, this will go away in a future release.

IMPORTING/EXPORTING

       You can import existing complex structures by calling the "import()" method, and export an
       entire database into an in-memory structure using the "export()" method. Both are examined
       here.

   Importing
       Say you have an existing hash with nested hashes/arrays inside it. Instead of walking the
       structure and adding keys/elements to the database as you go, simply pass a reference to
       the "import()" method. This recursively adds everything to an existing DBM::Deep object
       for you. Here is an example:

         my $struct = {
             key1 => "value1",
             key2 => "value2",
             array1 => [ "elem0", "elem1", "elem2" ],
             hash1 => {
                 subkey1 => "subvalue1",
                 subkey2 => "subvalue2"
             }
         };

         my $db = DBM::Deep->new( "foo.db" );
         $db->import( $struct );

         print $db->{key1} . "\n"; # prints "value1"

       This recursively imports the entire $struct object into $db, including all nested hashes
       and arrays. If the DBM::Deep object contains existing data, keys are merged with the
       existing ones, replacing if they already exist.  The "import()" method can be called on
       any database level (not just the base level), and works with both hash and array DB types.

       Note: Make sure your existing structure has no circular references in it.  These will
       cause an infinite loop when importing. There are plans to fix this in a later release.

   Exporting
       Calling the "export()" method on an existing DBM::Deep object will return a reference to a
       new in-memory copy of the database. The export is done recursively, so all nested
       hashes/arrays are all exported to standard Perl objects. Here is an example:

         my $db = DBM::Deep->new( "foo.db" );

         $db->{key1} = "value1";
         $db->{key2} = "value2";
         $db->{hash1} = {};
         $db->{hash1}->{subkey1} = "subvalue1";
         $db->{hash1}->{subkey2} = "subvalue2";

         my $struct = $db->export();

         print $struct->{key1} . "\n"; # prints "value1"

       This makes a complete copy of the database in memory, and returns a reference to it. The
       "export()" method can be called on any database level (not just the base level), and works
       with both hash and array DB types. Be careful of large databases -- you can store a lot
       more data in a DBM::Deep object than an in-memory Perl structure.

       Note: Make sure your database has no circular references in it.  These will cause an
       infinite loop when exporting. There are plans to fix this in a later release.

FILTERS

       DBM::Deep has a number of hooks where you can specify your own Perl function to perform
       filtering on incoming or outgoing data. This is a perfect way to extend the engine, and
       implement things like real-time compression or encryption. Filtering applies to the base
       DB level, and all child hashes / arrays. Filter hooks can be specified when your DBM::Deep
       object is first constructed, or by calling the "set_filter()" method at any time. There
       are four available filter hooks.

   set_filter()
       This method takes two parameters - the filter type and the filter subreference.  The four
       types are:

       ·   filter_store_key

           This filter is called whenever a hash key is stored. It is passed the incoming key,
           and expected to return a transformed key.

       ·   filter_store_value

           This filter is called whenever a hash key or array element is stored. It is passed the
           incoming value, and expected to return a transformed value.

       ·   filter_fetch_key

           This filter is called whenever a hash key is fetched (i.e. via "first_key()" or
           "next_key()"). It is passed the transformed key, and expected to return the plain key.

       ·   filter_fetch_value

           This filter is called whenever a hash key or array element is fetched.  It is passed
           the transformed value, and expected to return the plain value.

       Here are the two ways to setup a filter hook:

         my $db = DBM::Deep->new(
             file => "foo.db",
             filter_store_value => \&my_filter_store,
             filter_fetch_value => \&my_filter_fetch
         );

         # or...

         $db->set_filter( "store_value", \&my_filter_store );
         $db->set_filter( "fetch_value", \&my_filter_fetch );

       Your filter function will be called only when dealing with SCALAR keys or values. When
       nested hashes and arrays are being stored/fetched, filtering is bypassed. Filters are
       called as static functions, passed a single SCALAR argument, and expected to return a
       single SCALAR value. If you want to remove a filter, set the function reference to
       "undef":

         $db->set_filter( "store_value", undef );

   Examples
       Please read DBM::Deep::Cookbook for examples of filters.

ERROR HANDLING

       Most DBM::Deep methods return a true value for success, and call die() on failure. You can
       wrap calls in an eval block to catch the die.

         my $db = DBM::Deep->new( "foo.db" ); # create hash
         eval { $db->push("foo"); }; # ILLEGAL -- push is array-only call

         print $@;           # prints error message

LARGEFILE SUPPORT

       If you have a 64-bit system, and your Perl is compiled with both LARGEFILE and 64-bit
       support, you may be able to create databases larger than 4 GB.  DBM::Deep by default uses
       32-bit file offset tags, but these can be changed by specifying the 'pack_size' parameter
       when constructing the file.

         DBM::Deep->new(
             file      => $filename,
             pack_size => 'large',
         );

       This tells DBM::Deep to pack all file offsets with 8-byte (64-bit) quad words instead of
       32-bit longs. After setting these values your DB files have a theoretical maximum size of
       16 XB (exabytes).

       You can also use "pack_size => 'small'" in order to use 16-bit file offsets.

       Note: Changing these values will NOT work for existing database files.  Only change this
       for new files. Once the value has been set, it is stored in the file's header and cannot
       be changed for the life of the file. These parameters are per-file, meaning you can access
       32-bit and 64-bit files, as you choose.

       Note: We have not personally tested files larger than 4 GB -- all our systems have only a
       32-bit Perl. However, we have received user reports that this does indeed work.

LOW-LEVEL ACCESS

       If you require low-level access to the underlying filehandle that DBM::Deep uses, you can
       call the "_fh()" method, which returns the handle:

         my $fh = $db->_fh();

       This method can be called on the root level of the database, or any child hashes or
       arrays. All levels share a root structure, which contains things like the filehandle, a
       reference counter, and all the options specified when you created the object. You can get
       access to this file object by calling the "_storage()" method.

         my $file_obj = $db->_storage();

       This is useful for changing options after the object has already been created, such as
       enabling/disabling locking. You can also store your own temporary user data in this
       structure (be wary of name collision), which is then accessible from any child hash or
       array.

CIRCULAR REFERENCES

       DBM::Deep has full support for circular references. Meaning you can have a nested hash key
       or array element that points to a parent object.  This relationship is stored in the DB
       file, and is preserved between sessions.  Here is an example:

         my $db = DBM::Deep->new( "foo.db" );

         $db->{foo} = "bar";
         $db->{circle} = $db; # ref to self

         print $db->{foo} . "\n"; # prints "bar"
         print $db->{circle}->{foo} . "\n"; # prints "bar" again

       This also works as expected with array and hash references. So, the following works as
       expected:

         $db->{foo} = [ 1 .. 3 ];
         $db->{bar} = $db->{foo};

         push @{$db->{foo}}, 42;
         is( $db->{bar}[-1], 42 ); # Passes

       This, however, does not extend to assignments from one DB file to another.  So, the
       following will throw an error:

         my $db1 = DBM::Deep->new( "foo.db" );
         my $db2 = DBM::Deep->new( "bar.db" );

         $db1->{foo} = [];
         $db2->{foo} = $db1->{foo}; # dies

       Note: Passing the object to a function that recursively walks the object tree (such as
       Data::Dumper or even the built-in "optimize()" or "export()" methods) will result in an
       infinite loop. This will be fixed in a future release by adding singleton support.

TRANSACTIONS

       As of 1.0000, DBM::Deep has ACID transactions. Every DBM::Deep object is completely
       transaction-ready - it is not an option you have to turn on. You do have to specify how
       many transactions may run simultaneously (q.v. "num_txns").

       Three new methods have been added to support them. They are:

       ·   begin_work()

           This starts a transaction.

       ·   commit()

           This applies the changes done within the transaction to the mainline and ends the
           transaction.

       ·   rollback()

           This discards the changes done within the transaction to the mainline and ends the
           transaction.

       Transactions in DBM::Deep are done using a variant of the MVCC method, the same method
       used by the InnoDB MySQL engine.

MIGRATION

       As of 1.0000, the file format has changed. To aid in upgrades, a migration script is
       provided within the CPAN distribution, called utils/upgrade_db.pl.

       NOTE: This script is not installed onto your system because it carries a copy of every
       version prior to the current version.

       As of version 2.0000, databases created by old versions back to 1.0003 can be read, but
       new features may not be available unless the database is upgraded first.

TODO

       The following are items that are planned to be added in future releases. These are
       separate from the "CAVEATS, ISSUES & BUGS" below.

   Sub-Transactions
       Right now, you cannot run a transaction within a transaction. Removing this restriction is
       technically straightforward, but the combinatorial explosion of possible usecases hurts my
       head. If this is something you want to see immediately, please submit many testcases.

   Caching
       If a client is willing to assert upon opening the file that this process will be the only
       consumer of that datafile, then there are a number of caching possibilities that can be
       taken advantage of. This does, however, mean that DBM::Deep is more vulnerable to losing
       data due to unflushed changes. It also means a much larger in-memory footprint. As such,
       it's not clear exactly how this should be done. Suggestions are welcome.

   Ram-only
       The techniques used in DBM::Deep simply require a seekable contiguous datastore. This
       could just as easily be a large string as a file. By using substr, the STM capabilities of
       DBM::Deep could be used within a single-process. I have no idea how I'd specify this,
       though. Suggestions are welcome.

   Different contention resolution mechanisms
       Currently, the only contention resolution mechanism is last-write-wins. This is the
       mechanism used by most RDBMSes and should be good enough for most uses.  For advanced uses
       of STM, other contention mechanisms will be needed. If you have an idea of how you'd like
       to see contention resolution in DBM::Deep, please let me know.

CAVEATS, ISSUES & BUGS

       This section describes all the known issues with DBM::Deep. These are issues that are
       either intractable or depend on some feature within Perl working exactly right. It you
       have found something that is not listed below, please send an e-mail to
       bug-DBM-Deep@rt.cpan.org <mailto:bug-DBM-Deep@rt.cpan.org>.  Likewise, if you think you
       know of a way around one of these issues, please let me know.

   References
       (The following assumes a high level of Perl understanding, specifically of references.
       Most users can safely skip this section.)

       Currently, the only references supported are HASH and ARRAY. The other reference types
       (SCALAR, CODE, GLOB, and REF) cannot be supported for various reasons.

       ·   GLOB

           These are things like filehandles and other sockets. They can't be supported because
           it's completely unclear how DBM::Deep should serialize them.

       ·   SCALAR / REF

           The discussion here refers to the following type of example:

             my $x = 25;
             $db->{key1} = \$x;

             $x = 50;

             # In some other process ...

             my $val = ${ $db->{key1} };

             is( $val, 50, "What actually gets stored in the DB file?" );

           The problem is one of synchronization. When the variable being referred to changes
           value, the reference isn't notified, which is kind of the point of references. This
           means that the new value won't be stored in the datafile for other processes to read.
           There is no TIEREF.

           It is theoretically possible to store references to values already within a DBM::Deep
           object because everything already is synchronized, but the change to the internals
           would be quite large. Specifically, DBM::Deep would have to tie every single value
           that is stored. This would bloat the RAM footprint of DBM::Deep at least twofold (if
           not more) and be a significant performance drain, all to support a feature that has
           never been requested.

       ·   CODE

           Data::Dump::Streamer provides a mechanism for serializing coderefs, including saving
           off all closure state. This would allow for DBM::Deep to store the code for a
           subroutine. Then, whenever the subroutine is read, the code could be "eval()"'ed into
           being. However, just as for SCALAR and REF, that closure state may change without
           notifying the DBM::Deep object storing the reference. Again, this would generally be
           considered a feature.

   External references and transactions
       If you do "my $x = $db->{foo};", then start a transaction, $x will be referencing the
       database from outside the transaction. A fix for this (and other issues with how external
       references into the database) is being looked into. This is the skipped set of tests in
       t/39_singletons.t and a related issue is the focus of t/37_delete_edge_cases.t

   File corruption
       The current level of error handling in DBM::Deep is minimal. Files are checked for a
       32-bit signature when opened, but any other form of corruption in the datafile can cause
       segmentation faults. DBM::Deep may try to "seek()" past the end of a file, or get stuck in
       an infinite loop depending on the level and type of corruption. File write operations are
       not checked for failure (for speed), so if you happen to run out of disk space, DBM::Deep
       will probably fail in a bad way. These things will be addressed in a later version of
       DBM::Deep.

   DB over NFS
       Beware of using DBM::Deep files over NFS. DBM::Deep uses flock(), which works well on
       local filesystems, but will NOT protect you from file corruption over NFS. I've heard
       about setting up your NFS server with a locking daemon, then using "lockf()" to lock your
       files, but your mileage may vary there as well.  From what I understand, there is no real
       way to do it. However, if you need access to the underlying filehandle in DBM::Deep for
       using some other kind of locking scheme like "lockf()", see the "LOW-LEVEL ACCESS" section
       above.

   Copying Objects
       Beware of copying tied objects in Perl. Very strange things can happen.  Instead, use
       DBM::Deep's "clone()" method which safely copies the object and returns a new, blessed and
       tied hash or array to the same level in the DB.

         my $copy = $db->clone();

       Note: Since clone() here is cloning the object, not the database location, any
       modifications to either $db or $copy will be visible to both.

   Stale References
       If you take a reference to an array or hash from the database, it is tied to the database
       itself. This means that if the datum in question is subsequently deleted from the
       database, the reference to it will point to an invalid location and unpredictable things
       will happen if you try to use it.

       So a seemingly innocuous piece of code like this:

         my %hash = %{ $db->{some_hash} };

       can fail if another process deletes or clobbers "$db->{some_hash}" while the data are
       being extracted, since "%{ ... }" is not atomic.  (This actually happened.) The solution
       is to lock the database before reading the data:

         $db->lock_exclusive;
         my %hash = %{ $db->{some_hash} };
         $db->unlock;

       As of version 1.0024, if you assign a stale reference to a location in the database,
       DBM::Deep will warn, if you have uninitialized warnings enabled, and treat the stale
       reference as "undef". An attempt to use a stale reference as an array or hash reference
       will cause an error.

   Large Arrays
       Beware of using "shift()", "unshift()" or "splice()" with large arrays.  These functions
       cause every element in the array to move, which can be murder on DBM::Deep, as every
       element has to be fetched from disk, then stored again in a different location. This will
       be addressed in a future version.

       This has been somewhat addressed so that the cost is constant, regardless of what is
       stored at those locations. So, small arrays with huge data structures in them are faster.
       But, large arrays are still large.

   Writeonly Files
       If you pass in a filehandle to new(), you may have opened it in either a readonly or
       writeonly mode. STORE will verify that the filehandle is writable.  However, there doesn't
       seem to be a good way to determine if a filehandle is readable. And, if the filehandle
       isn't readable, it's not clear what will happen. So, don't do that.

   Assignments Within Transactions
       The following will not work as one might expect:

         my $x = { a => 1 };

         $db->begin_work;
         $db->{foo} = $x;
         $db->rollback;

         is( $x->{a}, 1 ); # This will fail!

       The problem is that the moment a reference used as the rvalue to a DBM::Deep object's
       lvalue, it becomes tied itself. This is so that future changes to $x can be tracked within
       the DBM::Deep file and is considered to be a feature. By the time the rollback occurs,
       there is no knowledge that there had been an $x or what memory location to assign an
       "export()" to.

       NOTE: This does not affect importing because imports do a walk over the reference to be
       imported in order to explicitly leave it untied.

CODE COVERAGE

       Devel::Cover is used to test the code coverage of the tests. Below is the Devel::Cover
       report on this distribution's test suite.

         ---------------------------- ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------
         File                           stmt   bran   cond    sub    pod   time  total
         ---------------------------- ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------
         blib/lib/DBM/Deep.pm          100.0   89.1   82.9  100.0  100.0   32.5   98.1
         blib/lib/DBM/Deep/Array.pm    100.0   94.4  100.0  100.0  100.0    5.2   98.8
         blib/lib/DBM/Deep/Engine.pm   100.0   92.9  100.0  100.0  100.0    7.4  100.0
         ...ib/DBM/Deep/Engine/DBI.pm   95.0   73.1  100.0  100.0  100.0    1.5   90.4
         ...b/DBM/Deep/Engine/File.pm   92.3   78.5   88.9  100.0  100.0    4.9   90.3
         blib/lib/DBM/Deep/Hash.pm     100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0    3.8  100.0
         .../lib/DBM/Deep/Iterator.pm  100.0    n/a    n/a  100.0  100.0    0.0  100.0
         .../DBM/Deep/Iterator/DBI.pm  100.0  100.0    n/a  100.0  100.0    1.2  100.0
         ...DBM/Deep/Iterator/File.pm   92.5   84.6    n/a  100.0   66.7    0.6   90.0
         ...erator/File/BucketList.pm  100.0   75.0    n/a  100.0   66.7    0.4   93.8
         ...ep/Iterator/File/Index.pm  100.0  100.0    n/a  100.0  100.0    0.2  100.0
         blib/lib/DBM/Deep/Null.pm      87.5    n/a    n/a   75.0    n/a    0.0   83.3
         blib/lib/DBM/Deep/Sector.pm    91.7    n/a    n/a   83.3    0.0    6.7   74.4
         ...ib/DBM/Deep/Sector/DBI.pm   96.8   83.3    n/a  100.0    0.0    1.0   89.8
         ...p/Sector/DBI/Reference.pm  100.0   95.5  100.0  100.0    0.0    2.2   91.2
         ...Deep/Sector/DBI/Scalar.pm  100.0  100.0    n/a  100.0    0.0    1.1   92.9
         ...b/DBM/Deep/Sector/File.pm   96.0   87.5  100.0   92.3   25.0    2.2   91.0
         ...Sector/File/BucketList.pm   98.2   85.7   83.3  100.0    0.0    3.3   89.4
         .../Deep/Sector/File/Data.pm  100.0    n/a    n/a  100.0    0.0    0.1   90.9
         ...Deep/Sector/File/Index.pm  100.0   80.0   33.3  100.0    0.0    0.8   83.1
         .../Deep/Sector/File/Null.pm  100.0  100.0    n/a  100.0    0.0    0.0   91.7
         .../Sector/File/Reference.pm  100.0   90.0   80.0  100.0    0.0    1.4   91.5
         ...eep/Sector/File/Scalar.pm   98.4   87.5    n/a  100.0    0.0    0.8   91.9
         blib/lib/DBM/Deep/Storage.pm  100.0    n/a    n/a  100.0  100.0    0.0  100.0
         ...b/DBM/Deep/Storage/DBI.pm   97.3   70.8    n/a  100.0   38.5    6.7   87.0
         .../DBM/Deep/Storage/File.pm   96.6   77.1   80.0   95.7  100.0   16.0   91.8
         Total                          99.3   85.2   84.9   99.8   63.3  100.0   97.6
         ---------------------------- ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------

MORE INFORMATION

       Check out the DBM::Deep Google Group at <http://groups.google.com/group/DBM-Deep> or send
       email to DBM-Deep@googlegroups.com <mailto:DBM-Deep@googlegroups.com>.  You can also visit
       #dbm-deep on irc.perl.org

       The source code repository is at <http://github.com/robkinyon/dbm-deep>

MAINTAINERS

       Rob Kinyon, rkinyon@cpan.org <mailto:rkinyon@cpan.org>

       Originally written by Joseph Huckaby, jhuckaby@cpan.org <mailto:jhuckaby@cpan.org>

SPONSORS

       Stonehenge Consulting (<http://www.stonehenge.com/>) sponsored the development of
       transactions and freespace management, leading to the 1.0000 release. A great debt of
       gratitude goes out to them for their continuing leadership in and support of the Perl
       community.

CONTRIBUTORS

       The following have contributed greatly to make DBM::Deep what it is today:

       ·   Adam Sah and Rich Gaushell for innumerable contributions early on.

       ·   Dan Golden and others at YAPC::NA 2006 for helping me design through transactions.

       ·   James Stanley for bug fix

       ·   David Steinbrunner for fixing typos and adding repository cpan metadata

       ·   H. Merijn Brandt for fixing the POD escapes.

       ·   Breno G. de Oliveira for minor packaging tweaks

SEE ALSO

       DBM::Deep::Cookbook(3)

       perltie(1), Tie::Hash(3), Fcntl(3), flock(2), lockf(3), nfs(5)

LICENSE

       Copyright (c) 2007-14 Rob Kinyon. All Rights Reserved.  This is free software, you may use
       it and distribute it under the same terms as Perl itself.