Provided by: libgeo-ellipsoids-perl_0.16-1_all #### NAME

```       Geo::Ellipsoids - Package for standard Geo:: ellipsoid a, b, f and 1/f values.

```

#### SYNOPSIS

```         use Geo::Ellipsoids;
my \$obj = Geo::Ellipsoids->new();
\$obj->set('WGS84'); #default
print "a=", \$obj->a, "\n";
print "b=", \$obj->b, "\n";
print "f=", \$obj->f, "\n";
print "i=", \$obj->i, "\n";
print "e=", \$obj->e, "\n";
print "n=", \$obj->n(45), "\n";

```

#### CONSTRUCTOR

```   new
The new() constructor may be called with any parameter that is appropriate to the set
method.

my \$obj = Geo::Ellipsoid->new();

```

#### METHODS

```   set
Method sets the current ellipsoid.  This method is called when the object is constructed
(default is WGS84).

\$obj->set(); #default WGS84
\$obj->set('Clarke 1866'); #All built in ellipsoids are stored in meters
\$obj->set({a=>1, b=>1});  #Custom Sphere 1 unit radius

list
Method returns a list of known elipsoid names.

my @list=\$obj->list;

my \$list=\$obj->list;
while (@\$list) {
print "\$_\n";
}

a
Method returns the value of the semi-major axis.

my \$a=\$obj->a;

b
Method returns the value of the semi-minor axis.

my \$b=\$obj->b;  #b=a(1-f)

f
Method returns the value of flatting

my \$f=\$obj->f;  #f=(a-b)/a

i
Method returns the value of the inverse flatting

my \$i=\$obj->i; #i=1/f=a/(a-b)

invf
Method synonym for the i method

my \$i=\$obj->invf; #i=1/f

e
Method returns the value of the first eccentricity, e.  This is the eccentricity of the
earth's elliptical cross-section.

my \$e=\$obj->e;

e2
Method returns the value of eccentricity squared (e.g. e^2). This is not the second
eccentricity, e' or e-prime see the "ep" method.

my \$e=sqrt(\$obj->e2); #e^2 = f(2-f) = 2f-f^2 = 1-b^2/a^2

ep
Method returns the value of the second eccentricity, e' or e-prime.  The second
eccentricity is related to the first eccentricity by the equation: 1=(1-e^2)(1+e'^2).

my \$ep=\$obj->ep;

ep2
Method returns the square of value of second eccentricity, e' (e-prime).  This is more
useful in almost all equations.

my \$ep=sqrt(\$obj->ep2);  #ep2=(ea/b)^2=e2/(1-e2)=a^2/b^2-1

n
Method returns the value of n given latitude (degrees).  Typically represented by the
Greek letter nu, this is the radius of curvature of the ellipsoid perpendicular to the
meridian plane.  It is also the distance from the point in question to the polar axis,
measured perpendicular to the ellipsoid's surface.

my \$n=\$obj->n(\$lat);

Note: Some define a variable n as (a-b)/(a+b) this is not that variable.

Note: It appears that n can also be calculated as

n=a^2/sqrt(a^2 * cos(\$lat)^2 + \$b^2 * sin(\$lat)^2);

Method returns the value of n given latitude (radians).

Reference: John P. Snyder, "Map Projections: A Working Manual", USGS, page 25, equation
(4-20) http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/pp/pp1395

rho
rho is the radius of curvature of the earth in the meridian plane.

my \$rho=\$obj->rho(\$lat);

rho is the radius of curvature of the earth in the meridian plane. Sometimes denoted as
R'.

Reference: John P. Snyder, "Map Projections: A Working Manual", USGS, page 24, equation
(4-18) http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/pp/pp1395

polar_circumference
Method returns the value of the semi-minor axis times 2*PI.

my \$polar_circumference=\$obj->polar_circumference;

equatorial_circumference
Method returns the value of the semi-major axis times 2*PI.

my \$equatorial_circumference=\$obj->equatorial_circumference;

shortname
Method returns the shortname, which is the hash key, of the current ellipsoid

my \$shortname=\$obj->shortname;

longname
Method returns the long name of the current ellipsoid

my \$longname=\$obj->longname;

data
Method returns a hash reference for the ellipsoid definition data structure.

my \$datastructure=\$obj->data;

name2ref
Method returns a hash reference (e.g. {a=>6378137,i=>298.257223563}) when passed a valid
ellipsoid name (e.g. 'WGS84').

my \$ref=\$obj->name2ref('WGS84')

```

#### TODO

```       What should we do about bad input?  I tend to die in the module which for most situations
is fine.  I guess you could always overload die to handle exceptions for web based
solutions and the like.

Support for ellipsoid aliases in the data structure

```

#### BUGS

```       Please send to the geo-perl email list.

```

#### LIMITS

```       No guarantees that Perl handles all of the double precision calculations in the same
manner as Fortran.

```

#### AUTHOR

```       Michael R. Davis qw/perl michaelrdavis com/

```

```       Copyright (c) 2006 Michael R. Davis (mrdvt92)
```       Geo::Forward Geo::Ellipsoid Geo::Coordinates::UTM Geo::GPS::Data::Ellipsoid GIS::Distance