Provided by: srecord_1.58-1.1ubuntu2_amd64

**NAME**

srec_fpc - four packed code file format

**SYNOPSIS**

All ASCII based file formats have one disadvantage in common: they all need more than double the amount of characters as opposed to the number of bytes to be sent. Address fields and checksums will add even more characters. So the shorter the records, the more characters have to be sent to get the file across. The FPC format may be used to reduce the number of characters needed to send a file in ASCII format, although it still needs more characters than the actual bytes it sends. FPC stands for "Four Packed Code". The reduction is accomplished by squeezing 4 real bytes into 5 ASCII characters. In fact every ASCII character will be a digit in the base 85 number system. There aren't enough letters, digits and punctuation marks available to get 85 different characters, but if we use both upper case and lower case letters we will manage. This implies that the FPCiscasesensitive, as opposed to all other ASCII based file formats.Base85The numbering system is in base 85, and is somewhat hard to understand for us humans who are usually only familiar with base 10 numbers. Some of us understand base 2 and base 16 as well, but base 85 is for most people something new. Luckily we don't have to do any math with this number system. We just convert a 32 bit number into a 5 digit number in base 85. A 32 bit number has a range of 4,294,967,296, while a 5 digit number in base 85 has a range of 4,437,053,125, which is enough to do the trick. One drawback is that we always have to send multiples of 4 bytes, even if we actually want to send 1, 2 or 3 bytes. Unused bytes are padded with zeroes, and are discarded at the receiving end. The digits of the base 85 numbering system start at %, which represents the value of 0. The highest value of a digit in base 85 is 84, and is represented by the character 'z'. If you want to check this with a normal ASCII table you will notice that we have used one character too many! Why? I don't know, but for some reason we have to skip the '*' character in the row. This means that after the ')' character follows the '+' character. We can use normal number conversion algorithms to generate the FPC digits, with this tiny difference. We have to check whether the digit is going to be equal or larger than the ASCII value for '*'. If this is the case we have to increment the digit once to stay clear of the '*'. In base 85 MSD digits go first, like in all number systems! The benefit of this all is hopefully clear. For every 4 bytes we only have to send 5 ASCII characters, as opposed to 8 characters for all other formats.RecordsNow we take a look at the the formatting of the FPC records. We look at the record at byte level, not at the actual base 85 encoded level. Only after formatting the FPC record at byte level we convert 4 bytes at a time to a 5 digit base 85 number. If we don't have enough bytes in the record to fill the last group of 5 digits we will add bytes with the value of 0 behind the record. ┌──┬────┬────┬──────┬──────────┬──────────┐ │$ │ ss │ cc │ ffff │ aaaaaaaa │ dddddddd │ Binary file (standard input) matches