Provided by: rxvt-unicode_9.22-6_amd64 bug


       RXVT_REFERENCE - FAQ, command sequences and other background information


          # set a new font set
          printf '\33]50;%s\007' 9x15,xft:Kochi" Mincho"

          # change the locale and tell rxvt-unicode about it
          export LC_CTYPE=ja_JP.EUC-JP; printf "\33]701;$LC_CTYPE\007"

          # set window title
          printf '\33]2;%s\007' "new window title"


       This document contains the FAQ, the RXVT TECHNICAL REFERENCE documenting all escape
       sequences, and other background information.

       The newest version of this document is also available on the World Wide Web at

       The main manual page for urxvt itself is available at


   Meta, Features & Commandline Issues
       My question isn't answered here, can I ask a human?

       Before sending me mail, you could go to IRC: "", channel "#rxvt-unicode"
       has some rxvt-unicode enthusiasts that might be interested in learning about new and
       exciting problems (but not FAQs :).

       I use Gentoo, and I have a problem...

       There are two big problems with Gentoo Linux: first, most if not all Gentoo systems are
       completely broken (missing or mismatched header files, broken compiler etc. are just the
       tip of the iceberg); secondly, it should be called Gentoo GNU/Linux.

       For these reasons, it is impossible to support rxvt-unicode on Gentoo. Problems appearing
       on Gentoo systems will usually simply be ignored unless they can be reproduced on non-
       Gentoo systems.

       Does it support tabs, can I have a tabbed rxvt-unicode?

       Beginning with version 7.3, there is a perl extension that implements a simple tabbed
       terminal. It is installed by default, so any of these should give you tabs:

          urxvt -pe tabbed

          URxvt.perl-ext-common: default,tabbed

       It will also work fine with tabbing functionality of many window managers or similar
       tabbing programs, and its embedding-features allow it to be embedded into other programs,
       as witnessed by doc/rxvt-tabbed or the upcoming "Gtk2::URxvt" perl module, which features
       a tabbed urxvt (murxvt) terminal as an example embedding application.

       How do I know which rxvt-unicode version I'm using?

       The version number is displayed with the usage (-h). Also the escape sequence "ESC [ 8 n"
       sets the window title to the version number. When using the urxvtc client, the version
       displayed is that of the daemon.

       Rxvt-unicode uses gobs of memory, how can I reduce that?

       Rxvt-unicode tries to obey the rule of not charging you for something you don't use. One
       thing you should try is to configure out all settings that you don't need, for example,
       Xft support is a resource hog by design, when used. Compiling it out ensures that no Xft
       font will be loaded accidentally when rxvt-unicode tries to find a font for your

       Also, many people (me included) like large windows and even larger scrollback buffers:
       Without "--enable-unicode3", rxvt-unicode will use 6 bytes per screen cell. For a 160x??
       window this amounts to almost a kilobyte per line. A scrollback buffer of 10000 lines will
       then (if full) use 10 Megabytes of memory. With "--enable-unicode3" it gets worse, as
       rxvt-unicode then uses 8 bytes per screen cell.

       How can I start urxvtd in a race-free way?

       Try "urxvtd -f -o", which tells urxvtd to open the display, create the listening socket
       and then fork.

       How can I start urxvtd automatically when I run urxvtc?

       If you want to start urxvtd automatically whenever you run urxvtc and the daemon isn't
       running yet, use this script:

          urxvtc "$@"
          if [ $? -eq 2 ]; then
             urxvtd -q -o -f
             urxvtc "$@"

       This tries to create a new terminal, and if fails with exit status 2, meaning it couldn't
       connect to the daemon, it will start the daemon and re-run the command. Subsequent
       invocations of the script will re-use the existing daemon.

       How do I distinguish whether I'm running rxvt-unicode or a regular xterm? I need this to
       decide about setting colours etc.

       The original rxvt and rxvt-unicode always export the variable "COLORTERM", so you can
       check and see if that is set. Note that several programs, JED, slrn, Midnight Commander
       automatically check this variable to decide whether or not to use colour.

       How do I set the correct, full IP address for the DISPLAY variable?

       If you've compiled rxvt-unicode with DISPLAY_IS_IP and have enabled insecure mode then it
       is possible to use the following shell script snippets to correctly set the display. If
       your version of rxvt-unicode wasn't also compiled with ESCZ_ANSWER (as assumed in these
       snippets) then the COLORTERM variable can be used to distinguish rxvt-unicode from a
       regular xterm.

       Courtesy of Chuck Blake <cblake@BBN.COM> with the following shell script snippets:

          # Bourne/Korn/POSIX family of shells:
          [ ${TERM:-foo} = foo ] && TERM=xterm # assume an xterm if we don't know
          if [ ${TERM:-foo} = xterm ]; then
             stty -icanon -echo min 0 time 15 # see if enhanced rxvt or not
             printf "\eZ"
             read term_id
             stty icanon echo
             if [ ""${term_id} = '^[[?1;2C' -a ${DISPLAY:-foo} = foo ]; then
                printf '\e[7n'        # query the rxvt we are in for the DISPLAY string
                read DISPLAY          # set it in our local shell

       How do I compile the manual pages on my own?

       You need to have a recent version of perl installed as /usr/bin/perl, one that comes with
       pod2man, pod2text and pod2xhtml (from Pod::Xhtml). Then go to the doc subdirectory and
       enter "make alldoc".

       Isn't rxvt-unicode supposed to be small? Don't all those features bloat?

       I often get asked about this, and I think, no, they didn't cause extra bloat. If you
       compare a minimal rxvt and a minimal urxvt, you can see that the urxvt binary is larger
       (due to some encoding tables always being compiled in), but it actually uses less memory
       (RSS) after startup. Even with "--disable-everything", this comparison is a bit unfair, as
       many features unique to urxvt (locale, encoding conversion, iso14755 etc.) are already in
       use in this mode.

           text    data     bss     drs     rss filename
          98398    1664      24   15695    1824 rxvt --disable-everything
         188985    9048   66616   18222    1788 urxvt --disable-everything

       When you "--enable-everything" (which is unfair, as this involves xft and full locale/XIM
       support which are quite bloaty inside libX11 and my libc), the two diverge, but not
       unreasonably so.

           text    data     bss     drs     rss filename
         163431    2152      24   20123    2060 rxvt --enable-everything
        1035683   49680   66648   29096    3680 urxvt --enable-everything

       The very large size of the text section is explained by the east-asian encoding tables,
       which, if unused, take up disk space but nothing else and can be compiled out unless you
       rely on X11 core fonts that use those encodings. The BSS size comes from the 64k emergency
       buffer that my c++ compiler allocates (but of course doesn't use unless you are out of
       memory). Also, using an xft font instead of a core font immediately adds a few megabytes
       of RSS. Xft indeed is responsible for a lot of RSS even when not used.

       Of course, due to every character using two or four bytes instead of one, a large
       scrollback buffer will ultimately make rxvt-unicode use more memory.

       Compared to e.g. Eterm (5112k), aterm (3132k) and xterm (4680k), this still fares rather
       well. And compared to some monsters like gnome-terminal (21152k + extra 4204k in separate
       processes) or konsole (22200k + extra 43180k in daemons that stay around after exit, plus
       half a minute of startup time, including the hundreds of warnings it spits out), it fares
       extremely well *g*.

       Why C++, isn't that unportable/bloated/uncool?

       Is this a question? :) It comes up very often. The simple answer is: I had to write it,
       and C++ allowed me to write and maintain it in a fraction of the time and effort (which is
       a scarce resource for me). Put even shorter: It simply wouldn't exist without C++.

       My personal stance on this is that C++ is less portable than C, but in the case of rxvt-
       unicode this hardly matters, as its portability limits are defined by things like X11,
       pseudo terminals, locale support and unix domain sockets, which are all less portable than
       C++ itself.

       Regarding the bloat, see the above question: It's easy to write programs in C that use
       gobs of memory, and certainly possible to write programs in C++ that don't. C++ also often
       comes with large libraries, but this is not necessarily the case with GCC. Here is what
       rxvt links against on my system with a minimal config:

 => /usr/X11R6/lib/ (0x00002aaaaabc3000)
 => /lib/ (0x00002aaaaadde000)
 => /lib/ (0x00002aaaab01d000)
          /lib64/ (0x00002aaaaaaab000)

       And here is rxvt-unicode:

 => /usr/X11R6/lib/ (0x00002aaaaabc3000)
 => /lib/ (0x00002aaaaada2000)
 => /lib/ (0x00002aaaaaeb0000)
 => /lib/ (0x00002aaaab0ee000)
          /lib64/ (0x00002aaaaaaab000)

       No large bloated libraries (of course, none were linked in statically), except maybe
       libX11 :)

   Rendering, Font & Look and Feel Issues
       I can't get transparency working, what am I doing wrong?

       First of all, transparency isn't officially supported in rxvt-unicode, so you are mostly
       on your own. Do not bug the author about it (but you may bug everybody else). Also, if you
       can't get it working consider it a rite of passage: ... and you failed.

       Here are four ways to get transparency. Do read the manpage and option descriptions for
       the programs mentioned and rxvt-unicode. Really, do it!

       1. Use transparent mode:

          Esetroot wallpaper.jpg
          urxvt -tr -tint red -sh 40

       That works. If you think it doesn't, you lack transparency and tinting support, or you are
       unable to read.  This method requires that the background-setting program sets the
       _XROOTPMAP_ID or ESETROOT_PMAP_ID property. Compatible programs are Esetroot, hsetroot and

       2. Use a simple pixmap and emulate pseudo-transparency. This enables you to use effects
       other than tinting and shading: Just shade/tint/whatever your picture with gimp or any
       other tool:

          convert wallpaper.jpg -blur 20x20 -modulate 30 background.jpg
          urxvt -pixmap "background.jpg;:root"

       That works. If you think it doesn't, you lack GDK-PixBuf support, or you are unable to

       3. Use an ARGB visual:

          urxvt -depth 32 -fg grey90 -bg rgba:0000/0000/4444/cccc

       This requires XFT support, and the support of your X-server. If that doesn't work for you,
       blame Xorg and Keith Packard. ARGB visuals aren't there yet, no matter what they claim.
       Rxvt-Unicode contains the necessary bugfixes and workarounds for Xft and Xlib to make it
       work, but that doesn't mean that your WM has the required kludges in place.

       4. Use xcompmgr and let it do the job:

         xprop -frame -f _NET_WM_WINDOW_OPACITY 32c \
               -set _NET_WM_WINDOW_OPACITY 0xc0000000

       Then click on a window you want to make transparent. Replace 0xc0000000 by other values to
       change the degree of opacity. If it doesn't work and your server crashes, you got to keep
       the pieces.

       Why does rxvt-unicode sometimes leave pixel droppings?

       Most fonts were not designed for terminal use, which means that character size varies a
       lot. A font that is otherwise fine for terminal use might contain some characters that are
       simply too wide. Rxvt-unicode will avoid these characters. For characters that are just "a
       bit" too wide a special "careful" rendering mode is used that redraws adjacent characters.

       All of this requires that fonts do not lie about character sizes, however: Xft fonts often
       draw glyphs larger than their acclaimed bounding box, and rxvt-unicode has no way of
       detecting this (the correct way is to ask for the character bounding box, which
       unfortunately is wrong in these cases).

       It's not clear (to me at least), whether this is a bug in Xft, freetype, or the respective
       font. If you encounter this problem you might try using the "-lsp" option to give the font
       more height. If that doesn't work, you might be forced to use a different font.

       All of this is not a problem when using X11 core fonts, as their bounding box data is

       How can I keep rxvt-unicode from using reverse video so much?

       First of all, make sure you are running with the right terminal settings
       ("TERM=rxvt-unicode"), which will get rid of most of these effects. Then make sure you
       have specified colours for italic and bold, as otherwise rxvt-unicode might use reverse
       video to simulate the effect:

          URxvt.colorBD:  white
          URxvt.colorIT:  green

       Some programs assume totally weird colours (red instead of blue), how can I fix that?

       For some unexplainable reason, some rare programs assume a very weird colour palette when
       confronted with a terminal with more than the standard 8 colours (rxvt-unicode supports
       88). The right fix is, of course, to fix these programs not to assume non-ISO colours
       without very good reasons.

       In the meantime, you can either edit your "rxvt-unicode" terminfo definition to only claim
       8 colour support or use "TERM=rxvt", which will fix colours but keep you from using other
       rxvt-unicode features.

       Can I switch the fonts at runtime?

       Yes, using an escape sequence. Try something like this, which has the same effect as using
       the "-fn" switch, and takes effect immediately:

          printf '\33]50;%s\007' "9x15bold,xft:Kochi Gothic"

       This is useful if you e.g. work primarily with japanese (and prefer a japanese font), but
       you have to switch to chinese temporarily, where japanese fonts would only be in your way.

       You can think of this as a kind of manual ISO-2022 switching.

       Why do italic characters look as if clipped?

       Many fonts have difficulties with italic characters and hinting. For example, the
       otherwise very nicely hinted font "xft:Bitstream Vera Sans Mono" completely fails in its
       italic face. A workaround might be to enable freetype autohinting, i.e. like this:

          URxvt.italicFont:        xft:Bitstream Vera Sans Mono:italic:autohint=true
          URxvt.boldItalicFont:    xft:Bitstream Vera Sans Mono:bold:italic:autohint=true

       Can I speed up Xft rendering somehow?

       Yes, the most obvious way to speed it up is to avoid Xft entirely, as it is simply slow.
       If you still want Xft fonts you might try to disable antialiasing (by appending
       ":antialias=false"), which saves lots of memory and also speeds up rendering considerably.

       Rxvt-unicode doesn't seem to anti-alias its fonts, what is wrong?

       Rxvt-unicode will use whatever you specify as a font. If it needs to fall back to its
       default font search list it will prefer X11 core fonts, because they are small and fast,
       and then use Xft fonts. It has antialiasing disabled for most of them, because the author
       thinks they look best that way.

       If you want antialiasing, you have to specify the fonts manually.

       What's with this bold/blink stuff?

       If no bold colour is set via "colorBD:", bold will invert text using the standard
       foreground colour.

       For the standard background colour, blinking will actually make the text blink when
       compiled with "--enable-text-blink". Without "--enable-text-blink", the blink attribute
       will be ignored.

       On ANSI colours, bold/blink attributes are used to set high-intensity
       foreground/background colours.

       color0-7 are the low-intensity colours.

       color8-15 are the corresponding high-intensity colours.

       I don't like the screen colours.  How do I change them?

       You can change the screen colours at run-time using ~/.Xdefaults resources (or as long-

       Here are values that are supposed to resemble a VGA screen, including the murky brown that
       passes for low-intensity yellow:

          URxvt.color0:   #000000
          URxvt.color1:   #A80000
          URxvt.color2:   #00A800
          URxvt.color3:   #A8A800
          URxvt.color4:   #0000A8
          URxvt.color5:   #A800A8
          URxvt.color6:   #00A8A8
          URxvt.color7:   #A8A8A8

          URxvt.color8:   #000054
          URxvt.color9:   #FF0054
          URxvt.color10:  #00FF54
          URxvt.color11:  #FFFF54
          URxvt.color12:  #0000FF
          URxvt.color13:  #FF00FF
          URxvt.color14:  #00FFFF
          URxvt.color15:  #FFFFFF

       And here is a more complete set of non-standard colours.

          URxvt.cursorColor:  #dc74d1
          URxvt.pointerColor: #dc74d1
          URxvt.background:   #0e0e0e
          URxvt.foreground:   #4ad5e1
          URxvt.color0:       #000000
          URxvt.color8:       #8b8f93
          URxvt.color1:       #dc74d1
          URxvt.color9:       #dc74d1
          URxvt.color2:       #0eb8c7
          URxvt.color10:      #0eb8c7
          URxvt.color3:       #dfe37e
          URxvt.color11:      #dfe37e
          URxvt.color5:       #9e88f0
          URxvt.color13:      #9e88f0
          URxvt.color6:       #73f7ff
          URxvt.color14:      #73f7ff
          URxvt.color7:       #e1dddd
          URxvt.color15:      #e1dddd

       They have been described (not by me) as "pretty girly".

       Why do some characters look so much different than others?

       See next entry.

       How does rxvt-unicode choose fonts?

       Most fonts do not contain the full range of Unicode, which is fine. Chances are that the
       font you (or the admin/package maintainer of your system/os) have specified does not cover
       all the characters you want to display.

       rxvt-unicode makes a best-effort try at finding a replacement font. Often the result is
       fine, but sometimes the chosen font looks bad/ugly/wrong. Some fonts have totally strange
       characters that don't resemble the correct glyph at all, and rxvt-unicode lacks the
       artificial intelligence to detect that a specific glyph is wrong: it has to believe the
       font that the characters it claims to contain indeed look correct.

       In that case, select a font of your taste and add it to the font list, e.g.:

          urxvt -fn basefont,font2,font3...

       When rxvt-unicode sees a character, it will first look at the base font. If the base font
       does not contain the character, it will go to the next font, and so on. Specifying your
       own fonts will also speed up this search and use less resources within rxvt-unicode and
       the X-server.

       The only limitation is that none of the fonts may be larger than the base font, as the
       base font defines the terminal character cell size, which must be the same due to the way
       terminals work.

       Why do some chinese characters look so different than others?

       This is because there is a difference between script and language -- rxvt-unicode does not
       know which language the text that is output is, as it only knows the unicode character
       codes. If rxvt-unicode first sees a japanese/chinese character, it might choose a japanese
       font for display. Subsequent japanese characters will use that font. Now, many chinese
       characters aren't represented in japanese fonts, so when the first non-japanese character
       comes up, rxvt-unicode will look for a chinese font -- unfortunately at this point, it
       will still use the japanese font for chinese characters that are also in the japanese

       The workaround is easy: just tag a chinese font at the end of your font list (see the
       previous question). The key is to view the font list as a preference list: If you expect
       more japanese, list a japanese font first. If you expect more chinese, put a chinese font

       In the future it might be possible to switch language preferences at runtime (the internal
       data structure has no problem with using different fonts for the same character at the
       same time, but no interface for this has been designed yet).

       Until then, you might get away with switching fonts at runtime (see "Can I switch the
       fonts at runtime?" later in this document).

       How can I make mplayer display video correctly?

       We are working on it, in the meantime, as a workaround, use something like:

          urxvt -b 600 -geometry 20x1 -e sh -c 'mplayer -wid $WINDOWID file...'

       Why is the cursor now blinking in emacs/vi/...?

       This is likely caused by your editor/program's use of the "cvvis" terminfo capability.
       Emacs uses it by default, as well as some versions of vi and possibly other programs.

       In emacs, you can switch that off by adding this to your ".emacs" file:

          (setq visible-cursor nil)

       For other programs, if they do not have an option, your have to remove the "cvvis"
       capability from the terminfo description.

       When urxvt first added the blinking cursor option, it didn't add a "cvvis" capability,
       which served no purpose before. Version 9.21 introduced "cvvis" (and the ability to
       control blinking independent of cursor shape) for compatibility with other terminals,
       which traditionally use a blinking cursor for "cvvis". This also reflects the intent of
       programs such as emacs, who expect "cvvis" to enable a blinking cursor.

   Keyboard, Mouse & User Interaction
       The new selection selects pieces that are too big, how can I select single words?

       If you want to select e.g. alphanumeric words, you can use the following setting:

          URxvt.selection.pattern-0: ([[:word:]]+)

       If you click more than twice, the selection will be extended more and more.

       To get a selection that is very similar to the old code, try this pattern:

          URxvt.selection.pattern-0: ([^"&'()*,;<=>?@[\\\\]^`{|})]+)

       Please also note that the LeftClick Shift-LeftClick combination also selects words like
       the old code.

       I don't like the new selection/popups/hotkeys/perl, how do I change/disable it?

       You can disable the perl extension completely by setting the perl-ext-common resource to
       the empty string, which also keeps rxvt-unicode from initialising perl, saving memory.

       If you only want to disable specific features, you first have to identify which perl
       extension is responsible. For this, read the section PREPACKAGED EXTENSIONS in the
       urxvtperl(3) manpage. For example, to disable the selection-popup and option-popup,
       specify this perl-ext-common resource:

          URxvt.perl-ext-common: default,-selection-popup,-option-popup

       This will keep the default extensions, but disable the two popup extensions. Some
       extensions can also be configured, for example, scrollback search mode is triggered by
       M-s. You can move it to any other combination by adding a keysym resource that binds the
       desired combination to the "start" action of "searchable-scrollback" and another one that
       binds M-s to the "builtin:" action:

          URxvt.keysym.CM-s: searchable-scrollback:start
          URxvt.keysym.M-s: builtin:

       The cursor moves when selecting text in the current input line, how do I switch this off?

       See next entry.

       During rlogin/ssh/telnet/etc. sessions, clicking near the cursor outputs strange escape
       sequences, how do I fix this?

       These are caused by the "readline" perl extension. Under normal circumstances, it will
       move your cursor around when you click into the line that contains it. It tries hard not
       to do this at the wrong moment, but when running a program that doesn't parse cursor
       movements or in some cases during rlogin sessions, it fails to detect this properly.

       You can permanently switch this feature off by disabling the "readline" extension:

          URxvt.perl-ext-common: default,-readline

       My numeric keypad acts weird and generates differing output?

       Some Debian GNU/Linux users seem to have this problem, although no specific details were
       reported so far. It is possible that this is caused by the wrong "TERM" setting, although
       the details of whether and how this can happen are unknown, as "TERM=rxvt" should offer a
       compatible keymap. See the answer to the previous question, and please report if that

       My Compose (Multi_key) key is no longer working.

       The most common causes for this are that either your locale is not set correctly, or you
       specified a preeditType that is not supported by your input method. For example, if you
       specified OverTheSpot and your input method (e.g. the default input method handling
       Compose keys) does not support this (for instance because it is not visual), then rxvt-
       unicode will continue without an input method.

       In this case either do not specify a preeditType or specify more than one pre-edit style,
       such as OverTheSpot,Root,None.

       If it still doesn't work, then maybe your input method doesn't support compose sequences -
       to fall back to the built-in one, make sure you don't specify an input method via "-im" or

       I cannot type "Ctrl-Shift-2" to get an ASCII NUL character due to ISO 14755

       Either try "Ctrl-2" alone (it often is mapped to ASCII NUL even on international
       keyboards) or simply use ISO 14755 support to your advantage, typing <Ctrl-Shift-0> to get
       a ASCII NUL. This works for other codes, too, such as "Ctrl-Shift-1-d" to type the default
       telnet escape character and so on.

       Mouse cut/paste suddenly no longer works.

       Make sure that mouse reporting is actually turned off since killing some editors
       prematurely may leave it active. I've heard that tcsh may use mouse reporting unless it is
       otherwise specified. A quick check is to see if cut/paste works when the Alt or Shift keys
       are pressed.

       What's with the strange Backspace/Delete key behaviour?

       Assuming that the physical Backspace key corresponds to the Backspace keysym (not likely
       for Linux ... see the following question) there are two standard values that can be used
       for Backspace: "^H" and "^?".

       Historically, either value is correct, but rxvt-unicode adopts the debian policy of using
       "^?" when unsure, because it's the one and only correct choice :).

       It is possible to toggle between "^H" and "^?" with the DECBKM private mode:

          # use Backspace = ^H
          $ stty erase ^H
          $ printf "\e[?67h"

          # use Backspace = ^?
          $ stty erase ^?
          $ printf "\e[?67l"

       This helps satisfy some of the Backspace discrepancies that occur, but if you use
       Backspace = "^H", make sure that the termcap/terminfo value properly reflects that.

       The Delete key is a another casualty of the ill-defined Backspace problem.  To avoid
       confusion between the Backspace and Delete keys, the Delete key has been assigned an
       escape sequence to match the vt100 for Execute ("ESC [ 3 ~") and is in the supplied

       Some other Backspace problems:

       some editors use termcap/terminfo, some editors (vim I'm told) expect Backspace = ^H, GNU
       Emacs (and Emacs-like editors) use ^H for help.

       Perhaps someday this will all be resolved in a consistent manner.

       I don't like the key-bindings.  How do I change them?

       There are some compile-time selections available via configure. Unless you have run
       "configure" with the "--disable-resources" option you can use the `keysym' resource to
       alter the keystrings associated with keysyms.

       Here's an example for a URxvt session started using "urxvt -name URxvt"

          URxvt.keysym.Prior:         \033[5~
          URxvt.keysym.Next:          \033[6~
          URxvt.keysym.Home:          \033[7~
          URxvt.keysym.End:           \033[8~
          URxvt.keysym.Up:            \033[A
          URxvt.keysym.Down:          \033[B
          URxvt.keysym.Right:         \033[C
          URxvt.keysym.Left:          \033[D

       See some more examples in the documentation for the keysym resource.

       I'm using keyboard model XXX that has extra Prior/Next/Insert keys. How do I make use of
       them? For example, the Sun Keyboard type 4 has the following map

          KP_Insert == Insert
          F22 == Print
          F27 == Home
          F29 == Prior
          F33 == End
          F35 == Next

       Rather than have rxvt-unicode try to accommodate all the various possible keyboard
       mappings, it is better to use `xmodmap' to remap the keys as required for your particular

   Terminal Configuration
       Can I see a typical configuration?

       The default configuration tries to be xterm-like, which I don't like that much, but it's
       least surprise to regular users.

       As a rxvt or rxvt-unicode user, you are practically supposed to invest time into
       customising your terminal. To get you started, here is the author's .Xdefaults entries,
       with comments on what they do. It's certainly not typical, but what's typical...

          URxvt.cutchars: "()*,<>[]{}|'
          URxvt.print-pipe: cat > $(TMPDIR=$HOME mktemp urxvt.XXXXXX)

       These are just for testing stuff.

          URxvt.imLocale: ja_JP.UTF-8
          URxvt.preeditType: OnTheSpot,None

       This tells rxvt-unicode to use a special locale when communicating with the X Input
       Method, and also tells it to only use the OnTheSpot pre-edit type, which requires the
       "xim-onthespot" perl extension but rewards me with correct-looking fonts.

          URxvt.perl-lib: /root/lib/urxvt
          URxvt.perl-ext-common: default,selection-autotransform,selection-pastebin,xim-onthespot,remote-clipboard
          URxvt.selection.pattern-0: ( at .*? line \\d+)
          URxvt.selection.pattern-1: ^(/[^:]+):\
          URxvt.selection-autotransform.0: s/^([^:[:space:]]+):(\\d+):?$/:e \\Q$1\\E\\x0d:$2\\x0d/
          URxvt.selection-autotransform.1: s/^ at (.*?) line (\\d+)$/:e \\Q$1\\E\\x0d:$2\\x0d/

       This is my perl configuration. The first two set the perl library directory and also tells
       urxvt to use a large number of extensions. I develop for myself mostly, so I actually use
       most of the extensions I write.

       The selection stuff mainly makes the selection perl-error-message aware and tells it to
       convert perl error messages into vi-commands to load the relevant file and go to the error
       line number.

          URxvt.scrollstyle:      plain
          URxvt.secondaryScroll:  true

       As the documentation says: plain is the preferred scrollbar for the author. The
       "secondaryScroll" configures urxvt to scroll in full-screen apps, like screen, so lines
       scrolled out of screen end up in urxvt's scrollback buffer.

          URxvt.background:       #000000
          URxvt.foreground:       gray90
          URxvt.color7:           gray90
          URxvt.colorBD:          #ffffff
          URxvt.cursorColor:      #e0e080
          URxvt.throughColor:     #8080f0
          URxvt.highlightColor:   #f0f0f0

       Some colours. Not sure which ones are being used or even non-defaults, but these are in my
       .Xdefaults. Most notably, they set foreground/background to light gray/black, and also
       make sure that the colour 7 matches the default foreground colour.

          URxvt.underlineColor:   yellow

       Another colour, makes underline lines look different. Sometimes hurts, but is mostly a
       nice effect.

          URxvt.geometry:         154x36
          URxvt.loginShell:       false
          URxvt.meta:             ignore
          URxvt.utmpInhibit:      true

       Uh, well, should be mostly self-explanatory. By specifying some defaults manually, I can
       quickly switch them for testing.

          URxvt.saveLines:        8192

       A large scrollback buffer is essential. Really.

          URxvt.mapAlert:         true

       The only case I use it is for my IRC window, which I like to keep iconified till people
       msg me (which beeps).

          URxvt.visualBell:       true

       The audible bell is often annoying, especially when in a crowd.

          URxvt.insecure:         true

       Please don't hack my mutt! Ooops...

          URxvt.pastableTabs:     false

       I once thought this is a great idea.

          urxvt.font:             9x15bold,\
                                  -misc-fixed-medium-r-normal--15-140-75-75-c-90-iso10646-1, \
                                  [codeset=JISX0208]xft:Kochi Gothic, \
                                  xft:Bitstream Vera Sans Mono:autohint=true, \
          urxvt.boldFont:         -xos4-terminus-bold-r-normal--14-140-72-72-c-80-iso8859-15
          urxvt.italicFont:       xft:Bitstream Vera Sans Mono:italic:autohint=true
          urxvt.boldItalicFont:   xft:Bitstream Vera Sans Mono:bold:italic:autohint=true

       I wrote rxvt-unicode to be able to specify fonts exactly. So don't be overwhelmed. A
       special note: the "9x15bold" mentioned above is actually the version from XFree-3.3, as
       XFree-4 replaced it by a totally different font (different glyphs for ";" and many other
       harmless characters), while the second font is actually the "9x15bold" from XFree4/XOrg.
       The bold version has less chars than the medium version, so I use it for rare characters,
       too. When editing sources with vim, I use italic for comments and other stuff, which looks
       quite good with Bitstream Vera anti-aliased.

       Terminus is a quite bad font (many very wrong glyphs), but for most of my purposes, it
       works, and gives a different look, as my normal (Non-bold) font is already bold, and I
       want to see a difference between bold and normal fonts.

       Please note that I used the "urxvt" instance name and not the "URxvt" class name. That is
       because I use different configs for different purposes, for example, my IRC window is
       started with "-name IRC", and uses these defaults:

          IRC*title:              IRC
          IRC*geometry:           87x12+535+542
          IRC*saveLines:          0
          IRC*mapAlert:           true
          IRC*font:               suxuseuro
          IRC*boldFont:           suxuseuro
          IRC*colorBD:            white
          IRC*keysym.M-C-1:       command:\033]710;suxuseuro\007\033]711;suxuseuro\007
          IRC*keysym.M-C-2:       command:\033]710;9x15bold\007\033]711;9x15bold\007

       "Alt-Ctrl-1" and "Alt-Ctrl-2" switch between two different font sizes. "suxuseuro" allows
       me to keep an eye (and actually read) stuff while keeping a very small window. If somebody
       pastes something complicated (e.g. japanese), I temporarily switch to a larger font.

       The above is all in my ".Xdefaults" (I don't use ".Xresources" nor "xrdb"). I also have
       some resources in a separate ".Xdefaults-hostname" file for different hosts, for example,
       on my main desktop, I use:

          URxvt.keysym.C-M-q: command:\033[3;5;5t
          URxvt.keysym.C-M-y: command:\033[3;5;606t
          URxvt.keysym.C-M-e: command:\033[3;1605;5t
          URxvt.keysym.C-M-c: command:\033[3;1605;606t
          URxvt.keysym.C-M-p: perl:test

       The first for keysym definitions allow me to quickly bring some windows in the layout I
       like most. Ion users might start laughing but will stop immediately when I tell them that
       I use my own Fvwm2 module for much the same effect as Ion provides, and I only very rarely
       use the above key combinations :->

       Why doesn't rxvt-unicode read my resources?

       Well, why, indeed? It does, in a way very similar to other X applications. Most
       importantly, this means that if you or your OS loads resources into the X display (the
       right way to do it), rxvt-unicode will ignore any resource files in your home directory.
       It will only read $HOME/.Xdefaults when no resources are attached to the display.

       If you have or use an $HOME/.Xresources file, chances are that resources are loaded into
       your X-server. In this case, you have to re-login after every change (or run xrdb -merge

       Also consider the form resources have to use:

         URxvt.resource: value

       If you want to use another form (there are lots of different ways of specifying
       resources), make sure you understand whether and why it works. If unsure, use the form

       When I log-in to another system it tells me about missing terminfo data?

       The terminal description used by rxvt-unicode is not as widely available as that for
       xterm, or even rxvt (for which the same problem often arises).

       The correct solution for this problem is to install the terminfo, this can be done by
       simply installing rxvt-unicode on the remote system as well (in case you have a nice
       package manager ready), or you can install the terminfo database manually like this (with
       ncurses infocmp. works as user and root):

          infocmp rxvt-unicode-256color | \
               ssh $REMOTE 'export TMPF=`mktemp` && mkdir -p ~/.terminfo \
                            && cat >${TMPF} && tic ${TMPF} && rm ${TMPF}'

       One some systems you might need to set $TERMINFO to the full path of $HOME/.terminfo for
       this to work.

       If you cannot or do not want to do this, then you can simply set "TERM=rxvt" or even
       "TERM=xterm", and live with the small number of problems arising, which includes wrong
       keymapping, less and different colours and some refresh errors in fullscreen applications.
       It's a nice quick-and-dirty workaround for rare cases, though.

       If you always want to do this (and are fine with the consequences) you can either
       recompile rxvt-unicode with the desired TERM value or use a resource to set it:

          URxvt.termName: rxvt

       If you don't plan to use rxvt (quite common...) you could also replace the rxvt terminfo
       file with the rxvt-unicode one and use "TERM=rxvt".

       nano fails with "Error opening terminal: rxvt-unicode"

       This exceptionally confusing and useless error message is printed by nano when it can't
       find the terminfo database. Nothing is wrong with your terminal, read the previous answer
       for a solution.

       "tic" outputs some error when compiling the terminfo entry.

       Most likely it's the empty definition for "enacs=". Just replace it by "enacs=\E[0@" and
       try again.

       "bash"'s readline does not work correctly under urxvt.

       See next entry.

       I need a termcap file entry.

       One reason you might want this is that some distributions or operating systems still
       compile some programs using the long-obsoleted termcap library (Fedora's bash is one
       example) and rely on a termcap entry for "rxvt-unicode".

       You could use rxvt's termcap entry with reasonable results in many cases.  You can also
       create a termcap entry by using terminfo's infocmp program like this:

          infocmp -C rxvt-unicode

       Or you could use the termcap entry in doc/etc/rxvt-unicode.termcap, generated by the
       command above.

       Why does "ls" no longer have coloured output?

       The "ls" in the GNU coreutils unfortunately doesn't use terminfo to decide whether a
       terminal has colour, but uses its own configuration file. Needless to say, "rxvt-unicode"
       is not in its default file (among with most other terminals supporting colour). Either

          TERM rxvt-unicode

       to "/etc/DIR_COLORS" or simply add:

          alias ls='ls --color=auto'

       to your ".profile" or ".bashrc".

       Why doesn't vim/emacs etc. use the 88 colour mode?

       See next entry.

       Why doesn't vim/emacs etc. make use of italic?

       See next entry.

       Why are the secondary screen-related options not working properly?

       Make sure you are using "TERM=rxvt-unicode". Some pre-packaged distributions break rxvt-
       unicode by setting "TERM" to "rxvt", which doesn't have these extra features.
       Unfortunately, some of these furthermore fail to even install the "rxvt-unicode" terminfo
       file, so you will need to install it on your own (See the question When I log-in to
       another system it tells me about missing terminfo data? on how to do this).

   Encoding / Locale / Input Method Issues
       Rxvt-unicode does not seem to understand the selected encoding?

       See next entry.

       Unicode does not seem to work?

       If you encounter strange problems like typing an accented character but getting two
       unrelated other characters or similar, or if program output is subtly garbled, then you
       should check your locale settings.

       Rxvt-unicode must be started with the same "LC_CTYPE" setting as the programs running in
       it. Often rxvt-unicode is started in the "C" locale, while the login script running within
       the rxvt-unicode window changes the locale to something else, e.g. "en_GB.UTF-8". Needless
       to say, this is not going to work, and is the most common cause for problems.

       The best thing is to fix your startup environment, as you will likely run into other
       problems. If nothing works you can try this in your .profile.

         printf '\33]701;%s\007' "$LC_CTYPE"   # $LANG or $LC_ALL are worth a try, too

       If this doesn't work, then maybe you use a "LC_CTYPE" specification not supported on your
       systems. Some systems have a "locale" command which displays this (also, "perl -e0" can be
       used to check locale settings, as it will complain loudly if it cannot set the locale). If
       it displays something like:

         locale: Cannot set LC_CTYPE to default locale: ...

       Then the locale you specified is not supported on your system.

       If nothing works and you are sure that everything is set correctly then you will need to
       remember a little known fact: Some programs just don't support locales :(

       How does rxvt-unicode determine the encoding to use?

       See next entry.

       Is there an option to switch encodings?

       Unlike some other terminals, rxvt-unicode has no encoding switch, and no specific "utf-8"
       mode, such as xterm. In fact, it doesn't even know about UTF-8 or any other encodings with
       respect to terminal I/O.

       The reasons is that there exists a perfectly fine mechanism for selecting the encoding,
       doing I/O and (most important) communicating this to all applications so everybody agrees
       on character properties such as width and code number. This mechanism is the locale.
       Applications not using that info will have problems (for example, "xterm" gets the width
       of characters wrong as it uses its own, locale-independent table under all locales).

       Rxvt-unicode uses the "LC_CTYPE" locale category to select encoding. All programs doing
       the same (that is, most) will automatically agree in the interpretation of characters.

       Unfortunately, there is no system-independent way to select locales, nor is there a
       standard on how locale specifiers will look like.

       On most systems, the content of the "LC_CTYPE" environment variable contains an arbitrary
       string which corresponds to an already-installed locale. Common names for locales are
       "en_US.UTF-8", "de_DE.ISO-8859-15", "ja_JP.EUC-JP", i.e. "language_country.encoding", but
       other forms (i.e. "de" or "german") are also common.

       Rxvt-unicode ignores all other locale categories, and except for the encoding, ignores
       country or language-specific settings, i.e. "de_DE.UTF-8" and "ja_JP.UTF-8" are the
       normally same to rxvt-unicode.

       If you want to use a specific encoding you have to make sure you start rxvt-unicode with
       the correct "LC_CTYPE" category.

       Can I switch locales at runtime?

       Yes, using an escape sequence. Try something like this, which sets rxvt-unicode's idea of

         printf '\33]701;%s\007' ja_JP.SJIS

       See also the previous answer.

       Sometimes this capability is rather handy when you want to work in one locale (e.g.
       "de_DE.UTF-8") but some programs don't support it (e.g. UTF-8). For example, I use this
       script to start "xjdic", which first switches to a locale supported by xjdic and back

          printf '\33]701;%s\007' ja_JP.SJIS
          xjdic -js
          printf '\33]701;%s\007' de_DE.UTF-8

       You can also use xterm's "luit" program, which usually works fine, except for some locales
       where character width differs between program- and rxvt-unicode-locales.

       I have problems getting my input method working.

       Try a search engine, as this is slightly different for every input method server.

       Here is a checklist:

       - Make sure your locale and the imLocale are supported on your OS.
           Try "locale -a" or check the documentation for your OS.

       - Make sure your locale or imLocale matches a locale supported by your XIM.
           For example, kinput2 does not support UTF-8 locales, you should use "ja_JP.EUC-JP" or

       - Make sure your XIM server is actually running.
       - Make sure the "XMODIFIERS" environment variable is set correctly when starting rxvt-
           When you want to use e.g. kinput2, it must be set to "@im=kinput2". For scim, use
           "@im=SCIM". You can see what input method servers are running with this command:

              xprop -root XIM_SERVERS

       My input method wants <some encoding> but I want UTF-8, what can I do?

       You can specify separate locales for the input method and the rest of the terminal, using
       the resource "imlocale":

          URxvt.imlocale: ja_JP.EUC-JP

       Now you can start your terminal with "LC_CTYPE=ja_JP.UTF-8" and still use your input
       method. Please note, however, that, depending on your Xlib version, you may not be able to
       input characters outside "EUC-JP" in a normal way then, as your input method limits you.

       Rxvt-unicode crashes when the X Input Method changes or exits.

       Unfortunately, this is unavoidable, as the XIM protocol is racy by design. Applications
       can avoid some crashes at the expense of memory leaks, and Input Methods can avoid some
       crashes by careful ordering at exit time. kinput2 (and derived input methods) generally
       succeeds, while SCIM (or similar input methods) fails. In the end, however, crashes cannot
       be completely avoided even if both sides cooperate.

       So the only workaround is not to kill your Input Method Servers.

   Operating Systems / Package Maintaining
       I am maintaining rxvt-unicode for distribution/OS XXX, any recommendation?

       You should build one binary with the default options. configure now enables most useful
       options, and the trend goes to making them runtime-switchable, too, so there is usually no
       drawback to enabling them, except higher disk and possibly memory usage. The perl
       interpreter should be enabled, as important functionality (menus, selection, likely more
       in the future) depends on it.

       You should not overwrite the "perl-ext-common" and "perl-ext" resources system-wide
       (except maybe with "defaults"). This will result in useful behaviour. If your distribution
       aims at low memory, add an empty "perl-ext-common" resource to the app-defaults file. This
       will keep the perl interpreter disabled until the user enables it.

       If you can/want build more binaries, I recommend building a minimal one with
       "--disable-everything" (very useful) and a maximal one with "--enable-everything" (less
       useful, it will be very big due to a lot of encodings built-in that increase download
       times and are rarely used).

       I need to make it setuid/setgid to support utmp/ptys on my OS, is this safe?

       It should be, starting with release 7.1. You are encouraged to properly install urxvt with
       privileges necessary for your OS now.

       When rxvt-unicode detects that it runs setuid or setgid, it will fork into a helper
       process for privileged operations (pty handling on some systems, utmp/wtmp/lastlog
       handling on others) and drop privileges immediately. This is much safer than most other
       terminals that keep privileges while running (but is more relevant to urxvt, as it
       contains things as perl interpreters, which might be "helpful" to attackers).

       This forking is done as the very first within main(), which is very early and reduces
       possible bugs to initialisation code run before main(), or things like the dynamic loader
       of your system, which should result in very little risk.

       I am on FreeBSD and rxvt-unicode does not seem to work at all.

       Rxvt-unicode requires the symbol "__STDC_ISO_10646__" to be defined in your compile
       environment, or an implementation that implements it, whether it defines the symbol or
       not. "__STDC_ISO_10646__" requires that wchar_t is represented as unicode.

       As you might have guessed, FreeBSD does neither define this symbol nor does it support it.
       Instead, it uses its own internal representation of wchar_t. This is, of course,
       completely fine with respect to standards.

       However, that means rxvt-unicode only works in "POSIX", "ISO-8859-1" and "UTF-8" locales
       under FreeBSD (which all use Unicode as wchar_t).

       "__STDC_ISO_10646__" is the only sane way to support multi-language apps in an OS, as
       using a locale-dependent (and non-standardized) representation of wchar_t makes it
       impossible to convert between wchar_t (as used by X11 and your applications) and any other
       encoding without implementing OS-specific-wrappers for each and every locale. There simply
       are no APIs to convert wchar_t into anything except the current locale encoding.

       Some applications (such as the formidable mlterm) work around this by carrying their own
       replacement functions for character set handling with them, and either implementing OS-
       dependent hacks or doing multiple conversions (which is slow and unreliable in case the OS
       implements encodings slightly different than the terminal emulator).

       The rxvt-unicode author insists that the right way to fix this is in the system libraries
       once and for all, instead of forcing every app to carry complete replacements for them :)

       How can I use rxvt-unicode under cygwin?

       rxvt-unicode should compile and run out of the box on cygwin, using the X11 libraries that
       come with cygwin. libW11 emulation is no longer supported (and makes no sense, either, as
       it only supported a single font). I recommend starting the X-server in "-multiwindow" or
       "-rootless" mode instead, which will result in similar look&feel as the old libW11

       At the time of this writing, cygwin didn't seem to support any multi-byte encodings (you
       might try "LC_CTYPE=C-UTF-8"), so you are likely limited to 8-bit encodings.

       Character widths are not correct.

       urxvt uses the system wcwidth function to know the information about the width of
       characters, so on systems with incorrect locale data you will likely get bad results. Two
       notorious examples are Solaris 9, where single-width characters like U+2514 are reported
       as double-width, and Darwin 8, where combining chars are reported having width 1.

       The solution is to upgrade your system or switch to a better one. A possibly working
       workaround is to use a wcwidth implementation like


       The rest of this document describes various technical aspects of rxvt-unicode. First the
       description of supported command sequences, followed by pixmap support and last by a
       description of all features selectable at "configure" time.

       "c" The literal character c (potentially a multi-byte character).

       "C" A single (required) character.

           A single (usually optional) numeric parameter, composed of one or more digits.

           A multiple numeric parameter composed of any number of single numeric parameters,
           separated by ";" character(s).

           A text parameter composed of printable characters.

           Enquiry (Ctrl-E) = Send Device Attributes (DA) request attributes from terminal. See
           "ESC [ Ps c".

           Bell (Ctrl-G)

           Backspace (Ctrl-H)

           Horizontal Tab (HT) (Ctrl-I)

           Line Feed or New Line (NL) (Ctrl-J)

           Vertical Tab (Ctrl-K) same as "LF"

           Form Feed or New Page (NP) (Ctrl-L) same as "LF"

           Carriage Return (Ctrl-M)

           Shift Out (Ctrl-N), invokes the G1 character set.  Switch to Alternate Character Set

           Shift In (Ctrl-O), invokes the G0 character set (the default).  Switch to Standard
           Character Set

           Space Character

   Escape Sequences
       "ESC # 8"
           DEC Screen Alignment Test (DECALN)

       "ESC 7"
           Save Cursor (SC)

       "ESC 8"
           Restore Cursor

       "ESC ="
           Application Keypad (SMKX). See also next sequence.

       "ESC >"
           Normal Keypad (RMKX)

           Note: numbers or control functions are generated by the numeric keypad in normal or
           application mode, respectively (see Key Codes).

       "ESC D"
           Index (IND)

       "ESC E"
           Next Line (NEL)

       "ESC H"
           Tab Set (HTS)

       "ESC M"
           Reverse Index (RI)

       "ESC N"
           Single Shift Select of G2 Character Set (SS2): affects next character only

       "ESC O"
           Single Shift Select of G3 Character Set (SS3): affects next character only

       "ESC Z"
           Obsolete form of returns: "ESC [ ? 1 ; 2 C" rxvt-unicode compile-time option

       "ESC c"
           Full reset (RIS)

       "ESC n"
           Invoke the G2 Character Set (LS2)

       "ESC o"
           Invoke the G3 Character Set (LS3)

       "ESC ( C"
           Designate G0 Character Set (ISO 2022), see below for values of "C".

       "ESC ) C"
           Designate G1 Character Set (ISO 2022), see below for values of "C".

       "ESC * C"
           Designate G2 Character Set (ISO 2022), see below for values of "C".

       "ESC + C"
           Designate G3 Character Set (ISO 2022), see below for values of "C".

       "ESC $ C"
           Designate Kanji Character Set

           Where "C" is one of:

           C = 0   DEC Special Character and Line Drawing Set
           C = A   United Kingdom (UK)
           C = B   United States (USASCII)
           C = <   Multinational character set unimplemented
           C = 5   Finnish character set unimplemented
           C = C   Finnish character set unimplemented
           C = K   German character set unimplemented

   CSI (Command Sequence Introducer) Sequences
       "ESC [ Ps @"
           Insert "Ps" (Blank) Character(s) [default: 1] (ICH)

       "ESC [ Ps A"
           Cursor Up "Ps" Times [default: 1] (CUU)

       "ESC [ Ps B"
           Cursor Down "Ps" Times [default: 1] (CUD)

       "ESC [ Ps C"
           Cursor Forward "Ps" Times [default: 1] (CUF)

       "ESC [ Ps D"
           Cursor Backward "Ps" Times [default: 1] (CUB)

       "ESC [ Ps E"
           Cursor Down "Ps" Times [default: 1] and to first column

       "ESC [ Ps F"
           Cursor Up "Ps" Times [default: 1] and to first column

       "ESC [ Ps G"
           Cursor to Column "Ps" (HPA)

       "ESC [ Ps;Ps H"
           Cursor Position [row;column] [default: 1;1] (CUP)

       "ESC [ Ps I"
           Move forward "Ps" tab stops [default: 1]

       "ESC [ Ps J"
           Erase in Display (ED)

           Ps = 0   Clear Right and Below (default)
           Ps = 1   Clear Left and Above
           Ps = 2   Clear All

       "ESC [ Ps K"
           Erase in Line (EL)

           Ps = 0   Clear to Right (default)
           Ps = 1   Clear to Left
           Ps = 2   Clear All

           Ps = 3   Like Ps = 0, but is ignored when wrapped
                                                                   (urxvt extension)

       "ESC [ Ps L"
           Insert "Ps" Line(s) [default: 1] (IL)

       "ESC [ Ps M"
           Delete "Ps" Line(s) [default: 1] (DL)

       "ESC [ Ps P"
           Delete "Ps" Character(s) [default: 1] (DCH)

       "ESC [ Ps;Ps;Ps;Ps;Ps T"
           Initiate . unimplemented Parameters are [func;startx;starty;firstrow;lastrow].

       "ESC [ Ps W"
           Tabulator functions

           Ps = 0   Tab Set (HTS)
           Ps = 2   Tab Clear (TBC), Clear Current Column (default)
           Ps = 5   Tab Clear (TBC), Clear All

       "ESC [ Ps X"
           Erase "Ps" Character(s) [default: 1] (ECH)

       "ESC [ Ps Z"
           Move backward "Ps" [default: 1] tab stops

       "ESC [ Ps '"
           See "ESC [ Ps G"

       "ESC [ Ps a"
           See "ESC [ Ps C"

       "ESC [ Ps c"
           Send Device Attributes (DA) "Ps = 0" (or omitted): request attributes from terminal
           returns: "ESC [ ? 1 ; 2 c" (``I am a VT100 with Advanced Video Option'')

       "ESC [ Ps d"
           Cursor to Line "Ps" (VPA)

       "ESC [ Ps e"
           See "ESC [ Ps A"

       "ESC [ Ps;Ps f"
           Horizontal and Vertical Position [row;column] (HVP) [default: 1;1]

       "ESC [ Ps g"
           Tab Clear (TBC)

           Ps = 0   Clear Current Column (default)
           Ps = 3   Clear All (TBC)

       "ESC [ Pm h"
           Set Mode (SM). See "ESC [ Pm l" sequence for description of "Pm".

       "ESC [ Ps i"
           Printing. See also the "print-pipe" resource.

           Ps = 0   print screen (MC0)
           Ps = 4   disable transparent print mode (MC4)
           Ps = 5   enable transparent print mode (MC5)

       "ESC [ Pm l"
           Reset Mode (RM)

           "Ps = 4"

               h   Insert Mode (SMIR)
               l   Replace Mode (RMIR)
           "Ps = 20" (partially implemented)
               h   Automatic Newline (LNM)

               l   Normal Linefeed (LNM)
       "ESC [ Pm m"
           Character Attributes (SGR)

           Pm = 0             Normal (default)
           Pm = 1 / 21        On / Off Bold (bright fg)
           Pm = 3 / 23        On / Off Italic
           Pm = 4 / 24        On / Off Underline
           Pm = 5 / 25        On / Off Slow Blink (bright bg)
           Pm = 6 / 26        On / Off Rapid Blink (bright bg)
           Pm = 7 / 27        On / Off Inverse
           Pm = 8 / 27        On / Off Invisible (NYI)
           Pm = 30 / 40       fg/bg Black
           Pm = 31 / 41       fg/bg Red
           Pm = 32 / 42       fg/bg Green
           Pm = 33 / 43       fg/bg Yellow
           Pm = 34 / 44       fg/bg Blue
           Pm = 35 / 45       fg/bg Magenta
           Pm = 36 / 46       fg/bg Cyan
           Pm = 37 / 47       fg/bg White
           Pm = 38;5 / 48;5   set fg/bg to colour #m (ISO 8613-6)
           Pm = 39 / 49       fg/bg Default
           Pm = 90 / 100      fg/bg Bright Black
           Pm = 91 / 101      fg/bg Bright Red
           Pm = 92 / 102      fg/bg Bright Green
           Pm = 93 / 103      fg/bg Bright Yellow
           Pm = 94 / 104      fg/bg Bright Blue
           Pm = 95 / 105      fg/bg Bright Magenta
           Pm = 96 / 106      fg/bg Bright Cyan
           Pm = 97 / 107      fg/bg Bright White
           Pm = 99 / 109      fg/bg Bright Default

       "ESC [ Ps n"
           Device Status Report (DSR)

           Ps = 5   Status Report ESC [ 0 n (``OK'')
           Ps = 6   Report Cursor Position (CPR) [row;column] as ESC [ r ; c R
           Ps = 7   Request Display Name
           Ps = 8   Request Version Number (place in window title)

       "ESC [ Ps SP q"
           Set Cursor Style (DECSCUSR)

           Ps = 0   Blink Block
           Ps = 1   Blink Block
           Ps = 2   Steady Block
           Ps = 3   Blink Underline
           Ps = 4   Steady Underline
           Ps = 5   Blink Bar (XTerm)
           Ps = 6   Steady Bar (XTerm)

       "ESC [ Ps;Ps r"
           Set Scrolling Region [top;bottom] [default: full size of window] (CSR)

       "ESC [ s"
           Save Cursor (SC)

       "ESC [ Ps;Pt t"
           Window Operations

           Ps = 1      Deiconify (map) window
           Ps = 2      Iconify window
           Ps = 3      ESC [ 3 ; X ; Y t Move window to (X|Y)
           Ps = 4      ESC [ 4 ; H ; W t Resize to WxH pixels
           Ps = 5      Raise window
           Ps = 6      Lower window
           Ps = 7      Refresh screen once
           Ps = 8      ESC [ 8 ; R ; C t Resize to R rows and C columns
           Ps = 11     Report window state (responds with Ps = 1 or Ps = 2)
           Ps = 13     Report window position (responds with Ps = 3)
           Ps = 14     Report window pixel size (responds with Ps = 4)
           Ps = 18     Report window text size (responds with Ps = 7)

           Ps = 19     Currently the same as Ps = 18, but responds with Ps = 9
           Ps = 20     Reports icon label (ESC ] L NAME 234)
           Ps = 21     Reports window title (ESC ] l NAME 234)
           Ps = 24..   Set window height to Ps rows

       "ESC [ u"
           Restore Cursor

       "ESC [ Ps x"
           Request Terminal Parameters (DECREQTPARM)

   DEC Private Modes
       "ESC [ ? Pm h"
           DEC Private Mode Set (DECSET)

       "ESC [ ? Pm l"
           DEC Private Mode Reset (DECRST)

       "ESC [ ? Pm r"
           Restore previously saved DEC Private Mode Values.

       "ESC [ ? Pm s"
           Save DEC Private Mode Values.

       "ESC [ ? Pm t"
           Toggle DEC Private Mode Values (rxvt extension). where

           "Pm = 1" (DECCKM)

               h   Application Cursor Keys
               l   Normal Cursor Keys
           "Pm = 2" (DECANM)
               h   Enter VT52 mode
               l   Enter VT52 mode
           "Pm = 3" (DECCOLM)
               h   132 Column Mode
               l   80 Column Mode
           "Pm = 4" (DECSCLM)
               h   Smooth (Slow) Scroll
               l   Jump (Fast) Scroll
           "Pm = 5" (DECSCNM)
               h   Reverse Video
               l   Normal Video
           "Pm = 6" (DECOM)
               h   Origin Mode
               l   Normal Cursor Mode
           "Pm = 7" (DECAWM)
               h   Wraparound Mode
               l   No Wraparound Mode
           "Pm = 8" (DECARM) unimplemented
               h   Auto-repeat Keys
               l   No Auto-repeat Keys
           "Pm = 9" (X10 XTerm mouse protocol)
               h   Send Mouse X & Y on button press.
               l   No mouse reporting.
           "Pm = 12" (AT&T 610, XTerm)
               h   Blinking cursor (cvvis)
               l   Steady cursor (cnorm)
           "Pm = 25" (DECTCEM)
               h   Visible cursor {cnorm/cvvis}
               l   Invisible cursor {civis}
           "Pm = 30" (rxvt)
               h   scrollBar visible
               l   scrollBar invisible
           "Pm = 35" (rxvt)
               h   Allow XTerm Shift+key sequences
               l   Disallow XTerm Shift+key sequences
           "Pm = 38" unimplemented
               Enter Tektronix Mode (DECTEK)

           "Pm = 40"

               h   Allow 80/132 Mode
               l   Disallow 80/132 Mode
           "Pm = 44" unimplemented
               h   Turn On Margin Bell
               l   Turn Off Margin Bell
           "Pm = 45" unimplemented
               h   Reverse-wraparound Mode
               l   No Reverse-wraparound Mode
           "Pm = 46" unimplemented
           "Pm = 47"
               h   Use Alternate Screen Buffer
               l   Use Normal Screen Buffer

           "Pm = 66" (DECNKM)

               h   Application Keypad (DECKPAM/DECPAM) == ESC =
               l   Normal Keypad (DECKPNM/DECPNM) == ESC >
           "Pm = 67" (DECBKM)
               h   Backspace key sends BS
               l   Backspace key sends DEL
           "Pm = 1000" (X11 XTerm mouse protocol)
               h   Send Mouse X & Y on button press and release.
               l   No mouse reporting.
           "Pm = 1001" (X11 XTerm) unimplemented
               h   Use Hilite Mouse Tracking.
               l   No mouse reporting.
           "Pm = 1002" (X11 XTerm cell motion mouse tracking)
               h   Send Mouse X & Y on button press and release, and motion with a button pressed.
               l   No mouse reporting.
           "Pm = 1003" (X11 XTerm all motion mouse tracking)
               h   Send Mouse X & Y on button press and release, and motion.
               l   No mouse reporting.
           "Pm = 1004" (X11 XTerm focus in/focus out events) unimplemented
               h   Send Mouse focus in/focus out events.
               l   Don'T send focus events.
           "Pm = 1005" (X11 XTerm UTF-8 mouse mode) (Compile frills)
               Try to avoid this mode, it doesn't work sensibly in non-UTF-8 locales. Use mode
               1015 instead.

               Unlike XTerm, coordinates larger than 2015) will work fine.

               h   Enable mouse coordinates in locale-specific encoding.
               l   Enable mouse coordinates as binary octets.

           "Pm = 1010" (rxvt)

               h   Don't scroll to bottom on TTY output
               l   Scroll to bottom on TTY output
           "Pm = 1011" (rxvt)
               h   Scroll to bottom when a key is pressed
               l   Don't scroll to bottom when a key is pressed
           "Pm = 1015" (rxvt-unicode) (Compile frills)
               h   Enable urxvt mouse coordinate reporting.
               l   Use old-style CSI M C C C encoding.
               Changes all mouse reporting codes to use decimal parameters instead of octets or

               This mode should be enabled before actually enabling mouse reporting, for semi-
               obvious reasons.

               The sequences received for various modes are as follows:

                  ESC [ M o o o    !1005, !1015 (three octets)
                  ESC [ M c c c    1005, !1015 (three characters)
                  ESC [ Pm M       1015 (three or more numeric parameters)

               The first three parameters are "code", "x" and "y". Code is the numeric code as
               for the other modes (but encoded as a decimal number, including the additional
               offset of 32, so you have to subtract 32 first), "x" and "y" are the coordinates
               (1|1 is the upper left corner, just as with cursor positioning).

               Example: Shift-Button-1 press at top row, column 80.

                  ESC [ 37 ; 80 ; 1 M

               One can use this feature by simply enabling it and then looking for parameters to
               the "ESC [ M" reply - if there are any, this mode is active, otherwise one of the
               old reporting styles is used.

               Other (to be implemented) reply sequences will use a similar encoding.

               In the future, more parameters might get added (pixel coordinates for example -
               anybody out there who needs this?).

           "Pm = 1021" (rxvt)

               h   Bold/italic implies high intensity (see option -is)
               l   Font styles have no effect on intensity (Compile styles)
           "Pm = 1047" (X11 XTerm alternate screen buffer)
               h   Use Alternate Screen Buffer
               l   Use Normal Screen Buffer - clear Alternate Screen Buffer if returning from it
           "Pm = 1048" (X11 XTerm alternate DECSC)
               h   Save cursor position
               l   Restore cursor position
           "Pm = 1049" (X11 XTerm 1047 + 1048)
               h   Use Alternate Screen Buffer - clear Alternate Screen Buffer if switching to it
               l   Use Normal Screen Buffer
           "Pm = 2004" (X11 XTerm bracketed paste mode)
               h   Enable bracketed paste mode - prepend / append to the pasted text the control sequences ESC [ 200 ~ / ESC [ 201 ~
               l   Disable bracketed paste mode

   XTerm Operating System Commands
       "ESC ] Ps;Pt ST"
           Set XTerm Parameters. 8-bit ST: 0x9c, 7-bit ST sequence: ESC \ (0x1b, 0x5c), backwards
           compatible terminator BEL (0x07) is also accepted. any octet can be escaped by
           prefixing it with SYN (0x16, ^V).

           Ps = 0     Change Icon Name and Window Title to Pt
           Ps = 1     Change Icon Name to Pt
           Ps = 2     Change Window Title to Pt
           Ps = 3     If Pt starts with a ?, query the (STRING) property of the window and return it. If Pt contains a =, set the named property to the given value, else delete the specified property.
           Ps = 4     Pt is a semi-colon separated sequence of one or more semi-colon separated number/name pairs, where number is an index to a colour and name is the name of a colour. Each pair causes the numbered colour to be changed to name. Numbers 0-7 corresponds to low-intensity (normal) colours and 8-15 corresponds to high-intensity colours. 0=black, 1=red, 2=green, 3=yellow, 4=blue, 5=magenta, 6=cyan, 7=white
           Ps = 10    Change colour of text foreground to Pt
           Ps = 11    Change colour of text background to Pt
           Ps = 12    Change colour of text cursor foreground to Pt
           Ps = 13    Change colour of mouse foreground to Pt
           Ps = 17    Change background colour of highlight characters to Pt
           Ps = 19    Change foreground colour of highlight characters to Pt
           Ps = 20    Change background pixmap parameters (see section BACKGROUND IMAGE) (Compile pixbuf).
           Ps = 39    Change default foreground colour to Pt. [deprecated, use 10]
           Ps = 46    Change Log File to Pt unimplemented
           Ps = 49    Change default background colour to Pt. [deprecated, use 11]
           Ps = 50    Set fontset to Pt, with the following special values of Pt (rxvt) #+n change up n #-n change down n if n is missing of 0, a value of 1 is used empty change to font0 n change to font n
           Ps = 55    Log all scrollback buffer and all of screen to Pt [disabled]
           Ps = 701   Change current locale to Pt, or, if Pt is ?, return the current locale (Compile frills).
           Ps = 702   Request version if Pt is ?, returning rxvt-unicode, the resource name, the major and minor version numbers, e.g. ESC ] 702 ; rxvt-unicode ; urxvt ; 7 ; 4 ST.
           Ps = 704   Change colour of italic characters to Pt
           Ps = 705   Change background pixmap tint colour to Pt (Compile transparency).
           Ps = 706   Change colour of bold characters to Pt
           Ps = 707   Change colour of underlined characters to Pt
           Ps = 708   Change colour of the border to Pt
           Ps = 710   Set normal fontset to Pt. Same as Ps = 50.
           Ps = 711   Set bold fontset to Pt. Similar to Ps = 50 (Compile styles).
           Ps = 712   Set italic fontset to Pt. Similar to Ps = 50 (Compile styles).
           Ps = 713   Set bold-italic fontset to Pt. Similar to Ps = 50 (Compile styles).
           Ps = 720   Move viewing window up by Pt lines, or clear scrollback buffer if Pt = 0 (Compile frills).
           Ps = 721   Move viewing window down by Pt lines, or clear scrollback buffer if Pt = 0 (Compile frills).
           Ps = 777   Call the perl extension with the given string, which should be of the form extension:parameters (Compile perl).


       For the BACKGROUND IMAGE XTerm escape sequence "ESC ] 20 ; Pt ST" the value of "Pt" can be
       one of the following commands:

       "?" display scale and position in the title

           change scale and/or position

           change background image

Mouse Reporting

       "ESC [ M <b> <x> <y>"
           report mouse position

       The lower 2 bits of "<b>" indicate the button:

       Button = "(<b> - SPACE) & 3"

           0   Button1 pressed
           1   Button2 pressed
           2   Button3 pressed
           3   button released (X11 mouse report)

       The upper bits of "<b>" indicate the modifiers when the button was pressed and are added
       together (X11 mouse report only):

       State = "(<b> - SPACE) & ~3"

           4    Shift
           8    Meta
           16   Control
           32   Motion Notify
           32   Double Click (rxvt extension), disabled by default
           64   Button1 is actually Button4, Button2 is actually Button5 etc.
           Col = "<x> - SPACE"

           Row = "<y> - SPACE"

Key Codes

       Note: Shift + F1-F10 generates F11-F20

       For the keypad, use Shift to temporarily toggle Application Keypad mode and use Num_Lock
       to override Application Keypad mode, i.e. if Num_Lock is on the keypad is in normal mode.
       Also note that the values of BackSpace, Delete may have been compiled differently on your

                      Normal       Shift         Control      Ctrl+Shift
       Tab            ^I           ESC [ Z       ^I           ESC [ Z
       BackSpace      ^?           ^?            ^H           ^H
       Find           ESC [ 1 ~    ESC [ 1 $     ESC [ 1 ^    ESC [ 1 @
       Insert         ESC [ 2 ~    paste         ESC [ 2 ^    ESC [ 2 @
       Execute        ESC [ 3 ~    ESC [ 3 $     ESC [ 3 ^    ESC [ 3 @
       Select         ESC [ 4 ~    ESC [ 4 $     ESC [ 4 ^    ESC [ 4 @
       Prior          ESC [ 5 ~    scroll-up     ESC [ 5 ^    ESC [ 5 @
       Next           ESC [ 6 ~    scroll-down   ESC [ 6 ^    ESC [ 6 @
       Home           ESC [ 7 ~    ESC [ 7 $     ESC [ 7 ^    ESC [ 7 @
       End            ESC [ 8 ~    ESC [ 8 $     ESC [ 8 ^    ESC [ 8 @
       Delete         ESC [ 3 ~    ESC [ 3 $     ESC [ 3 ^    ESC [ 3 @
       F1             ESC [ 11 ~   ESC [ 23 ~    ESC [ 11 ^   ESC [ 23 ^
       F2             ESC [ 12 ~   ESC [ 24 ~    ESC [ 12 ^   ESC [ 24 ^
       F3             ESC [ 13 ~   ESC [ 25 ~    ESC [ 13 ^   ESC [ 25 ^
       F4             ESC [ 14 ~   ESC [ 26 ~    ESC [ 14 ^   ESC [ 26 ^
       F5             ESC [ 15 ~   ESC [ 28 ~    ESC [ 15 ^   ESC [ 28 ^
       F6             ESC [ 17 ~   ESC [ 29 ~    ESC [ 17 ^   ESC [ 29 ^
       F7             ESC [ 18 ~   ESC [ 31 ~    ESC [ 18 ^   ESC [ 31 ^
       F8             ESC [ 19 ~   ESC [ 32 ~    ESC [ 19 ^   ESC [ 32 ^
       F9             ESC [ 20 ~   ESC [ 33 ~    ESC [ 20 ^   ESC [ 33 ^
       F10            ESC [ 21 ~   ESC [ 34 ~    ESC [ 21 ^   ESC [ 34 ^
       F11            ESC [ 23 ~   ESC [ 23 $    ESC [ 23 ^   ESC [ 23 @
       F12            ESC [ 24 ~   ESC [ 24 $    ESC [ 24 ^   ESC [ 24 @
       F13            ESC [ 25 ~   ESC [ 25 $    ESC [ 25 ^   ESC [ 25 @
       F14            ESC [ 26 ~   ESC [ 26 $    ESC [ 26 ^   ESC [ 26 @
       F15 (Help)     ESC [ 28 ~   ESC [ 28 $    ESC [ 28 ^   ESC [ 28 @
       F16 (Menu)     ESC [ 29 ~   ESC [ 29 $    ESC [ 29 ^   ESC [ 29 @
       F17            ESC [ 31 ~   ESC [ 31 $    ESC [ 31 ^   ESC [ 31 @
       F18            ESC [ 32 ~   ESC [ 32 $    ESC [ 32 ^   ESC [ 32 @

       F19            ESC [ 33 ~   ESC [ 33 $    ESC [ 33 ^   ESC [ 33 @
       F20            ESC [ 34 ~   ESC [ 34 $    ESC [ 34 ^   ESC [ 34 @
       Up             ESC [ A      ESC [ a       ESC O a      ESC O A
       Down           ESC [ B      ESC [ b       ESC O b      ESC O B
       Right          ESC [ C      ESC [ c       ESC O c      ESC O C
       Left           ESC [ D      ESC [ d       ESC O d      ESC O D
       KP_Enter       ^M                                      ESC O M
       KP_F1          ESC O P                                 ESC O P
       KP_F2          ESC O Q                                 ESC O Q
       KP_F3          ESC O R                                 ESC O R
       KP_F4          ESC O S                                 ESC O S
       KP_Multiply    *                                       ESC O j
       KP_Add         +                                       ESC O k
       KP_Separator   ,                                       ESC O l
       KP_Subtract    -                                       ESC O m
       KP_Decimal     .                                       ESC O n
       KP_Divide      /                                       ESC O o
       KP_0           0                                       ESC O p
       KP_1           1                                       ESC O q
       KP_2           2                                       ESC O r
       KP_3           3                                       ESC O s
       KP_4           4                                       ESC O t
       KP_5           5                                       ESC O u
       KP_6           6                                       ESC O v
       KP_7           7                                       ESC O w
       KP_8           8                                       ESC O x
       KP_9           9                                       ESC O y


       General hint: if you get compile errors, then likely your configuration hasn't been tested
       well. Either try with "--enable-everything" or use the default configuration (i.e. no
       "--enable-xxx" or "--disable-xxx" switches). Of course, you should always report when a
       combination doesn't work, so it can be fixed. Marc Lehmann <>.


           Add (or remove) support for all non-multichoice options listed in "./configure
           --help", except for "--enable-assert" and "--enable-256-color".

           You can specify this and then disable options you do not like by following this with
           the appropriate "--disable-..." arguments, or you can start with a minimal
           configuration by specifying "--disable-everything" and than adding just the
           "--enable-..." arguments you want.

       --enable-xft (default: on)
           Add support for Xft (anti-aliased, among others) fonts. Xft fonts are slower and
           require lots of memory, but as long as you don't use them, you don't pay for them.

       --enable-font-styles (default: on)
           Add support for bold, italic and bold italic font styles. The fonts can be set
           manually or automatically.

       --with-codesets=CS,... (default: all)
           Compile in support for additional codeset (encoding) groups ("eu", "vn" are always
           compiled in, which includes most 8-bit character sets). These codeset tables are used
           for driving X11 core fonts, they are not required for Xft fonts, although having them
           compiled in lets rxvt-unicode choose replacement fonts more intelligently. Compiling
           them in will make your binary bigger (all of together cost about 700kB), but it
           doesn't increase memory usage unless you use a font requiring one of these encodings.

           all      all available codeset groups
           zh       common chinese encodings
           zh_ext   rarely used but very big chinese encodings
           jp       common japanese encodings
           jp_ext   rarely used but big japanese encodings
           kr       korean encodings

       --enable-xim (default: on)
           Add support for XIM (X Input Method) protocol. This allows using alternative input
           methods (e.g. kinput2) and will also correctly set up the input for people using dead
           keys or compose keys.

       --enable-unicode3 (default: off)
           Recommended to stay off unless you really need non-BMP characters.

           Enable direct support for displaying unicode codepoints above 65535 (the basic
           multilingual page). This increases storage requirements per character from 2 to 4
           bytes. X11 fonts do not yet support these extra characters, but Xft does.

           Please note that rxvt-unicode can store unicode code points >65535 even without this
           flag, but the number of such characters is limited to a few thousand (shared with
           combining characters, see next switch), and right now rxvt-unicode cannot display them
           (input/output and cut&paste still work, though).

       --enable-combining (default: on)
           Enable automatic composition of combining characters into composite characters. This
           is required for proper viewing of text where accents are encoded as separate unicode
           characters. This is done by using precomposed characters when available or creating
           new pseudo-characters when no precomposed form exists.

           Without --enable-unicode3, the number of additional precomposed characters is somewhat
           limited (the 6400 private use characters will be (ab-)used). With --enable-unicode3,
           no practical limit exists.

           This option will also enable storage (but not display) of characters beyond plane 0
           (>65535) when --enable-unicode3 was not specified.

           The combining table also contains entries for arabic presentation forms, but these are
           not currently used. Bug me if you want these to be used (and tell me how these are to
           be used...).

       --enable-fallback[=CLASS] (default: Rxvt)
           When reading resource settings, also read settings for class CLASS. To disable
           resource fallback use --disable-fallback.

       --with-res-name=NAME (default: urxvt)
           Use the given name as default application name when reading resources. Specify
           --with-res-name=rxvt to replace rxvt.

       --with-res-class=CLASS (default: URxvt)
           Use the given class as default application class when reading resources. Specify
           --with-res-class=Rxvt to replace rxvt.

       --enable-utmp (default: on)
           Write user and tty to utmp file (used by programs like w) at start of rxvt execution
           and delete information when rxvt exits.

       --enable-wtmp (default: on)
           Write user and tty to wtmp file (used by programs like last) at start of rxvt
           execution and write logout when rxvt exits.  This option requires --enable-utmp to
           also be specified.

       --enable-lastlog (default: on)
           Write user and tty to lastlog file (used by programs like lastlogin) at start of rxvt
           execution.  This option requires --enable-utmp to also be specified.

       --enable-pixbuf (default: on)
           Add support for GDK-PixBuf to be used for background images.  It adds support for many
           file formats including JPG, PNG, TIFF, GIF, XPM, BMP, ICO and TGA.

       --enable-startup-notification (default: on)
           Add support for freedesktop startup notifications. This allows window managers to
           display some kind of progress indicator during startup.

       --enable-transparency (default: on)
           Add support for using the root pixmap as background to simulate transparency.  Note
           that this feature depends on libXrender and on the availability of the RENDER
           extension in the X server.

       --enable-fading (default: on)
           Add support for fading the text when focus is lost.

       --enable-rxvt-scroll (default: on)
           Add support for the original rxvt scrollbar.

       --enable-next-scroll (default: on)
           Add support for a NeXT-like scrollbar.

       --enable-xterm-scroll (default: on)
           Add support for an Xterm-like scrollbar.

           Removes any handling of the backspace key by us - let the X server do it.

           Removes any handling of the delete key by us - let the X server do it.

           Removes any support for resource checking.

           Remove support for secondary/swap screen.

       --enable-frills (default: on)
           Add support for many small features that are not essential but nice to have. Normally
           you want this, but for very small binaries you may want to disable this.

           A non-exhaustive list of features enabled by "--enable-frills" (possibly in
           combination with other switches) is:

             EWMH-hints (pid, utf8 names) and protocols (ping)
             urgency hint
             separate underline colour (-underlineColor)
             settable border widths and borderless switch (-w, -b, -bl)
             visual depth selection (-depth)
             settable extra linespacing (-lsp)
             iso-14755 5.1 (basic) support
             tripleclickwords (-tcw)
             settable insecure mode (-insecure)
             keysym remapping support
             cursor blinking and underline cursor (-bc, -uc)
             XEmbed support (-embed)
             user-pty (-pty-fd)
             hold on exit (-hold)
             compile in built-in block graphics
             skip builtin block graphics (-sbg)
             separate highlight colour (-highlightColor, -highlightTextColor)
             extended mouse reporting modes (1005 and 1015).
             visual selection via -visual and -depth.

           It also enables some non-essential features otherwise disabled, such as:

             some round-trip time optimisations
             nearest colour allocation on pseudocolor screens
             UTF8_STRING support for selection
             sgr modes 90..97 and 100..107
             backindex and forwardindex escape sequences
             view change/zero scrollback escape sequences
             locale switching escape sequence
             window op and some xterm/OSC escape sequences
             rectangular selections
             trailing space removal for selections
             verbose X error handling

       --enable-iso14755 (default: on)
           Enable extended ISO 14755 support (see urxvt(1)).  Basic support (section 5.1) is
           enabled by "--enable-frills", while support for 5.2, 5.3 and 5.4 is enabled with this

       --enable-keepscrolling (default: on)
           Add support for continual scrolling of the display when you hold the mouse button down
           on a scrollbar arrow.

       --enable-selectionscrolling (default: on)
           Add support for scrolling when the selection moves to the top or bottom of the screen.

       --enable-mousewheel (default: on)
           Add support for scrolling via mouse wheel or buttons 4 & 5.

       --enable-slipwheeling (default: on)
           Add support for continual scrolling (using the mouse wheel as an accelerator) while
           the control key is held down.  This option requires --enable-mousewheel to also be

       --enable-smart-resize (default: off)
           Add smart growth/shrink behaviour when resizing.  This should keep the window corner
           which is closest to a corner of the screen in a fixed position.

       --enable-text-blink (default: on)
           Add support for blinking text.

       --enable-pointer-blank (default: on)
           Add support to have the pointer disappear when typing or inactive.

       --enable-perl (default: on)
           Enable an embedded perl interpreter. See the urxvtperl(3) manpage for more info on
           this feature, or the files in src/perl/ for the extensions that are installed by
           default.  The perl interpreter that is used can be specified via the "PERL"
           environment variable when running configure. Even when compiled in, perl will not be
           initialised when all extensions have been disabled "-pe "" --perl-ext-common """, so
           it should be safe to enable from a resource standpoint.

       --enable-assert (default: off)
           Enables the assertions in the code, normally disabled. This switch is only useful when
           developing rxvt-unicode.

       --enable-256-color (default: off)
           Force use of so-called 256 colour mode, to work around buggy applications that do not
           support termcap/terminfo, or simply improve support for applications hardcoding the
           xterm 256 colour table.

           This switch breaks termcap/terminfo compatibility to "TERM=rxvt-unicode", and
           consequently sets "TERM" to "rxvt-unicode-256color" by default (doc/etc/ contains
           termcap/terminfo definitions for both).

           It also results in higher memory usage and can slow down urxvt dramatically when more
           than six fonts are in use by a terminal instance.

       --with-name=NAME (default: urxvt)
           Set the basename for the installed binaries, resulting in "urxvt", "urxvtd" etc.).
           Specify "--with-name=rxvt" to replace with "rxvt".

       --with-term=NAME (default: rxvt-unicode)
           Change the environmental variable for the terminal to NAME.

           Change the environmental variable for the path to the terminfo tree to PATH.

           Use the X Window System (pretty much default, eh?).


       Marc Lehmann <> converted this document to pod and reworked it from the
       original Rxvt documentation, which was done by Geoff Wing <>, who in turn
       used the XTerm documentation and other sources.