Provided by: lsof_4.91+dfsg-1ubuntu1_amd64 bug

NAME

       lsof - list open files

SYNOPSIS

       lsof  [  -?abChlnNOPRtUvVX ] [ -A A ] [ -c c ] [ +c c ] [ +|-d d ] [ +|-D D ] [ +|-e s ] [
       +|-E ] [ +|-f [cfgGn] ] [ -F [f] ] [ -g [s] ] [ -i [i] ] [ -k k ] [ -K k ] [ +|-L [l] ]  [
       +|-m  m  ]  [ +|-M ] [ -o [o] ] [ -p s ] [ +|-r [t[m<fmt>]] ] [ -s [p:s] ] [ -S [t] ] [ -T
       [t] ] [ -u s ] [ +|-w ] [ -x [fl] ] [ -z [z] ] [ -Z [Z] ] [ -- ] [names]

DESCRIPTION

       Lsof revision 4.91 lists on its standard output file information  about  files  opened  by
       processes for the following UNIX dialects:

            Apple Darwin 9 and Mac OS X 10.[567]
            FreeBSD 8.[234], 9.0 and 1[012].0 for AMD64-based systems
            Linux 2.1.72 and above for x86-based systems
            Solaris 9, 10 and 11

       (See  the  DISTRIBUTION  section  of this manual page for information on how to obtain the
       latest lsof revision.)

       An open file may be a regular file, a directory, a block special file, a character special
       file, an executing text reference, a library, a stream or a network file (Internet socket,
       NFS file or UNIX domain socket.)  A specific file or all the files in a file system may be
       selected by path.

       Instead  of  a  formatted  display,  lsof  will produce output that can be parsed by other
       programs.  See the -F, option description, and the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS  section  for
       more information.

       In  addition  to  producing a single output list, lsof will run in repeat mode.  In repeat
       mode it will produce output, delay, then repeat the output operation until stopped with an
       interrupt  or  quit  signal.   See  the  +|-r  [t[m<fmt>]]  option  description  for  more
       information.

OPTIONS

       In the absence of any  options,  lsof  lists  all  open  files  belonging  to  all  active
       processes.

       If  any  list  request  option  is  specified,  other  list  requests must be specifically
       requested - e.g., if -U is specified for the listing of UNIX socket files, NFS files won't
       be  listed unless -N is also specified; or if a user list is specified with the -u option,
       UNIX domain socket files, belonging to users not in the list, won't be listed  unless  the
       -U option is also specified.

       Normally  list  options  that  are  specifically stated are ORed - i.e., specifying the -i
       option without an address and the -ufoo option produces a listing of all network files  OR
       files belonging to processes owned by user ``foo''.  The exceptions are:

       1) the `^' (negated) login name or user ID (UID), specified with the -u option;

       2) the `^' (negated) process ID (PID), specified with the -p option;

       3) the `^' (negated) process group ID (PGID), specified with the -g option;

       4) the `^' (negated) command, specified with the -c option;

       5) the (`^') negated TCP or UDP protocol state names, specified with the -s [p:s] option.

       Since  they represent exclusions, they are applied without ORing or ANDing and take effect
       before any other selection criteria are applied.

       The -a option may be used to AND the selections.  For  example,  specifying  -a,  -U,  and
       -ufoo  produces a listing of only UNIX socket files that belong to processes owned by user
       ``foo''.

       Caution: the -a option causes all list selection options to be ANDed; it can't be used  to
       cause  ANDing  of  selected  pairs  of  selection options by placing it between them, even
       though its placement there is acceptable.  Wherever -a is placed, it causes the ANDing  of
       all selection options.

       Items  of  the  same  selection  set - command names, file descriptors, network addresses,
       process identifiers, user identifiers, zone names, security contexts -  are  joined  in  a
       single  ORed set and applied before the result participates in ANDing.  Thus, for example,
       specifying -i@aaa.bbb, -i@ccc.ddd, -a, and -ufff,ggg will select the listing of files that
       belong  to  either  login  ``fff''  OR ``ggg'' AND have network connections to either host
       aaa.bbb OR ccc.ddd.

       Options may be grouped together following a single prefix -- e.g., the option set ``-a  -b
       -C''  may  be  stated as -abC.  However, since values are optional following +|-f, -F, -g,
       -i, +|-L, -o, +|-r, -s, -S, -T, -x and -z.  when you have no values for  them  be  careful
       that the following character isn't ambiguous.  For example, -Fn might represent the -F and
       -n options, or it might represent the  n  field  identifier  character  following  the  -F
       option.   When ambiguity is possible, start a new option with a `-' character - e.g., ``-F
       -n''.  If the next option is a file name, follow the possibly ambiguous option with ``--''
       - e.g., ``-F -- name''.

       Either the `+' or the `-' prefix may be applied to a group of options.  Options that don't
       take on separate meanings for each prefix - e.g., -i - may be grouped under either prefix.
       Thus,  for example, ``+M -i'' may be stated as ``+Mi'' and the group means the same as the
       separate options.  Be careful of prefix grouping when one or more  options  in  the  group
       does  take  on separate meanings under different prefixes - e.g., +|-M; ``-iM'' is not the
       same request as ``-i +M''.  When in doubt, use separate options with appropriate prefixes.

       -? -h    These two equivalent options select a usage (help) output list.  Lsof displays  a
                shortened form of this output when it detects an error in the options supplied to
                it, after it has displayed messages  explaining  each  error.   (Escape  the  `?'
                character as your shell requires.)

       -a       causes list selection options to be ANDed, as described above.

       -A A     is  available  on systems configured for AFS whose AFS kernel code is implemented
                via dynamic modules.  It allows the lsof user to specify A as an  alternate  name
                list  file where the kernel addresses of the dynamic modules might be found.  See
                the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for  more  information  about
                dynamic modules, their symbols, and how they affect lsof.

       -b       causes  lsof  to avoid kernel functions that might block - lstat(2), readlink(2),
                and stat(2).

                See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS sections  for  information
                on using this option.

       -c c     selects the listing of files for processes executing the command that begins with
                the characters of c.  Multiple commands  may  be  specified,  using  multiple  -c
                options.  They are joined in a single ORed set before participating in AND option
                selection.

                If c begins with a `^', then the following  characters  specify  a  command  name
                whose processes are to be ignored (excluded.)

                If  c  begins and ends with a slash ('/'), the characters between the slashes are
                interpreted as a  regular  expression.   Shell  meta-characters  in  the  regular
                expression  must  be  quoted  to  prevent their interpretation by the shell.  The
                closing slash may be followed by these modifiers:

                     b    the regular expression is a basic one.
                     i    ignore the case of letters.
                     x    the regular expression is an extended one
                          (default).

                See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more  information  on
                basic and extended regular expressions.

                The  simple  command  specification  is  tested  first.   If that test fails, the
                command regular expression is applied.  If the simple command test succeeds,  the
                command  regular  expression  test  isn't  made.  This may result in ``no command
                found for regex:'' messages when lsof's -V option is specified.

       +c w     defines the maximum number of initial characters of the  name,  supplied  by  the
                UNIX  dialect, of the UNIX command associated with a process to be printed in the
                COMMAND column.  (The lsof default is nine.)

                Note that many UNIX dialects do not supply all command name characters to lsof in
                the  files  and  structures from which lsof obtains command name.  Often dialects
                limit the number of characters supplied in those  sources.   For  example,  Linux
                2.4.27 and Solaris 9 both limit command name length to 16 characters.

                If  w  is zero ('0'), all command characters supplied to lsof by the UNIX dialect
                will be printed.

                If w is less than the length of the column title, ``COMMAND'', it will be  raised
                to that length.

       -C       disables  the reporting of any path name components from the kernel's name cache.
                See the KERNEL NAME CACHE section for more information.

       +d s     causes lsof to search for all open instances of directory s  and  the  files  and
                directories  it  contains  at  its  top level.  +d does NOT descend the directory
                tree, rooted at s.  The +D D  option  may  be  used  to  request  a  full-descent
                directory tree search, rooted at directory D.

                Processing of the +d option does not follow symbolic links within s unless the -x
                or -x  l option is also specified.  Nor does it search for  open  files  on  file
                system  mount points on subdirectories of s unless the -x or -x  f option is also
                specified.

                Note: the authority of the user of this option limits it to searching  for  files
                that the user has permission to examine with the system stat(2) function.

       -d s     specifies  a  list  of  file  descriptors (FDs) to exclude from or include in the
                output listing.  The file descriptors are specified in the comma-separated set  s
                - e.g., ``cwd,1,3'', ``^6,^2''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                The list is an exclusion list if all entries of the set begin with `^'.  It is an
                inclusion list if no entry begins with `^'.  Mixed lists are not permitted.

                A file descriptor number range may be in the set as long  as  neither  member  is
                empty,  both  members  are  numbers,  and  the  ending  member is larger than the
                starting one - e.g., ``0-7'' or ``3-10''.  Ranges may be specified for  exclusion
                if  they  have  the  `^'  prefix - e.g., ``^0-7'' excludes all file descriptors 0
                through 7.

                Multiple file  descriptor  numbers  are  joined  in  a  single  ORed  set  before
                participating in AND option selection.

                When  there  are exclusion and inclusion members in the set, lsof reports them as
                errors and exits with a non-zero return code.

                See the description of File Descriptor (FD) output values in the  OUTPUT  section
                for more information on file descriptor names.

       +D D     causes lsof to search for all open instances of directory D and all the files and
                directories it contains to its complete depth.

                Processing of the +D option does not follow symbolic links within D unless the -x
                or  -x   l  option  is also specified.  Nor does it search for open files on file
                system mount points on subdirectories of D unless the -x or -x  f option is  also
                specified.

                Note:  the  authority of the user of this option limits it to searching for files
                that the user has permission to examine with the system stat(2) function.

                Further note: lsof may process this option slowly and require a large  amount  of
                dynamic  memory  to  do it.  This is because it must descend the entire directory
                tree, rooted at D, calling stat(2) for each file and directory, building  a  list
                of  all  the  files it finds, and searching that list for a match with every open
                file.  When directory D is large, these steps can take a long time, so  use  this
                option prudently.

       -D D     directs lsof's use of the device cache file.  The use of this option is sometimes
                restricted.  See the DEVICE CACHE FILE section and the sections  that  follow  it
                for more information on this option.

                -D  must  be followed by a function letter; the function letter may optionally be
                followed by a path name.  Lsof recognizes these function letters:

                     ? - report device cache file paths
                     b - build the device cache file
                     i - ignore the device cache file
                     r - read the device cache file
                     u - read and update the device cache file

                The b, r, and u functions, accompanied by a path name, are sometimes  restricted.
                When  these  functions are restricted, they will not appear in the description of
                the -D option that accompanies -h or -?  option output.   See  the  DEVICE  CACHE
                FILE  section  and  the  sections  that  follow  it for more information on these
                functions and when they're restricted.

                The ?  function reports the read-only and write paths that lsof can use  for  the
                device  cache file, the names of any environment variables whose values lsof will
                examine when forming the device cache file path, and the format for the  personal
                device cache file path.  (Escape the `?' character as your shell requires.)

                When  available,  the  b,  r, and u functions may be followed by the device cache
                file's path.  The standard default is .lsof_hostname in the home directory of the
                real  user  ID that executes lsof, but this could have been changed when lsof was
                configured and compiled.  (The output of the -h and -?  options show the  current
                default  prefix - e.g., ``.lsof''.)  The suffix, hostname, is the first component
                of the host's name returned by gethostname(2).

                When available, the b function directs lsof to build a new device cache  file  at
                the default or specified path.

                The  i  function  directs lsof to ignore the default device cache file and obtain
                its information about devices via direct calls to the kernel.

                The r function directs lsof to read the device cache at the default or  specified
                path,  but  prevents it from creating a new device cache file when none exists or
                the existing one is  improperly  structured.   The  r  function,  when  specified
                without  a path name, prevents lsof from updating an incorrect or outdated device
                cache file, or creating a new one  in  its  place.   The  r  function  is  always
                available when it is specified without a path name argument; it may be restricted
                by the permissions of the lsof process.

                When available, the u function directs lsof to read the device cache file at  the
                default or specified path, if possible, and to rebuild it, if necessary.  This is
                the default device cache file function when no -D option has been specified.

       +|-e s   exempts the file system whose path name is  s  from  being  subjected  to  kernel
                function  calls  that  might  block.  The +e option exempts stat(2), lstat(2) and
                most readlink(2) kernel function calls.  The -e option exempts only  stat(2)  and
                lstat(2)  kernel  function  calls.   Multiple  file systems may be specified with
                separate +|-e specifications and each may have readlink(2) calls exempted or not.

                This option is currently implemented only for Linux.

                CAUTION: this option can easily be mis-applied to other than the file  system  of
                interest,  because  it  uses  path  name rather than the more reliable device and
                inode numbers.  (Device and  inode  numbers  are  acquired  via  the  potentially
                blocking  stat(2)  kernel  call  and  are  thus not available, but see the +|-m m
                option as a possible alternative way to supply device numbers.)  Use this  option
                with  great  care  and  fully  specify  the  path  name  of the file system to be
                exempted.

                When open files on exempted file systems are reported, it may not be possible  to
                obtain all their information.  Therefore, some information columns will be blank,
                the characters ``UNKN'' preface the values in the TYPE column, and the applicable
                exemption  option  is  added in parentheses to the end of the NAME column.  (Some
                device number information might be made available via the +|-m m option.)

       +|-E     +E specifies that Linux pipe, Linux UNIX socket and  Linux  pseudoterminal  files
                should  be  displayed  with  endpoint  information and the files of the endpoints
                should also be displayed.  Note: UNIX socket file endpoint  information  is  only
                available  when  the  compile  flags line of -v output contains HASUXSOCKEPT, and
                psudoterminal endpoint information is only available when the compile flags  line
                contains HASPTYEPT.

                Pipe   endpoint  information  is  displayed  in  the  NAME  column  in  the  form
                ``PID,cmd,FDmode'', where PID is the endpoint process ID;  cmd  is  the  endpoint
                process  command;  FD is the endpoint file's descriptor; and mode is the endpoint
                file's access mode.

                Pseudoterminal  endpoint  information  is  displayed  in  the  NAME   column   as
                ``->/dev/ptsmin PID,cmd,FDmode''  or ``PID,cmd,FDmode''.  The first form is for a
                master device; the second, for a slave device.  min is  a  slave  device's  minor
                device  number;  and  PID,  cmd,  FD  and mode are the same as with pipe endpoint
                information.  Note: psudoterminal endpoint information is only available when the
                compile flags line of -V output contains HASPTYEPT.

                UNIX socket file endpoint information is displayed in the NAME column in the form
                ``type=TYPE ->INO=INODE PID,cmd,FDmode'', where TYPE is the socket type; INODE is
                the i-node number of the connected socket; and PID, cmd, FD and mode are the same
                as  with  pipe endpoint information.  Note: UNIX socket file endpoint information
                is available only when the compile flags line of -v output contains HASUXSOCKEPT.

                Multiple occurrences of this information can appear in a file's NAME column.

                -E specfies that Linux pipe and Linux UNIX socket files should be displayed  with
                endpoint information, but not the files of the endpoints.

       +|-f [cfgGn]
                f  by  itself  clarifies  how  path  name  arguments are to be interpreted.  When
                followed by c, f, g, G, or n in any combination it specifies that the listing  of
                kernel file structure information is to be enabled (`+') or inhibited (`-').

                Normally  a  path name argument is taken to be a file system name if it matches a
                mounted-on directory name reported by mount(8),  or  if  it  represents  a  block
                device,  named  in the mount output and associated with a mounted directory name.
                When +f is specified, all path name arguments will be taken  to  be  file  system
                names,  and  lsof will complain if any are not.  This can be useful, for example,
                when the file system name (mounted-on device) isn't a block device.  This happens
                for some CD-ROM file systems.

                When  -f  is  specified  by  itself,  all path name arguments will be taken to be
                simple files.  Thus, for example, the ``-f -- /'' arguments direct lsof to search
                for  open  files  with a `/' path name, not all open files in the `/' (root) file
                system.

                Be careful to make sure +f and -f are properly terminated and aren't followed  by
                a  character  (e.g.,  of  the  file or file system name) that might be taken as a
                parameter.  For example, use ``--'' after +f and -f as in these examples.

                     $ lsof +f -- /file/system/name
                     $ lsof -f -- /file/name

                The listing of information from kernel file structures,  requested  with  the  +f
                [cfgGn] option form, is normally inhibited, and is not available in whole or part
                for some dialects - e.g., /proc-based  Linux  kernels  below  2.6.22.   When  the
                prefix  to  f  is  a  plus  sign  (`+'),  these characters request file structure
                information:

                     c    file structure use count (not Linux)
                     f    file structure address (not Linux)
                     g    file flag abbreviations (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
                     G    file flags in hexadecimal (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
                     n    file structure node address (not Linux)

                When the prefix is minus (`-') the same characters disable  the  listing  of  the
                indicated values.

                File  structure  addresses,  use counts, flags, and node addresses may be used to
                detect more readily identical files inherited by child  processes  and  identical
                files  in use by different processes.  Lsof column output can be sorted by output
                columns holding the values and listed to identify identical  file  use,  or  lsof
                field  output  can  be  parsed  by  an  AWK or Perl post-filter script, or by a C
                program.

       -F f     specifies a character  list,  f,  that  selects  the  fields  to  be  output  for
                processing  by  another  program,  and  the character that terminates each output
                field.  Each field to be output is specified with a single character in  f.   The
                field terminator defaults to NL, but may be changed to NUL (000).  See the OUTPUT
                FOR OTHER  PROGRAMS  section  for  a  description  of  the  field  identification
                characters and the field output process.

                When  the  field  selection  character  list  is  empty,  all standard fields are
                selected (except the raw device  field,  security  context  and  zone  field  for
                compatibility reasons) and the NL field terminator is used.

                When  the  field  selection character list contains only a zero (`0'), all fields
                are selected (except the raw device field for compatibility reasons) and the  NUL
                terminator character is used.

                Other combinations of fields and their associated field terminator character must
                be set with explicit entries in f, as described in the OUTPUT FOR OTHER  PROGRAMS
                section.

                When a field selection character identifies an item lsof does not normally list -
                e.g., PPID, selected with -R - specification  of  the  field  character  -  e.g.,
                ``-FR'' - also selects the listing of the item.

                When  the  field selection character list contains the single character `?', lsof
                will display a help list of the field identification characters.  (Escape the `?'
                character as your shell requires.)

       -g [s]   excludes or selects the listing of files for the processes whose optional process
                group IDentification (PGID) numbers are in the  comma-separated  set  s  -  e.g.,
                ``123'' or ``123,^456''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                PGID numbers that begin with `^' (negation) represent exclusions.

                Multiple PGID numbers are joined in a single ORed set before participating in AND
                option selection.  However, PGID exclusions are applied without ORing  or  ANDing
                and take effect before other selection criteria are applied.

                The  -g  option  also enables the output display of PGID numbers.  When specified
                without a PGID set that's all it does.

       -i [i]   selects the listing of files any of whose Internet address  matches  the  address
                specified  in  i.  If no address is specified, this option selects the listing of
                all Internet and x.25 (HP-UX) network files.

                If -i4 or -i6 is specified with no following address, only files of the indicated
                IP version, IPv4 or IPv6, are displayed.  (An IPv6 specification may be used only
                if the dialects supports IPv6, as indicated by ``[46]'' and ``IPv[46]'' in lsof's
                -h  or  -?  output.)  Sequentially specifying -i4, followed by -i6 is the same as
                specifying -i, and vice-versa.  Specifying -i4, or -i6 after -i is  the  same  as
                specifying -i4 or -i6 by itself.

                Multiple  addresses  (up  to  a  limit  of 100) may be specified with multiple -i
                options.  (A port number or service name range is counted as one address.)   They
                are joined in a single ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

                An  Internet  address  is  specified  in  the  form (Items in square brackets are
                optional.):

                [46][protocol][@hostname|hostaddr][:service|port]

                where:
                     46 specifies the IP version, IPv4 or IPv6
                          that applies to the following address.
                          '6' may be be specified only if the UNIX
                          dialect supports IPv6.  If neither '4' nor
                          '6' is specified, the following address
                          applies to all IP versions.
                     protocol is a protocol name - TCP, UDP
                     hostname is an Internet host name.  Unless a
                          specific IP version is specified, open
                          network files associated with host names
                          of all versions will be selected.
                     hostaddr is a numeric Internet IPv4 address in
                          dot form; or an IPv6 numeric address in
                          colon form, enclosed in brackets, if the
                          UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  When an IP
                          version is selected, only its numeric
                          addresses may be specified.
                     service is an /etc/services name - e.g., smtp -
                          or a list of them.
                     port is a port number, or a list of them.

                IPv6 options may be used only if the UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  To see  if  the
                dialect  supports IPv6, run lsof and specify the -h or -?  (help) option.  If the
                displayed description of the -i option contains ``[46]'' and ``IPv[46]'', IPv6 is
                supported.

                IPv4  host  names and addresses may not be specified if network file selection is
                limited to IPv6 with -i 6.  IPv6 host names and addresses may not be specified if
                network  file  selection is limited to IPv4 with -i 4.  When an open IPv4 network
                file's address is mapped in an IPv6 address, the open file's type will  be  IPv6,
                not IPv4, and its display will be selected by '6', not '4'.

                At least one address component - 4, 6, protocol, hostname, hostaddr, or service -
                must be supplied.  The `@' character, leading the host specification,  is  always
                required; as is the `:', leading the port specification.  Specify either hostname
                or hostaddr.  Specify either service name list or port number list.  If a service
                name  list  is  specified, the protocol may also need to be specified if the TCP,
                UDP and UDPLITE port numbers for the service name are different.  Use any case  -
                lower or upper - for protocol.

                Service  names  and  port  numbers  may  be  combined in a list whose entries are
                separated by commas and whose numeric range entries are separated by minus signs.
                There  may  be  no  embedded  spaces,  and  all  service names must belong to the
                specified protocol.  Since service names may contain embedded  minus  signs,  the
                starting  entry  of  a  range  can't  be a service name; it can be a port number,
                however.

                Here are some sample addresses:

                     -i6 - IPv6 only
                     TCP:25 - TCP and port 25
                     @1.2.3.4 - Internet IPv4 host address 1.2.3.4
                     @[3ffe:1ebc::1]:1234 - Internet IPv6 host address
                          3ffe:1ebc::1, port 1234
                     UDP:who - UDP who service port
                     TCP@lsof.itap:513 - TCP, port 513 and host name lsof.itap
                     tcp@foo:1-10,smtp,99 - TCP, ports 1 through 10,
                          service name smtp, port 99, host name foo
                     tcp@bar:1-smtp - TCP, ports 1 through smtp, host bar
                     :time - either TCP, UDP or UDPLITE time service port

       -K k     selects the listing of tasks (threads)  of  processes,  on  dialects  where  task
                (thread) reporting is supported.  (If help output - i.e., the output of the -h or
                -?  options - shows this option, then task (thread) reporting is supported by the
                dialect.)

                If  -K  is  followed by a value, k, it must be ``i''.  That causes lsof to ignore
                tasks, particularly in the default, list-everything case when  no  other  options
                are specified.

                When  -K  and -a are both specified on Linux, and the tasks of a main process are
                selected by other options, the main process will also be listed as though it were
                a  task,  but  without  a task ID.  (See the description of the TID column in the
                OUTPUT section.)

                Where the FreeBSD version supports threads, all threads will be listed with their
                IDs.

                In  general threads and tasks inherit the files of the caller, but may close some
                and open others, so lsof always reports all the open files of threads and tasks.

       -k k     specifies a kernel name list file, k, in place of /vmunix, /mach, etc.  -k is not
                available under AIX on the IBM RISC/System 6000.

       -l       inhibits  the  conversion  of  user ID numbers to login names.  It is also useful
                when login name lookup is working improperly or slowly.

       +|-L [l] enables (`+') or disables (`-') the listing of file link counts, where  they  are
                available - e.g., they aren't available for sockets, or most FIFOs and pipes.

                When  +L is specified without a following number, all link counts will be listed.
                When -L is specified (the default), no link counts will be listed.

                When +L is followed by a number, only files having a link count  less  than  that
                number  will  be listed.  (No number may follow -L.)  A specification of the form
                ``+L1'' will select open files that have been unlinked.  A specification  of  the
                form ``+aL1 <file_system>'' will select unlinked open files on the specified file
                system.

                For other link count comparisons, use field output  (-F)  and  a  post-processing
                script or program.

       +|-m m   specifies  an  alternate  kernel  memory file or activates mount table supplement
                processing.

                The option form -m m specifies a kernel memory file, m, in place of /dev/kmem  or
                /dev/mem - e.g., a crash dump file.

                The  option  form  +m  requests  that  a  mount supplement file be written to the
                standard output file.  All other options are silently ignored.

                There will be a line in the mount supplement file for each mounted  file  system,
                containing  the  mounted  file  system  directory,  followed  by  a single space,
                followed by the device number in hexadecimal "0x" format - e.g.,

                     / 0x801

                Lsof can use the mount supplement file to get device  numbers  for  file  systems
                when it can't get them via stat(2) or lstat(2).

                The option form +m m identifies m as a mount supplement file.

                Note:  the  +m  and  +m  m  options are not available for all supported dialects.
                Check the output of lsof's -h or -?  options to see if the +m and  +m  m  options
                are available.

       +|-M     Enables  (+)  or disables (-) the reporting of portmapper registrations for local
                TCP, UDP and UDPLITE ports, where port  mapping  is  supported.   (See  the  last
                paragraph  of  this  option  description  for  information about where portmapper
                registration reporting is supported.)

                The default reporting mode is set by the lsof  builder  with  the  HASPMAPENABLED
                #define  in  the  dialect's  machine.h  header file; lsof is distributed with the
                HASPMAPENABLED #define  deactivated,  so  portmapper  reporting  is  disabled  by
                default  and  must be requested with +M.  Specifying lsof's -h or -?  option will
                report the default mode.  Disabling portmapper registration when  it  is  already
                disabled  or  enabling  it  when  already enabled is acceptable.  When portmapper
                registration reporting is enabled, lsof displays the portmapper registration  (if
                any) for local TCP, UDP or UDPLITE ports in square brackets immediately following
                the port numbers or service names - e.g., ``:1234[name]''  or  ``:name[100083]''.
                The  registration  information  may  be  a  name or number, depending on what the
                registering program supplied to the portmapper when it registered the port.

                When portmapper registration reporting is enabled, lsof may  run  a  little  more
                slowly  or even become blocked when access to the portmapper becomes congested or
                stopped.  Reverse the reporting mode  to  determine  if  portmapper  registration
                reporting is slowing or blocking lsof.

                For  purposes  of  portmapper registration reporting lsof considers a TCP, UDP or
                UDPLITE port local if: it is found in the local part  of  its  containing  kernel
                structure;  or  if  it  is  located  in the foreign part of its containing kernel
                structure and the local and foreign Internet addresses are the same; or if it  is
                located  in  the  foreign part of its containing kernel structure and the foreign
                Internet address is INADDR_LOOPBACK (127.0.0.1).  This rule may make lsof  ignore
                some foreign ports on machines with multiple interfaces when the foreign Internet
                address is on a different interface from the local one.

                See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for further discussion of
                portmapper registration reporting issues.

                Portmapper  registration  reporting  is  supported only on dialects that have RPC
                header files.  (Some Linux distributions with GlibC 2.14 do not have them.)  When
                portmapper  registration  reporting  is supported, the -h or -?  help output will
                show the +|-M option.

       -n       inhibits the conversion of network numbers  to  host  names  for  network  files.
                Inhibiting conversion may make lsof run faster.  It is also useful when host name
                lookup is not working properly.

       -N       selects the listing of NFS files.

       -o       directs lsof to display file offset at all times.  It causes the SIZE/OFF  output
                column  title  to  be  changed to OFFSET.  Note: on some UNIX dialects lsof can't
                obtain accurate or consistent  file  offset  information  from  its  kernel  data
                sources,  sometimes  just  for  particular  kinds  of files (e.g., socket files.)
                Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information.

                The -o and -s options are mutually exclusive; they can't both be specified.  When
                neither  is  specified,  lsof  displays  whatever  value  -  size  or offset - is
                appropriate and available for the type of the file.

       -o o     defines the number of decimal digits (o) to be printed after  the  ``0t''  for  a
                file  offset  before  the  form  is  switched  to  ``0x...''.  An o value of zero
                (unlimited) directs lsof to use the ``0t'' form for all offset output.

                This option does NOT direct lsof to display  offset  at  all  times;  specify  -o
                (without a trailing number) to do that.  -o o only specifies the number of digits
                after ``0t'' in either mixed size and offset or offset-only  output.   Thus,  for
                example, to direct lsof to display offset at all times with a decimal digit count
                of 10, use:

                     -o -o 10
                or
                     -oo10

                The default number of digits allowed after ``0t'' is normally  8,  but  may  have
                been  changed by the lsof builder.  Consult the description of the -o o option in
                the output of the -h or -?  option to determine the default that is in effect.

       -O       directs lsof to bypass the strategy it uses to avoid being blocked by some kernel
                operations  -  i.e.,  doing  them  in forked child processes.  See the BLOCKS AND
                TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS  sections  for  more  information  on  kernel
                operations that may block lsof.

                While  use  of  this  option will reduce lsof startup overhead, it may also cause
                lsof to hang when the kernel doesn't respond to  a  function.   Use  this  option
                cautiously.

       -p s     excludes or selects the listing of files for the processes whose optional process
                IDentification (PID) numbers are in the comma-separated set s - e.g., ``123''  or
                ``123,^456''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                PID numbers that begin with `^' (negation) represent exclusions.

                Multiple  process ID numbers are joined in a single ORed set before participating
                in AND option selection.  However, PID exclusions are applied  without  ORing  or
                ANDing and take effect before other selection criteria are applied.

       -P       inhibits  the  conversion  of  port  numbers  to  port  names  for network files.
                Inhibiting the conversion may make lsof run a little faster.  It is  also  useful
                when port name lookup is not working properly.

       +|-r [t[m<fmt>]]
                puts  lsof  in  repeat  mode.   There  lsof lists open files as selected by other
                options, delays t seconds (default fifteen), then repeats the  listing,  delaying
                and  listing  repetitively  until stopped by a condition defined by the prefix to
                the option.

                If the prefix is a `-', repeat mode is endless.  Lsof must be terminated with  an
                interrupt or quit signal.

                If  the  prefix  is  `+',  repeat mode will end the first cycle no open files are
                listed - and of course when lsof is stopped with an  interrupt  or  quit  signal.
                When  repeat mode ends because no files are listed, the process exit code will be
                zero if any open files were ever listed; one, if none were ever listed.

                Lsof marks the end of each listing: if field  output  is  in  progress  (the  -F,
                option  has  been  specified),  the  default marker is `m'; otherwise the default
                marker is ``========''.  The marker is followed by a NL character.

                The optional "m<fmt>" argument specifies a format for the marker line.  The <fmt>
                characters  following  `m'  are  interpreted  as  a  format  specification to the
                strftime(3) function, when both it and the localtime(3) function are available in
                the  dialect's  C  library.   Consult  the strftime(3) documentation for what may
                appear in its format specification.  Note that when  field  output  is  requested
                with  the  -F option, <fmt> cannot contain the NL format, ``%n''.  Note also that
                when  <fmt>  contains  spaces  or  other  characters  that  affect  the   shell's
                interpretation of arguments, <fmt> must be quoted appropriately.

                Repeat  mode  reduces  lsof startup overhead, so it is more efficient to use this
                mode than to call lsof repetitively from a shell script, for example.

                To use repeat mode most efficiently, accompany +|-r with specification  of  other
                lsof  selection  options, so the amount of kernel memory access lsof does will be
                kept to a minimum.  Options that filter at the process level - e.g., -c, -g,  -p,
                -u - are the most efficient selectors.

                Repeat  mode  is  useful  when  coupled  with  field  output  (see the -F, option
                description) and a supervising awk or Perl script, or a C program.

       -R       directs lsof to list the Parent Process IDentification number in the PPID column.

       -s [p:s] s alone directs lsof to display file size at all times.  It causes  the  SIZE/OFF
                output  column  title  to  be changed to SIZE.  If the file does not have a size,
                nothing is displayed.

                The optional -s p:s form is available only for selected dialects, and  only  when
                the -h or -?  help output lists it.

                When  the  optional  form  is available, the s may be followed by a protocol name
                (p), either TCP or UDP, a colon (`:') and a comma-separated protocol  state  name
                list,  the  option  causes  open  TCP and UDP files to be excluded if their state
                name(s) are in the list (s) preceded by a `^'; or included if their  name(s)  are
                not preceded by a `^'.

                Dialects  that  support  this  option  may  support  only  one protocol.  When an
                unsupported protocol is specified, a message will be displayed  indicating  state
                names for the protocol are unavailable.

                When  an  inclusion  list  is defined, only network files with state names in the
                list will be present in the lsof output.  Thus, specifying one state  name  means
                that only network files with that lone state name will be listed.

                Case  is  unimportant  in the protocol or state names, but there may be no spaces
                and the colon (`:') separating the protocol name (p) and the state name list  (s)
                is required.

                If  only  TCP  and  UDP  files  are  to be listed, as controlled by the specified
                exclusions and inclusions, the -i option must  be  specified,  too.   If  only  a
                single  protocol's  files are to be listed, add its name as an argument to the -i
                option.

                For example, to list only network files with TCP state LISTEN, use:

                     -iTCP -sTCP:LISTEN

                Or, for example, to list network files with all UDP states except Idle, use:

                     -iUDP -sUDP:Idle

                State names vary with UNIX dialects, so it's not possible to provide  a  complete
                list.  Some common TCP state names are: CLOSED, IDLE, BOUND, LISTEN, ESTABLISHED,
                SYN_SENT,  SYN_RCDV,  ESTABLISHED,  CLOSE_WAIT,  FIN_WAIT1,  CLOSING,   LAST_ACK,
                FIN_WAIT_2, and TIME_WAIT.  Two common UDP state names are Unbound and Idle.

                See  the  lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information on
                how to use protocol state exclusion and inclusion, including examples.

                The -o (without a following  decimal  digit  count)  and  -s  option  (without  a
                following  protocol  and state name list) are mutually exclusive; they can't both
                be specified.  When neither is specified, lsof displays whatever value - size  or
                offset - is appropriate and available for the type of file.

                Since  some  types of files don't have true sizes - sockets, FIFOs, pipes, etc. -
                lsof displays for their sizes the content  amounts  in  their  associated  kernel
                buffers, if possible.

       -S [t]   specifies  an  optional  time-out  seconds value for kernel functions - lstat(2),
                readlink(2), and stat(2) - that might otherwise deadlock.  The minimum for  t  is
                two; the default, fifteen; when no value is specified, the default is used.

                See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS section for more information.

       -T [t]   controls  the reporting of some TCP/TPI information, also reported by netstat(1),
                following the network addresses.  In normal output  the  information  appears  in
                parentheses,  each  item  except  TCP  or TPI state name identified by a keyword,
                followed by `=', separated from others by a single space:

                     <TCP or TPI state name>
                     QR=<read queue length>
                     QS=<send queue length>
                     SO=<socket options and values>
                     SS=<socket states>
                     TF=<TCP flags and values>
                     WR=<window read length>
                     WW=<window write length>

                Not all values are reported for all UNIX dialects.  Items values (when available)
                are reported after the item name and '='.

                When  the  field  output mode is in effect (See OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS.)  each
                item appears as a field with a `T' leading character.

                -T with no following key characters disables TCP/TPI information reporting.

                -T  with  following  characters  selects  the  reporting  of   specific   TCP/TPI
                information:

                     f    selects reporting of socket options,
                          states and values, and TCP flags and
                          values.
                     q    selects queue length reporting.
                     s    selects connection state reporting.
                     w    selects window size reporting.

                Not all selections are enabled for some UNIX dialects.  State may be selected for
                all dialects and is reported by default.  The -h or -?  help output  for  the  -T
                option will show what selections may be used with the UNIX dialect.

                When  -T  is  used  to  select  information - i.e., it is followed by one or more
                selection characters - the displaying of state is disabled  by  default,  and  it
                must  be  explicitly  selected again in the characters following -T.  (In effect,
                then, the default is equivalent to -Ts.)  For example, if queue lengths and state
                are desired, use -Tqs.

                Socket  options,  socket  states, some socket values, TCP flags and one TCP value
                may be reported (when available in the UNIX dialect) in the  form  of  the  names
                that  commonly  appear after SO_, so_, SS_, TCP_  and TF_ in the dialect's header
                files - most often  <sys/socket.h>,  <sys/socketvar.h>  and  <netinet/tcp_var.h>.
                Consult  those  header  files  for  the meaning of the flags, options, states and
                values.

                ``SO='' precedes socket options and values; ``SS='', socket states; and  ``TF='',
                TCP flags and values.

                If  a  flag  or  option has a value, the value will follow an '=' and the name --
                e.g., ``SO=LINGER=5'', ``SO=QLIM=5'', ``TF=MSS=512''.  The following seven values
                may be reported:

                     Name
                     Reported  Description (Common Symbol)

                     KEEPALIVE keep alive time (SO_KEEPALIVE)
                     LINGER    linger time (SO_LINGER)
                     MSS       maximum segment size (TCP_MAXSEG)
                     PQLEN          partial listen queue connections
                     QLEN      established listen queue connections
                     QLIM      established listen queue limit
                     RCVBUF    receive buffer length (SO_RCVBUF)
                     SNDBUF    send buffer length (SO_SNDBUF)

                Details  on  what  socket  options  and  values, socket states, and TCP flags and
                values may be displayed for particular UNIX dialects may be found in  the  answer
                to the ``Why doesn't lsof report socket options, socket states, and TCP flags and
                values for my dialect?'' and ``Why doesn't lsof report the partial  listen  queue
                connection  count  for  my dialect?''  questions in the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section
                gives its location.)

       -t       specifies that lsof should produce terse output with process identifiers only and
                no  header - e.g., so that the output may be piped to kill(1).  -t selects the -w
                option.

       -u s     selects the listing of files for the user whose login names or  user  ID  numbers
                are in the comma-separated set s - e.g., ``abe'', or ``548,root''.  (There should
                be no spaces in the set.)

                Multiple login names or user ID numbers are joined in a single  ORed  set  before
                participating in AND option selection.

                If  a  login  name or user ID is preceded by a `^', it becomes a negation - i.e.,
                files of processes owned by the login name or user ID will never  be  listed.   A
                negated  login  name  or  user  ID selection is neither ANDed nor ORed with other
                selections; it is applied before all other selections and absolutely excludes the
                listing  of the files of the process.  For example, to direct lsof to exclude the
                listing of files belonging to root processes, specify ``-u^root'' or ``-u^0''.

       -U       selects the listing of UNIX domain socket files.

       -v       selects the listing of lsof version information, including: revision number; when
                the  lsof  binary was constructed; who constructed the binary and where; the name
                of the compiler used to construct the lsof binary;  the  version  number  of  the
                compiler  when readily available; the compiler and loader flags used to construct
                the lsof binary; and system information,  typically  the  output  of  uname's  -a
                option.

       -V       directs  lsof  to  indicate  the  items it was asked to list and failed to find -
                command names, file names, Internet addresses or files, login names,  NFS  files,
                PIDs, PGIDs, and UIDs.

                When  other options are ANDed to search options, or compile-time options restrict
                the listing of some files, lsof may not report that it failed to  find  a  search
                item when an ANDed option or compile-time option prevents the listing of the open
                file containing the located search item.

                For example, ``lsof -V -iTCP@foobar -a -d 999''  may  not  report  a  failure  to
                locate  open  files  at  ``TCP@foobar'' and may not list any, if none have a file
                descriptor number of 999.   A  similar  situation  arises  when  HASSECURITY  and
                HASNOSOCKSECURITY  are  defined  at  compile time and they prevent the listing of
                open files.

       +|-w     Enables (+) or disables (-) the suppression of warning messages.

                The lsof builder may choose to have  warning  messages  disabled  or  enabled  by
                default.   The default warning message state is indicated in the output of the -h
                or -?  option.  Disabling warning messages when  they  are  already  disabled  or
                enabling them when already enabled is acceptable.

                The -t option selects the -w option.

       -x [fl]  may  accompany  the  +d  and  +D options to direct their processing to cross over
                symbolic links and|or file system mount  points  encountered  when  scanning  the
                directory (+d) or directory tree (+D).

                If -x is specified by itself without a following parameter, cross-over processing
                of both symbolic links and file system mount points is enabled.  Note  that  when
                -x  is  specified  without  a parameter, the next argument must begin with '-' or
                '+'.

                The optional 'f' parameter enables file system mount point cross-over processing;
                'l', symbolic link cross-over processing.

                The -x option may not be supplied without also supplying a +d or +D option.

       -X       This is a dialect-specific option.

           AIX:
                This IBM AIX RISC/System 6000 option requests the reporting of executed text file
                and shared library references.

                WARNING: because this option uses the kernel readx() function, its use on a  busy
                AIX  system  might cause an application process to hang so completely that it can
                neither be killed nor stopped.  I have never seen this happen or had a report  of
                its happening, but I think there is a remote possibility it could happen.

                By  default  use  of  readx()  is  disabled.   On  AIX 5L and above lsof may need
                setuid-root permission to perform the actions this option requests.

                The lsof builder may specify that the -X option be restricted to processes  whose
                real UID is root.  If that has been done, the -X option will not appear in the -h
                or -?  help output unless the real UID of the lsof process is root.  The  default
                lsof  distribution  allows any UID to specify -X, so by default it will appear in
                the help output.

                When AIX readx() use is disabled, lsof may not be able to report information  for
                all  text  and  loader file references, but it may also avoid exacerbating an AIX
                kernel directory search kernel error, known as the Stale Segment ID bug.

                The readx() function, used by lsof or any other program to access  some  sections
                of kernel virtual memory, can trigger the Stale Segment ID bug.  It can cause the
                kernel's dir_search() function to believe erroneously that part of  an  in-memory
                copy  of  a  file system directory has been zeroed.  Another application process,
                distinct from lsof, asking the kernel to search the directory -  e.g.,  by  using
                open(2)  -  can  cause dir_search() to loop forever, thus hanging the application
                process.

                Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  and the 00README file
                of  the lsof distribution for a more complete description of the Stale Segment ID
                bug, its APAR, and methods for defining readx() use when compiling lsof.

           Linux:
                This Linux option requests that lsof skip the reporting  of  information  on  all
                open TCP, UDP and UDPLITE IPv4 and IPv6 files.

                This Linux option is most useful when the system has an extremely large number of
                open TCP, UDP and UDPLITE files, the  processing  of  whose  information  in  the
                /proc/net/tcp*  and  /proc/net/udp*  files would take lsof a long time, and whose
                reporting is not of interest.

                Use this option with care and only when you are sure  that  the  information  you
                want lsof to display isn't associated with open TCP, UDP or UDPLITE socket files.

           Solaris 10 and above:
                This Solaris 10 and above option requests the reporting of cached paths for files
                that have been deleted - i.e., removed with rm(1) or unlink(2).

                The cached path is followed by the string `` (deleted)''  to  indicate  that  the
                path by which the file was opened has been deleted.

                Because  intervening  changes  made  to  the  path  - i.e., renames with mv(1) or
                rename(2) - are not recorded in the cached path, what lsof reports  is  only  the
                path by which the file was opened, not its possibly different final path.

       -z [z]   specifies how Solaris 10 and higher zone information is to be handled.

                Without  a following argument - e.g., NO z - the option specifies that zone names
                are to be listed in the ZONE output column.

                The -z option may be followed by a zone name, z.  That causes lsof to  list  only
                open  files  for processes in that zone.  Multiple -z z option and argument pairs
                may be specified to form a list of named zones.  Any open file of any process  in
                any  of  the zones will be listed, subject to other conditions specified by other
                options and arguments.

       -Z [Z]   specifies how SELinux security contexts are to be  handled.   It  and  'Z'  field
                output  character  support  are inhibited when SELinux is disabled in the running
                Linux kernel.  See OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS for  more  information  on  the  'Z'
                field output character.

                Without  a  following  argument - e.g., NO Z - the option specifies that security
                contexts are to be listed in the SECURITY-CONTEXT output column.

                The -Z option may be followed by a  wildcard  security  context  name,  Z.   That
                causes  lsof  to  list  only  open  files for processes in that security context.
                Multiple -Z Z option and argument pairs may  be  specified  to  form  a  list  of
                security  contexts.  Any open file of any process in any of the security contexts
                will be listed, subject to  other  conditions  specified  by  other  options  and
                arguments.   Note that Z can be A:B:C or *:B:C or A:B:* or *:*:C to match against
                the A:B:C context.

       --       The double minus sign option is a marker  that  signals  the  end  of  the  keyed
                options.   It  may  be  used, for example, when the first file name begins with a
                minus sign.  It may also be used when the absence of a value for the  last  keyed
                option  must be signified by the presence of a minus sign in the following option
                and before the start of the file names.

       names    These are path names of specific files to  list.   Symbolic  links  are  resolved
                before  use.  The first name may be separated from the preceding options with the
                ``--'' option.

                If a name is the mounted-on directory of a file system or the device of the  file
                system, lsof will list all the files open on the file system.  To be considered a
                file system, the name must match a mounted-on directory name in mount(8)  output,
                or  match the name of a block device associated with a mounted-on directory name.
                The +|-f option may be used to force lsof  to  consider  a  name  a  file  system
                identifier (+f) or a simple file (-f).

                If  name  is a path to a directory that is not the mounted-on directory name of a
                file system, it is treated just as a regular file is treated - i.e., its  listing
                is  restricted  to processes that have it open as a file or as a process-specific
                directory, such as the root or current working directory.  To request  that  lsof
                look for open files inside a directory name, use the +d s and +D D options.

                If  a  name  is  the  base  name  of  a  family of multiplexed files - e.g, AIX's
                /dev/pt[cs] - lsof will list all the associated multiplexed files on  the  device
                that are open - e.g., /dev/pt[cs]/1, /dev/pt[cs]/2, etc.

                If  a  name  is a UNIX domain socket name, lsof will usually search for it by the
                characters of the name alone - exactly as it is specified and is recorded in  the
                kernel  socket  structure.  (See the next paragraph for an exception to that rule
                for Linux.)  Specifying a relative path - e.g., ./file - in place of  the  file's
                absolute  path  -  e.g.,  /tmp/file  -  won't  work  because  lsof must match the
                characters you specify with what it  finds  in  the  kernel  UNIX  domain  socket
                structures.

                If  a name is a Linux UNIX domain socket name, in one case lsof is able to search
                for it by its device and inode number, allowing name to be a relative path.   The
                case requires that the absolute path -- i.e., one beginning with a slash ('/') be
                used by the process  that  created  the  socket,  and  hence  be  stored  in  the
                /proc/net/unix  file;  and it requires that lsof be able to obtain the device and
                node numbers of both the absolute path in /proc/net/unix and name via  successful
                stat(2) system calls.  When those conditions are met, lsof will be able to search
                for the UNIX domain socket when some path to it is is specified in  name.   Thus,
                for  example,  if  the path is /dev/log, and an lsof search is initiated when the
                working directory is /dev, then name could be ./log.

                If a name is none of the above, lsof will list any open files  whose  device  and
                inode match that of the specified path name.

                If  you  have also specified the -b option, the only names you may safely specify
                are file systems for which your mount table supplies  alternate  device  numbers.
                See  the  AVOIDING  KERNEL  BLOCKS and ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS sections for more
                information.

                Multiple file names are joined in a single ORed set before participating  in  AND
                option selection.

AFS

       Lsof supports the recognition of AFS files for these dialects (and AFS versions):

            AIX 4.1.4 (AFS 3.4a)
            HP-UX 9.0.5 (AFS 3.4a)
            Linux 1.2.13 (AFS 3.3)
            Solaris 2.[56] (AFS 3.4a)

       It  may  recognize  AFS files on other versions of these dialects, but has not been tested
       there.  Depending on how AFS is  implemented,  lsof  may  recognize  AFS  files  in  other
       dialects, or may have difficulties recognizing AFS files in the supported dialects.

       Lsof  may have trouble identifying all aspects of AFS files in supported dialects when AFS
       kernel support is implemented via dynamic modules whose addresses do  not  appear  in  the
       kernel's  variable name list.  In that case, lsof may have to guess at the identity of AFS
       files, and might not be able to obtain volume information from the kernel that  is  needed
       for  calculating AFS volume node numbers.  When lsof can't compute volume node numbers, it
       reports blank in the NODE column.

       The -A A option is available in some dialect implementations of lsof  for  specifying  the
       name  list  file  where dynamic module kernel addresses may be found.  When this option is
       available, it will be listed in the lsof help output, presented in response to the  -h  or
       -?

       See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information about dynamic
       modules, their symbols, and how they affect lsof options.

       Because AFS path lookups don't seem to participate in the kernel's name cache  operations,
       lsof can't identify path name components for AFS files.

SECURITY

       Lsof  has three features that may cause security concerns.  First, its default compilation
       mode allows anyone to list all open files with  it.   Second,  by  default  it  creates  a
       user-readable  and  user-writable device cache file in the home directory of the real user
       ID that executes lsof.  (The list-all-open-files and device cache features may be disabled
       when  lsof  is compiled.)  Third, its -k and -m options name alternate kernel name list or
       memory files.

       Restricting the listing of all open files is controlled by  the  compile-time  HASSECURITY
       and HASNOSOCKSECURITY options.  When HASSECURITY is defined, lsof will allow only the root
       user to list all open files.  The non-root user may list only open files of processes with
       the  same  user  IDentification number as the real user ID number of the lsof process (the
       one that its user logged on with).

       However, if HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY are  both  defined,  anyone  may  list  open
       socket files, provided they are selected with the -i option.

       When HASSECURITY is not defined, anyone may list all open files.

       Help  output,  presented  in  response  to  the  -h or -?  option, gives the status of the
       HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY definitions.

       See the Security section of the 00README file of the lsof distribution for information  on
       building lsof with the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY options enabled.

       Creation  and  use of a user-readable and user-writable device cache file is controlled by
       the compile-time HASDCACHE option.  See the DEVICE CACHE FILE  section  and  the  sections
       that  follow  it for details on how its path is formed.  For security considerations it is
       important to note that in the default lsof distribution, if the real user ID  under  which
       lsof is executed is root, the device cache file will be written in root's home directory -
       e.g., / or /root.  When HASDCACHE is not defined, lsof does not write or attempt to read a
       device cache file.

       When  HASDCACHE is defined, the lsof help output, presented in response to the -h, -D?, or
       -?  options, will provide device cache file handling information.  When HASDCACHE  is  not
       defined, the -h or -?  output will have no -D option description.

       Before  you  decide  to  disable  the device cache file feature - enabling it improves the
       performance of lsof by reducing the startup overhead of examining all the  nodes  in  /dev
       (or  /devices)  -  read the discussion of it in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution
       and the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

       WHEN IN DOUBT, YOU CAN TEMPORARILY DISABLE THE USE OF THE DEVICE CACHE FILE WITH  THE  -Di
       OPTION.

       When  lsof  user  declares  alternate  kernel name list or memory files with the -k and -m
       options, lsof checks the user's authority to read them with access(2).  This  is  intended
       to  prevent  whatever  special  power lsof's modes might confer on it from letting it read
       files not normally accessible via the authority of the real user ID.

OUTPUT

       This section describes the information lsof lists for each open file.  See the OUTPUT  FOR
       OTHER  PROGRAMS  section  for  additional  information  on output that can be processed by
       another program.

       Lsof only outputs printable (declared so by isprint(3)) 8 bit  characters.   Non-printable
       characters  are  printed  in  one  of  three  forms:  the C ``\[bfrnt]'' form; the control
       character `^' form (e.g., ``^@''); or hexadecimal leading ``\x''  form  (e.g.,  ``\xab'').
       Space is non-printable in the COMMAND column (``\x20'') and printable elsewhere.

       For  some  dialects  - if HASSETLOCALE is defined in the dialect's machine.h header file -
       lsof will print the extended 8 bit characters of a language locale.  The lsof process must
       be  supplied  a language locale environment variable (e.g., LANG) whose value represents a
       known language locale in  which  the  extended  characters  are  considered  printable  by
       isprint(3).   Otherwise  lsof  considers  the extended characters non-printable and prints
       them according to its rules for non-printable  characters,  stated  above.   Consult  your
       dialect's  setlocale(3)  man page for the names of other environment variables that may be
       used in place of LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, etc.

       Lsof's language locale support for a dialect also covers wide characters - e.g.,  UTF-8  -
       when  HASSETLOCALE and HASWIDECHAR are defined in the dialect's machine.h header file, and
       when a suitable language locale has been defined in the appropriate  environment  variable
       for the lsof process.  Wide characters are printable under those conditions if iswprint(3)
       reports them to be.  If HASSETLOCALE, HASWIDECHAR and a suitable  language  locale  aren't
       defined,  or  if iswprint(3) reports wide characters that aren't printable, lsof considers
       the wide characters non-printable and prints each of their 8 bits according to  its  rules
       for non-printable characters, stated above.

       Consult  the  answers  to the "Language locale support" questions in the lsof FAQ (The FAQ
       section gives its location.) for more information.

       Lsof dynamically sizes the output columns each time it runs, guaranteeing that each column
       is  a minimum size.  It also guarantees that each column is separated from its predecessor
       by at least one space.

       COMMAND    contains the first nine characters of the name of the UNIX  command  associated
                  with  the  process.  If a non-zero w value is specified to the +c w option, the
                  column contains the first  w  characters  of  the  name  of  the  UNIX  command
                  associated  with  the process up to the limit of characters supplied to lsof by
                  the UNIX dialect.  (See the description of the +c w command or the lsof FAQ for
                  more information.  The FAQ section gives its location.)

                  If  w  is  less  than  the  length of the column title, ``COMMAND'', it will be
                  raised to that length.

                  If a zero w value is specified to the +c w option, the column contains all  the
                  characters of the name of the UNIX command associated with the process.

                  All  command  name  characters  maintained  by the kernel in its structures are
                  displayed in field output when the command name descriptor (`c') is  specified.
                  See  the  OUTPUT  FOR OTHER COMMANDS section for information on selecting field
                  output and the associated command name descriptor.

       PID        is the Process IDentification number of the process.

       TID        is the task (thread) IDentification  number,  if  task  (thread)  reporting  is
                  supported  by the dialect and a task (thread) is being listed.  (If help output
                  - i.e., the output of the -h or -?  options -  shows  this  option,  then  task
                  (thread) reporting is supported by the dialect.)

                  A blank TID column in Linux indicates a process - i.e., a non-task.

       TASKCMD    is the task command name.  Generally this will be the same as the process named
                  in the COMMAND column, but some task implementations  (e.g.,  Linux)  permit  a
                  task to change its command name.

                  The  TASKCMD column width is subject to the same size limitation as the COMMAND
                  column.

       ZONE       is the Solaris 10 and higher zone name.  This column must be selected with  the
                  -z option.

       SECURITY-CONTEXT
                  is  the  SELinux  security  context.   This column must be selected with the -Z
                  option.  Note that the -Z option is inhibited when SELinux is disabled  in  the
                  running Linux kernel.

       PPID       is  the  Parent  Process  IDentification  number  of  the  process.  It is only
                  displayed when the -R option has been specified.

       PGID       is the process group IDentification number associated with the process.  It  is
                  only displayed when the -g option has been specified.

       USER       is  the  user  ID number or login name of the user to whom the process belongs,
                  usually the same as reported by ps(1).  However, on Linux USER is the  user  ID
                  number  or  login that owns the directory in /proc where lsof finds information
                  about the process.  Usually that is the same value reported by ps(1),  but  may
                  differ  when the process has changed its effective user ID.  (See the -l option
                  description for information  on  when  a  user  ID  number  or  login  name  is
                  displayed.)

       FD         is the File Descriptor number of the file or:

                       cwd  current working directory;
                       Lnn  library references (AIX);
                       err  FD information error (see NAME column);
                       jld  jail directory (FreeBSD);
                       ltx  shared library text (code and data);
                       Mxx  hex memory-mapped type number xx.
                       m86  DOS Merge mapped file;
                       mem  memory-mapped file;
                       mmap memory-mapped device;
                       pd   parent directory;
                       rtd  root directory;
                       tr   kernel trace file (OpenBSD);
                       txt  program text (code and data);
                       v86  VP/ix mapped file;

                  FD  is followed by one of these characters, describing the mode under which the
                  file is open:

                       r for read access;
                       w for write access;
                       u for read and write access;
                       space if mode unknown and no lock
                            character follows;
                       `-' if mode unknown and lock
                            character follows.

                  The mode character is followed by one of these lock characters, describing  the
                  type of lock applied to the file:

                       N for a Solaris NFS lock of unknown type;
                       r for read lock on part of the file;
                       R for a read lock on the entire file;
                       w for a write lock on part of the file;
                       W for a write lock on the entire file;
                       u for a read and write lock of any length;
                       U for a lock of unknown type;
                       x for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on part      of the file;
                       X for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on the entire file;
                       space if there is no lock.

                  See the LOCKS section for more information on the lock information character.

                  The   FD   column   contents   constitutes   a  single  field  for  parsing  in
                  post-processing scripts.

       TYPE       is the type of the node associated with the file  -  e.g.,  GDIR,  GREG,  VDIR,
                  VREG, etc.

                  or ``IPv4'' for an IPv4 socket;

                  or ``IPv6'' for an open IPv6 network file - even if its address is IPv4, mapped
                  in an IPv6 address;

                  or ``ax25'' for a Linux AX.25 socket;

                  or ``inet'' for an Internet domain socket;

                  or ``lla'' for a HP-UX link level access file;

                  or ``rte'' for an AF_ROUTE socket;

                  or ``sock'' for a socket of unknown domain;

                  or ``unix'' for a UNIX domain socket;

                  or ``x.25'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                  or ``BLK'' for a block special file;

                  or ``CHR'' for a character special file;

                  or ``DEL'' for a Linux map file that has been deleted;

                  or ``DIR'' for a directory;

                  or ``DOOR'' for a VDOOR file;

                  or ``FIFO'' for a FIFO special file;

                  or ``KQUEUE'' for a BSD style kernel event queue file;

                  or ``LINK'' for a symbolic link file;

                  or ``MPB'' for a multiplexed block file;

                  or ``MPC'' for a multiplexed character file;

                  or ``NOFD'' for a Linux /proc/<PID>/fd directory that can't be  opened  --  the
                  directory path appears in the NAME column, followed by an error message;

                  or ``PAS'' for a /proc/as file;

                  or ``PAXV'' for a /proc/auxv file;

                  or ``PCRE'' for a /proc/cred file;

                  or ``PCTL'' for a /proc control file;

                  or ``PCUR'' for the current /proc process;

                  or ``PCWD'' for a /proc current working directory;

                  or ``PDIR'' for a /proc directory;

                  or ``PETY'' for a /proc executable type (etype);

                  or ``PFD'' for a /proc file descriptor;

                  or ``PFDR'' for a /proc file descriptor directory;

                  or ``PFIL'' for an executable /proc file;

                  or ``PFPR'' for a /proc FP register set;

                  or ``PGD'' for a /proc/pagedata file;

                  or ``PGID'' for a /proc group notifier file;

                  or ``PIPE'' for pipes;

                  or ``PLC'' for a /proc/lwpctl file;

                  or ``PLDR'' for a /proc/lpw directory;

                  or ``PLDT'' for a /proc/ldt file;

                  or ``PLPI'' for a /proc/lpsinfo file;

                  or ``PLST'' for a /proc/lstatus file;

                  or ``PLU'' for a /proc/lusage file;

                  or ``PLWG'' for a /proc/gwindows file;

                  or ``PLWI'' for a /proc/lwpsinfo file;

                  or ``PLWS'' for a /proc/lwpstatus file;

                  or ``PLWU'' for a /proc/lwpusage file;

                  or ``PLWX'' for a /proc/xregs file;

                  or ``PMAP'' for a /proc map file (map);

                  or ``PMEM'' for a /proc memory image file;

                  or ``PNTF'' for a /proc process notifier file;

                  or ``POBJ'' for a /proc/object file;

                  or ``PODR'' for a /proc/object directory;

                  or ``POLP'' for an old format /proc light weight process file;

                  or ``POPF'' for an old format /proc PID file;

                  or ``POPG'' for an old format /proc page data file;

                  or ``PORT'' for a SYSV named pipe;

                  or ``PREG'' for a /proc register file;

                  or ``PRMP'' for a /proc/rmap file;

                  or ``PRTD'' for a /proc root directory;

                  or ``PSGA'' for a /proc/sigact file;

                  or ``PSIN'' for a /proc/psinfo file;

                  or ``PSTA'' for a /proc status file;

                  or ``PSXSEM'' for a POSIX semaphore file;

                  or ``PSXSHM'' for a POSIX shared memory file;

                  or ``PTS'' for a /dev/pts file;

                  or ``PUSG'' for a /proc/usage file;

                  or ``PW'' for a /proc/watch file;

                  or ``PXMP'' for a /proc/xmap file;

                  or ``REG'' for a regular file;

                  or ``SMT'' for a shared memory transport file;

                  or ``STSO'' for a stream socket;

                  or ``UNNM'' for an unnamed type file;

                  or ``XNAM'' for an OpenServer Xenix special file of unknown type;

                  or ``XSEM'' for an OpenServer Xenix semaphore file;

                  or ``XSD'' for an OpenServer Xenix shared data file;

                  or the four type number octets if the corresponding name isn't known.

       FILE-ADDR  contains the kernel file structure address when f has been specified to +f;

       FCT        contains  the  file  reference  count from the kernel file structure when c has
                  been specified to +f;

       FILE-FLAG  when g or G has been specified to +f, this field contains the contents  of  the
                  f_flag[s] member of the kernel file structure and the kernel's per-process open
                  file flags (if available); `G' causes them to be displayed in hexadecimal; `g',
                  as  short-hand  names;  two  lists  may  be displayed with entries separated by
                  commas, the lists separated by a semicolon (`;'); the first  list  may  contain
                  short-hand names for f_flag[s] values from the following table:

                       AIO       asynchronous I/O (e.g., FAIO)
                       AP        append
                       ASYN      asynchronous I/O (e.g., FASYNC)
                       BAS       block, test, and set in use
                       BKIU      block if in use
                       BL        use block offsets
                       BSK       block seek
                       CA        copy avoid
                       CIO       concurrent I/O
                       CLON      clone
                       CLRD      CL read
                       CR        create
                       DF        defer
                       DFI       defer IND
                       DFLU      data flush
                       DIR       direct
                       DLY       delay
                       DOCL      do clone
                       DSYN      data-only integrity
                       DTY       must be a directory
                       EVO       event only
                       EX        open for exec
                       EXCL      exclusive open
                       FSYN      synchronous writes
                       GCDF      defer during unp_gc() (AIX)
                       GCMK      mark during unp_gc() (AIX)
                       GTTY      accessed via /dev/tty
                       HUP       HUP in progress
                       KERN      kernel
                       KIOC      kernel-issued ioctl
                       LCK       has lock
                       LG        large file
                       MBLK      stream message block
                       MK        mark
                       MNT       mount
                       MSYN      multiplex synchronization
                       NATM      don't update atime
                       NB        non-blocking I/O
                       NBDR      no BDRM check
                       NBIO      SYSV non-blocking I/O
                       NBF       n-buffering in effect
                       NC        no cache
                       ND        no delay
                       NDSY      no data synchronization
                       NET       network
                       NFLK      don't follow links
                       NMFS      NM file system
                       NOTO      disable background stop
                       NSH       no share
                       NTTY      no controlling TTY
                       OLRM      OLR mirror
                       PAIO      POSIX asynchronous I/O
                       PP        POSIX pipe
                       R         read
                       RC        file and record locking cache
                       REV       revoked
                       RSH       shared read
                       RSYN      read synchronization
                       RW        read and write access
                       SL        shared lock
                       SNAP      cooked snapshot
                       SOCK      socket
                       SQSH      Sequent shared set on open
                       SQSV      Sequent SVM set on open
                       SQR       Sequent set repair on open
                       SQS1      Sequent full shared open
                       SQS2      Sequent partial shared open
                       STPI      stop I/O
                       SWR       synchronous read
                       SYN       file integrity while writing
                       TCPM      avoid TCP collision
                       TR        truncate
                       W         write
                       WKUP      parallel I/O synchronization
                       WTG       parallel I/O synchronization
                       VH        vhangup pending
                       VTXT      virtual text
                       XL        exclusive lock

                  this  list  of  names  was  derived  from  F* #define's in dialect header files
                  <fcntl.h>, <linux</fs.h>, <sys/fcntl.c>,  <sys/fcntlcom.h>,  and  <sys/file.h>;
                  see  the  lsof.h  header file for a list showing the correspondence between the
                  above short-hand names and the header file definitions;

                  the second list (after the semicolon) may contain short-hand names  for  kernel
                  per-process open file flags from this table:

                       ALLC      allocated
                       BR        the file has been read
                       BHUP      activity stopped by SIGHUP
                       BW        the file has been written
                       CLSG      closing
                       CX        close-on-exec (see fcntl(F_SETFD))
                       LCK       lock was applied
                       MP        memory-mapped
                       OPIP      open pending - in progress
                       RSVW      reserved wait
                       SHMT      UF_FSHMAT set (AIX)
                       USE       in use (multi-threaded)

       NODE-ID    (or  INODE-ADDR  for  some  dialects) contains a unique identifier for the file
                  node (usually the kernel vnode  or  inode  address,  but  also  occasionally  a
                  concatenation of device and node number) when n has been specified to +f;

       DEVICE     contains  the  device  numbers,  separated  by commas, for a character special,
                  block special, regular, directory or NFS file;

                  or ``memory'' for a memory file system node under Tru64 UNIX;

                  or the address of the private data area of a Solaris socket stream;

                  or a kernel reference address that identifies the file  (The  kernel  reference
                  address may be used for FIFO's, for example.);

                  or the base address or device name of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

                  Usually  only  the  lower  thirty  two  bits of Tru64 UNIX kernel addresses are
                  displayed.

       SIZE, SIZE/OFF, or OFFSET
                  is the size of the file or the file offset in bytes.  A value is  displayed  in
                  this  column  only  if it is available.  Lsof displays whatever value - size or
                  offset - is appropriate for the type of the file and the version of lsof.

                  On some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain  accurate  or  consistent  file  offset
                  information  from  its kernel data sources, sometimes just for particular kinds
                  of files (e.g., socket files.)  In other cases, files don't have true  sizes  -
                  e.g.,  sockets,  FIFOs,  pipes  -  so lsof displays for their sizes the content
                  amounts it finds in their kernel buffer descriptors (e.g., socket  buffer  size
                  counts  or  TCP/IP  window sizes.)  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives
                  its location.)  for more information.

                  The file size is displayed in decimal; the  offset  is  normally  displayed  in
                  decimal  with  a leading ``0t'' if it contains 8 digits or less; in hexadecimal
                  with a leading ``0x'' if it is longer than 8 digits.  (Consult the -o o  option
                  description for information on when 8 might default to some other value.)

                  Thus  the  leading  ``0t''  and  ``0x''  identify an offset when the column may
                  contain both a size and an offset (i.e., its title is SIZE/OFF).

                  If the -o option is specified, lsof always displays the file offset (or nothing
                  if  no  offset  is  available) and labels the column OFFSET.  The offset always
                  begins with ``0t'' or ``0x'' as described above.

                  The lsof user can control the switch from  ``0t''  to  ``0x''  with  the  -o  o
                  option.  Consult its description for more information.

                  If  the  -s option is specified, lsof always displays the file size (or nothing
                  if no size is available) and labels the column SIZE.  The -o and -s options are
                  mutually exclusive; they can't both be specified.

                  For  files that don't have a fixed size - e.g., don't reside on a disk device -
                  lsof will display appropriate information about the current size or position of
                  the file if it is available in the kernel structures that define the file.

       NLINK      contains the file link count when +L has been specified;

       NODE       is the node number of a local file;

                  or the inode number of an NFS file in the server host;

                  or the Internet protocol type - e.g, ``TCP'';

                  or ``STR'' for a stream;

                  or ``CCITT'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                  or the IRQ or inode number of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

       NAME       is the name of the mount point and file system on which the file resides;

                  or  the  name of a file specified in the names option (after any symbolic links
                  have been resolved);

                  or the name of a character special or block special device;

                  or the local and remote Internet addresses of a network file;  the  local  host
                  name  or  IP  number  is  followed  by a colon (':'), the port, ``->'', and the
                  two-part remote address; IP addresses may be  reported  as  numbers  or  names,
                  depending  on  the  +|-M,  -n, and -P options; colon-separated IPv6 numbers are
                  enclosed in square brackets; IPv4 INADDR_ANY and  IPv6  IN6_IS_ADDR_UNSPECIFIED
                  addresses,  and  zero  port numbers are represented by an asterisk ('*'); a UDP
                  destination address may be followed by the amount of  time  elapsed  since  the
                  last  packet was sent to the destination; TCP, UDP and UDPLITE remote addresses
                  may  be  followed  by  TCP/TPI  information  in  parentheses  -  state   (e.g.,
                  ``(ESTABLISHED)'',  ``(Unbound)''),  queue  sizes,  and  window  sizes (not all
                  dialects) - in a fashion similar to what netstat(1) reports; see the -T  option
                  description  or  the  description  of  the  TCP/TPI  field  in OUTPUT FOR OTHER
                  PROGRAMS for more information on state, queue size, and window size;

                  or the address or name of a UNIX domain socket,  possibly  including  a  stream
                  clone  device  name, a file system object's path name, local and foreign kernel
                  addresses, socket pair information, and a bound vnode address;

                  or the local and remote mount point names of an NFS file;

                  or ``STR'', followed by the stream name;

                  or a stream character device name, followed by ``->'' and the stream name or  a
                  list of stream module names, separated by ``->'';

                  or  ``STR:''  followed  by  the  SCO OpenServer stream device and module names,
                  separated by ``->'';

                  or system directory name, `` -- '', and as many components of the path name  as
                  lsof  can find in the kernel's name cache for selected dialects (See the KERNEL
                  NAME CACHE section for more information.);

                  or ``PIPE->'', followed by a Solaris kernel pipe destination address;

                  or ``COMMON:'', followed by the vnode  device  information  structure's  device
                  name, for a Solaris common vnode;

                  or  the  address  family,  followed  by  a  slash  (`/'),  followed by fourteen
                  comma-separated bytes of a non-Internet raw socket address;

                  or the HP-UX x.25 local address, followed by the virtual connection number  (if
                  any), followed by the remote address (if any);

                  or  ``(dead)''  for  disassociated  Tru64 UNIX files - typically terminal files
                  that have been flagged with the TIOCNOTTY ioctl and closed by daemons;

                  or ``rd=<offset>'' and ``wr=<offset>'' for the values of  the  read  and  write
                  offsets of a FIFO;

                  or  ``clone  n:/dev/event''  for  SCO  OpenServer file clones of the /dev/event
                  device, where n is the minor device number of the file;

                  or ``(socketpair: n)'' for a Solaris 2.6, 8,  9   or  10  UNIX  domain  socket,
                  created by the socketpair(3N) network function;

                  or  ``no  PCB''  for  socket files that do not have a protocol block associated
                  with them, optionally followed by ``, CANTSENDMORE'' if sending on  the  socket
                  has  been  disabled,  or  ``, CANTRCVMORE'' if receiving on the socket has been
                  disabled (e.g., by the shutdown(2) function);

                  or the local and remote addresses of a  Linux  IPX  socket  file  in  the  form
                  <net>:[<node>:]<port>,  followed  in  parentheses  by  the transmit and receive
                  queue sizes, and the connection state;

                  or ``dgram'' or ``stream'' for the type UnixWare 7.1.1 and above in-kernel UNIX
                  domain  sockets,  followed  by  a  colon  (':')  and  the  local path name when
                  available, followed by ``->'' and the remote path name or kernel socket address
                  in hexadecimal when available;

                  or  the  association  value,  association index, endpoint value, local address,
                  local port, remote address and remote port for Linux SCTP sockets;

                  or ``protocol: '' followed by the Linux socket's protocol attribute.

       For dialects that support a ``namefs'' file system, allowing one file to  be  attached  to
       another  with  fattach(3C),  lsof will add ``(FA:<address1><direction><address2>)'' to the
       NAME column.  <address1> and <address2> are hexadecimal vnode addresses.  <direction> will
       be ``<-'' if <address2> has been fattach'ed to this vnode whose address is <address1>; and
       ``->'' if <address1>, the vnode address of this vnode, has been fattach'ed to  <address2>.
       <address1> may be omitted if it already appears in the DEVICE column.

       Lsof may add two parenthetical notes to the NAME column for open Solaris 10 files: ``(?)''
       if lsof considers the path name of questionable accuracy;  and  ``(deleted)''  if  the  -X
       option  has  been  specified  and lsof detects the open file's path name has been deleted.
       Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information on  these
       NAME column additions.

LOCKS

       Lsof  can't  adequately  report  the  wide  variety of UNIX dialect file locks in a single
       character.  What it reports in a single character is a compromise between the  information
       it finds in the kernel and the limitations of the reporting format.

       Moreover,  when  a process holds several byte level locks on a file, lsof only reports the
       status of the first lock it encounters.  If it  is  a  byte  level  lock,  then  the  lock
       character  will be reported in lower case - i.e., `r', `w', or `x' - rather than the upper
       case equivalent reported for a full file lock.

       Generally lsof can only report on locks held by local processes on local  files.   When  a
       local  process  sets a lock on a remotely mounted (e.g., NFS) file, the remote server host
       usually records the lock state.  One exception is Solaris - at some patch levels  of  2.3,
       and  in  all versions above 2.4, the Solaris kernel records information on remote locks in
       local structures.

       Lsof has trouble reporting locks for some UNIX dialects.  Consult the BUGS section of this
       manual page or the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information.

OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS

       When  the  -F option is specified, lsof produces output that is suitable for processing by
       another program - e.g, an awk or Perl script, or a C program.

       Each unit of information is output in a field that is identified with a leading  character
       and terminated by a NL (012) (or a NUL (000) if the 0 (zero) field identifier character is
       specified.)  The data of the field follows  immediately  after  the  field  identification
       character and extends to the field terminator.

       It  is  possible  to think of field output as process and file sets.  A process set begins
       with a field whose identifier is `p' (for process IDentifier (PID)).  It  extends  to  the
       beginning  of  the  next  PID field or the beginning of the first file set of the process,
       whichever comes first.  Included in the process set are fields that identify the  command,
       the  process  group IDentification (PGID) number, the task (thread) ID (TID), and the user
       ID (UID) number or login name.

       A file set begins with a field whose identifier is  `f'  (for  file  descriptor).   It  is
       followed  by  lines  that describe the file's access mode, lock state, type, device, size,
       offset, inode, protocol, name and stream module names.  It extends to the beginning of the
       next file or process set, whichever comes first.

       When  the  NUL (000) field terminator has been selected with the 0 (zero) field identifier
       character, lsof ends each process and file set with a NL (012) character.

       Lsof always produces one field, the PID (`p') field.  All other  fields  may  be  declared
       optionally  in  the  field  identifier  character list that follows the -F option.  When a
       field selection character identifies an item lsof does not normally  list  -  e.g.,  PPID,
       selected with -R - specification of the field character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also selects the
       listing of the item.

       It is entirely possible to select a set of fields that cannot easily be parsed - e.g.,  if
       the field descriptor field is not selected, it may be difficult to identify file sets.  To
       help you avoid this difficulty, lsof supports the -F option; it selects the output of  all
       fields  with NL terminators (the -F0 option pair selects the output of all fields with NUL
       terminators).  For compatibility reasons neither -F nor -F0 select the raw device field.

       These are the fields that lsof will produce.  The single character  listed  first  is  the
       field identifier.

            a    file access mode
            c    process command name (all characters from proc or
                 user structure)
            C    file structure share count
            d    file's device character code
            D    file's major/minor device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
            f    file descriptor (always selected)
            F    file structure address (0x<hexadecimal>)
            G    file flaGs (0x<hexadecimal>; names if +fg follows)
            g    process group ID
            i    file's inode number
            K    tasK ID
            k    link count
            l    file's lock status
            L    process login name
            m    marker between repeated output
            M    the task comMand name
            n    file name, comment, Internet address
            N    node identifier (ox<hexadecimal>
            o    file's offset (decimal)
            p    process ID (always selected)
            P    protocol name
            r    raw device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
            R    parent process ID
            s    file's size (decimal)
            S    file's stream identification
            t    file's type
            T    TCP/TPI information, identified by prefixes (the
                 `=' is part of the prefix):
                     QR=<read queue size>
                     QS=<send queue size>
                     SO=<socket options and values> (not all dialects)
                     SS=<socket states> (not all dialects)
                     ST=<connection state>
                     TF=<TCP flags and values> (not all dialects)
                     WR=<window read size>  (not all dialects)
                     WW=<window write size>  (not all dialects)
                 (TCP/TPI information isn't reported for all supported
                   UNIX dialects. The -h or -? help output for the
                   -T option will show what TCP/TPI reporting can be
                   requested.)
            u    process user ID
            z    Solaris 10 and higher zone name
            Z    SELinux security context (inhibited when SELinux is disabled)
            0    use NUL field terminator character in place of NL
            1-9  dialect-specific field identifiers (The output
                 of -F? identifies the information to be found
                 in dialect-specific fields.)

       You  can  get  on-line  help  information  on  these  characters and their descriptions by
       specifying the -F?  option pair.  (Escape the  `?'  character  as  your  shell  requires.)
       Additional information on field content can be found in the OUTPUT section.

       As  an  example,  ``-F  pcfn''  will select the process ID (`p'), command name (`c'), file
       descriptor (`f') and file name (`n') fields with an NL field  terminator  character;  ``-F
       pcfn0'' selects the same output with a NUL (000) field terminator character.

       Lsof  doesn't  produce  all  fields  for  every  process  or file set, only those that are
       available.   Some  fields  are  mutually  exclusive:  file  device  characters  and   file
       major/minor  device  numbers;  file  inode  number and protocol name; file name and stream
       identification; file size and offset.  One or the other member of these mutually exclusive
       sets will appear in field output, but not both.

       Normally  lsof  ends  each field with a NL (012) character.  The 0 (zero) field identifier
       character may be specified to change the field terminator character to a NUL (000).  A NUL
       terminator  may  be  easier to process with xargs (1), for example, or with programs whose
       quoting mechanisms may not easily cope with the range of characters in the  field  output.
       When  the  NUL  field  terminator is in use, lsof ends each process and file set with a NL
       (012).

       Three aids to producing programs that can process lsof field output are  included  in  the
       lsof distribution.  The first is a C header file, lsof_fields.h, that contains symbols for
       the field identification characters, indexes for storing them in a table, and  explanation
       strings that may be compiled into programs.  Lsof uses this header file.

       The  second aid is a set of sample scripts that process field output, written in awk, Perl
       4, and Perl 5.  They're located in the scripts subdirectory of the lsof distribution.

       The third aid is the C library used for the lsof test suite.  The test suite is written in
       C  and  uses  field  output to validate the correct operation of lsof.  The library can be
       found in the tests/LTlib.c file of the lsof distribution.  The library uses the first aid,
       the lsof_fields.h header file.

BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS

       Lsof  can  be  blocked  by some kernel functions that it uses - lstat(2), readlink(2), and
       stat(2).  These functions are stalled in the kernel, for example,  when  the  hosts  where
       mounted NFS file systems reside become inaccessible.

       Lsof  attempts  to  break these blocks with timers and child processes, but the techniques
       are not wholly reliable.  When lsof does manage to break a block, it will report the break
       with an error message.  The messages may be suppressed with the -t and -w options.

       The  default  timeout  value  may  be  displayed  with the -h or -?  option, and it may be
       changed with the -S [t] option.  The minimum for t is two seconds, but  you  should  avoid
       small  values,  since  slow  system  responsiveness  can  cause  short  timeouts to expire
       unexpectedly and perhaps stop lsof before it can produce any output.

       When lsof has to break a block during its access of mounted file  system  information,  it
       normally continues, although with less information available to display about open files.

       Lsof can also be directed to avoid the protection of timers and child processes when using
       the kernel functions that might block by specifying the -O option.  While this will  allow
       lsof  to  start up with less overhead, it exposes lsof completely to the kernel situations
       that might block it.  Use this option cautiously.

AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS

       You can use the -b option to tell lsof to avoid using kernel functions that  would  block.
       Some cautions apply.

       First, using this option usually requires that your system supply alternate device numbers
       in place of the device numbers that lsof would  normally  obtain  with  the  lstat(2)  and
       stat(2)  kernel  functions.  See the ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS section for more information
       on alternate device numbers.

       Second, you can't specify names for lsof to locate unless they're file system names.  This
       is  because  lsof needs to know the device and inode numbers of files listed with names in
       the lsof options, and the -b option prevents lsof from obtaining  them.   Moreover,  since
       lsof  only  has  device  numbers for the file systems that have alternates, its ability to
       locate files on file systems depends completely on the availability and  accuracy  of  the
       alternates.   If  no alternates are available, or if they're incorrect, lsof won't be able
       to locate files on the named file systems.

       Third, if the names of your file system directories that lsof obtains from  your  system's
       mount  table are symbolic links, lsof won't be able to resolve the links.  This is because
       the -b option causes lsof to avoid the kernel readlink(2)  function  it  uses  to  resolve
       symbolic links.

       Finally,  using  the  -b option causes lsof to issue warning messages when it needs to use
       the kernel functions that the -b option directs it  to  avoid.   You  can  suppress  these
       messages  by  specifying  the -w option, but if you do, you won't see the alternate device
       numbers reported in the warning messages.

ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS

       On some dialects, when lsof has to break a block because it can't get information about  a
       mounted  file  system  via  the  lstat(2)  and  stat(2)  kernel  functions, or because you
       specified the -b option, lsof can obtain some of the information it  needs  -  the  device
       number  and  possibly  the  file  system type - from the system mount table.  When that is
       possible, lsof will report the device number it obtained.  (You can suppress the report by
       specifying the -w option.)

       You  can  assist  this  process  if  your  mount  table  is supported with an /etc/mtab or
       /etc/mnttab file that contains an options field by adding a ``dev=xxxx'' field  for  mount
       points  that do not have one in their options strings.  Note: you must be able to edit the
       file - i.e., some mount tables like recent Solaris /etc/mnttab or Linux  /proc/mounts  are
       read-only and can't be modified.

       You may also be able to supply device numbers using the +m and +m m options, provided they
       are supported by your dialect.  Check the output of lsof's -h or -?  options to see if the
       +m and +m m options are available.

       The  ``xxxx''  portion  of  the field is the hexadecimal value of the file system's device
       number.  (Consult the st_dev field of the output of the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for
       the  appropriate  values for your file systems.)  Here's an example from a Sun Solaris 2.6
       /etc/mnttab for a file system remotely mounted via NFS:

            nfs  ignore,noquota,dev=2a40001

       There's an advantage to having ``dev=xxxx'' entries in your mount table  file,  especially
       for  file  systems that are mounted from remote NFS servers.  When a remote server crashes
       and you want to identify its users by running lsof on one of its  clients,  lsof  probably
       won't  be  able to get output from the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the file system.
       If it can obtain the file system's device number from the mount table, it will be able  to
       display the files open on the crashed NFS server.

       Some  dialects  that do not use an ASCII /etc/mtab or /etc/mnttab file for the mount table
       may still provide an alternative device number  in  their  internal  mount  tables.   This
       includes  AIX,  Apple Darwin, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and Tru64 UNIX.  Lsof knows how to
       obtain the alternative device number for these dialects and uses it when  its  attempt  to
       lstat(2) or stat(2) the file system is blocked.

       If  you're  not  sure your dialect supplies alternate device numbers for file systems from
       its mount table, use this lsof incantation to see  if  it  reports  any  alternate  device
       numbers:

              lsof -b

       Look for standard error file warning messages that begin ``assuming "dev=xxxx" from ...''.

KERNEL NAME CACHE

       Lsof  is able to examine the kernel's name cache or use other kernel facilities (e.g., the
       ADVFS 4.x tag_to_path() function under Tru64 UNIX) on some dialects for most  file  system
       types,  excluding  AFS, and extract recently used path name components from it.  (AFS file
       system path lookups don't use the kernel's name  cache;  some  Solaris  VxFS  file  system
       operations apparently don't use it, either.)

       Lsof  reports  the  complete  paths it finds in the NAME column.  If lsof can't report all
       components in a path, it reports in the NAME column the file system name,  followed  by  a
       space,  two  `-'  characters,  another  space,  and  the  name  components it has located,
       separated by the `/' character.

       When lsof is run in repeat mode - i.e., with the -r option specified - the extent to which
       it can report path name components for the same file may vary from cycle to cycle.  That's
       because other running processes can cause the kernel to remove entries from its name cache
       and replace them with others.

       Lsof's  use  of the kernel name cache to identify the paths of files can lead it to report
       incorrect components under some circumstances.  This can happen when the kernel name cache
       uses  device  and  node  number  as  a  key  (e.g., SCO OpenServer) and a key on a rapidly
       changing file system is reused.  If the UNIX dialect's kernel doesn't purge the name cache
       entry  for a file when it is unlinked, lsof may find a reference to the wrong entry in the
       cache.  The lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  has more information  on  this
       situation.

       Lsof can report path name components for these dialects:

            FreeBSD
            HP-UX
            Linux
            NetBSD
            NEXTSTEP
            OpenBSD
            OPENSTEP
            SCO OpenServer
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare
            Solaris
            Tru64 UNIX

       Lsof can't report path name components for these dialects:

            AIX

       If  you want to know why lsof can't report path name components for some dialects, see the
       lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

DEVICE CACHE FILE

       Examining all members of the /dev (or /devices) node tree with stat(2)  functions  can  be
       time  consuming.   What's  more,  the  information  that lsof needs - device number, inode
       number, and path - rarely changes.

       Consequently, lsof normally maintains an ASCII text file  of  cached  /dev  (or  /devices)
       information  (exception:  the  /proc-based  Linux  lsof where it's not needed.)  The local
       system administrator who builds lsof can control the way the device  cache  file  path  is
       formed, selecting from these options:

            Path from the -D option;
            Path from an environment variable;
            System-wide path;
            Personal path (the default);
            Personal path, modified by an environment variable.

       Consult  the  output  of the -h, -D? , or -?  help options for the current state of device
       cache support.  The help output lists the default read-mode device cache file path that is
       in  effect for the current invocation of lsof.  The -D?  option output lists the read-only
       and write device cache file paths, the names of any applicable environment variables,  and
       the personal device cache path format.

       Lsof  can  detect  that the current device cache file has been accidentally or maliciously
       modified by integrity checks, including the computation and verification of a sixteen  bit
       Cyclic  Redundancy  Check  (CRC)  sum  on the file's contents.  When lsof senses something
       wrong with the file, it issues a warning and attempts to remove the current cache file and
       create a new copy, but only to a path that the process can legitimately write.

       The  path from which a lsof process may attempt to read a device cache file may not be the
       same as the path to which it can legitimately write.  Thus when lsof senses that it  needs
       to  update  the  device cache file, it may choose a different path for writing it from the
       path from which it read an incorrect or outdated version.

       If available, the -Dr option will inhibit the writing of a new device cache  file.   (It's
       always available when specified without a path name argument.)

       When  a new device is added to the system, the device cache file may need to be recreated.
       Since lsof compares the mtime of the device cache file with the mtime  and  ctime  of  the
       /dev (or /devices) directory, it usually detects that a new device has been added; in that
       case lsof issues a warning message and attempts to rebuild the device cache file.

       Whenever lsof writes a device cache file, it sets its ownership to the  real  UID  of  the
       executing  process,  and  its  permission  modes to 0600, this restricting its reading and
       writing to the file's owner.

LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS

       Two permissions of the lsof executable affect its ability to access  device  cache  files.
       The permissions are set by the local system administrator when lsof is installed.

       The  first  and  rarer  permission  is  setuid-root.   It  comes  into effect when lsof is
       executed; its effective UID is then root, while its real  (i.e.,  that  of  the  logged-on
       user)  UID  is not.  The lsof distribution recommends that versions for these dialects run
       setuid-root.

            HP-UX 11.11 and 11.23
            Linux

       The second and more common permission is setgid.  It comes into effect when the  effective
       group IDentification number (GID) of the lsof process is set to one that can access kernel
       memory devices - e.g., ``kmem'', ``sys'', or ``system''.

       An lsof process that has setgid permission usually surrenders the permission after it  has
       accessed the kernel memory devices.  When it does that, lsof can allow more liberal device
       cache path formations.  The lsof distribution recommends that versions for these  dialects
       run setgid and be allowed to surrender setgid permission.

            AIX 5.[12] and 5.3-ML1
            Apple Darwin 7.x Power Macintosh systems
            FreeBSD 4.x, 4.1x, 5.x and [6789].x for x86-based systems
            FreeBSD 5.x, [6789].x and 1[012].8for Alpha, AMD64 and Sparc64
                based systems
            HP-UX 11.00
            NetBSD 1.[456], 2.x and 3.x for Alpha, x86, and SPARC-based
                systems
            NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
            OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[0-9] for x86-based systems
            OPENSTEP 4.x
            SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.6 for x86-based systems
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare 7.1.4 for x86-based systems
            Solaris 2.6, 8, 9 and 10
            Tru64 UNIX 5.1

       (Note: lsof for AIX 5L and above needs setuid-root permission if its -X option is used.)

       Lsof  for  these dialects does not support a device cache, so the permissions given to the
       executable don't apply to the device cache file.

            Linux

DEVICE CACHE FILE PATH FROM THE -D OPTION

       The -D option provides limited means for specifying the device cache  file  path.   Its  ?
       function will report the read-only and write device cache file paths that lsof will use.

       When  the  -D  b,  r,  and u functions are available, you can use them to request that the
       cache file be built in a specific location (b[path]); read but not rebuilt  (r[path]);  or
       read  and  rebuilt  (u[path]).   The  b,  r,  and  u  functions  are restricted under some
       conditions.  They are restricted when the lsof process is setuid-root.  The path specified
       with the r function is always read-only, even when it is available.

       The  b,  r, and u functions are also restricted when the lsof process runs setgid and lsof
       doesn't surrender the setgid permission.  (See the LSOF  PERMISSIONS  THAT  AFFECT  DEVICE
       CACHE  FILE  ACCESS  section  for  a list of implementations that normally don't surrender
       their setgid permission.)

       A further -D function, i (for ignore), is always available.

       When available, the b function tells lsof to read device information from the kernel  with
       the stat(2) function and build a device cache file at the indicated path.

       When  available,  the  r function tells lsof to read the device cache file, but not update
       it.  When a path argument accompanies -Dr, it names the device cache  file  path.   The  r
       function  is  always available when it is specified without a path name argument.  If lsof
       is not running setuid-root and surrenders its setgid permission, a path name argument  may
       accompany the r function.

       When  available,  the  u  function  tells lsof to attempt to read and use the device cache
       file.  If it can't read the file, or if it finds the contents of  the  file  incorrect  or
       outdated,  it  will  read  information  from  the  kernel, and attempt to write an updated
       version of the device cache file, but only to a path it considers legitimate for the  lsof
       process effective and real UIDs.

DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE

       Lsof's  second  choice  for  the  device  cache  file  is the contents of the LSOFDEVCACHE
       environment variable.  It avoids this choice if the lsof process is  setuid-root,  or  the
       real UID of the process is root.

       A  further  restriction  applies  to  a device cache file path taken from the LSOFDEVCACHE
       environment variable: lsof will not write a device cache file to  the  path  if  the  lsof
       process  doesn't  surrender  its setgid permission.  (See the LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT
       DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS section for information on implementations that  don't  surrender
       their setgid permission.)

       The  local  system  administrator  can  disable  the  use  of the LSOFDEVCACHE environment
       variable or change its name when building lsof.   Consult  the  output  of  -D?   for  the
       environment variable's name.

SYSTEM-WIDE DEVICE CACHE PATH

       The  local  system  administrator  may choose to have a system-wide device cache file when
       building lsof.  That file will generally be constructed by a special system administration
       procedure when the system is booted or when the contents of /dev or /devices) changes.  If
       defined, it is lsof's third device cache file path choice.

       You can tell that a system-wide device cache file is in effect for your local installation
       by examining the lsof help option output - i.e., the output from the -h or -?  option.

       Lsof  will  never  write to the system-wide device cache file path by default.  It must be
       explicitly named with a -D function in a root-owned procedure.  Once  the  file  has  been
       written,  the  procedure  must  change  its  permission  modes  to  0644  (owner-read  and
       owner-write, group-read, and other-read).

PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH (DEFAULT)

       The default device cache file path of the lsof distribution is one recorded  in  the  home
       directory  of  the  real  UID that executes lsof.  Added to the home directory is a second
       path component of the form .lsof_hostname.

       This is lsof's fourth device cache file path choice, and is usually  the  default.   If  a
       system-wide  device  cache  file  path was defined when lsof was built, this fourth choice
       will be applied when lsof can't find the system-wide device cache file.  This is the  only
       time lsof uses two paths when reading the device cache file.

       The  hostname  part  of  the  second  component is the base name of the executing host, as
       returned by gethostname(2).  The base name is defined to be the characters  preceding  the
       first  `.'   in the gethostname(2) output, or all the gethostname(2) output if it contains
       no `.'.

       The device cache file belongs to the user ID and is readable and writable by the  user  ID
       alone  -  i.e.,  its  modes  are  0600.   Each  distinct real user ID on a given host that
       executes lsof  has  a  distinct  device  cache  file.   The  hostname  part  of  the  path
       distinguishes  device cache files in an NFS-mounted home directory into which device cache
       files are written from several different hosts.

       The personal device cache file path formed by this method represents a device  cache  file
       that  lsof  will  attempt to read, and will attempt to write should it not exist or should
       its contents be incorrect or outdated.

       The -Dr option without a path name argument will inhibit the writing of a new device cache
       file.

       The  -D?   option  will list the format specification for constructing the personal device
       cache file.  The conversions used  in  the  format  specification  are  described  in  the
       00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution.

MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH

       If  this  option  is  defined  by  the  local system administrator when lsof is built, the
       LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable contents may  be  used  to  add  a  component  of  the
       personal device cache file path.

       The  LSOFPERSDCPATH  variable contents are inserted in the path at the place marked by the
       local  system  administrator  with  the  ``%p''  conversion  in   the   HASPERSDC   format
       specification  of  the dialect's machine.h header file.  (It's placed right after the home
       directory in the default lsof distribution.)

       Thus,  for  example,  if  LSOFPERSDCPATH  contains  ``LSOF'',  the   home   directory   is
       ``/Homes/abe'', the host name is ``lsof.itap.purdue.edu'', and the HASPERSDC format is the
       default (``%h/%p.lsof_%L''), the modified personal device cache file path is:

            /Homes/abe/LSOF/.lsof_vic

       The LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable is ignored when the lsof process is setuid-root or
       when the real UID of the process is root.

       Lsof  will  not  write  to  a modified personal device cache file path if the lsof process
       doesn't surrender setgid permission.  (See the LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT  DEVICE  CACHE
       FILE  ACCESS  section  for  a  list of implementations that normally don't surrender their
       setgid permission.)

       If, for example, you want to create a sub-directory of personal device cache file paths by
       using  the  LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable to name it, and lsof doesn't surrender its
       setgid permission, you will have to allow  lsof  to  create  device  cache  files  at  the
       standard personal path and move them to your subdirectory with shell commands.

       The  local  system  administrator  may: disable this option when lsof is built; change the
       name of the environment  variable  from  LSOFPERSDCPATH  to  something  else;  change  the
       HASPERSDC  format  to include the personal path component in another place; or exclude the
       personal path component  entirely.   Consult  the  output  of  the  -D?   option  for  the
       environment variable's name and the HASPERSDC format specification.

DIAGNOSTICS

       Errors are identified with messages on the standard error file.

       Lsof  returns a one (1) if any error was detected, including the failure to locate command
       names, file names, Internet addresses or files, login names, NFS files,  PIDs,  PGIDs,  or
       UIDs  it  was asked to list.  If the -V option is specified, lsof will indicate the search
       items it failed to list.

       It returns a zero (0) if no errors  were  detected  and  if  it  was  able  to  list  some
       information about all the specified search arguments.

       When  lsof  cannot  open access to /dev (or /devices) or one of its subdirectories, or get
       information on a file in them with stat(2), it issues a  warning  message  and  continues.
       That  lsof  will  issue warning messages about inaccessible files in /dev (or /devices) is
       indicated in its help output - requested with the  -h  or  >B  -?   options  -   with  the
       message:

            Inaccessible /dev warnings are enabled.

       The  warning  message  may  be  suppressed  with  the  -w  option.   It may also have been
       suppressed by the system administrator when lsof  was  compiled  by  the  setting  of  the
       WARNDEVACCESS definition.  In this case, the output from the help options will include the
       message:

            Inaccessible /dev warnings are disabled.

       Inaccessible device warning messages usually disappear after lsof has  created  a  working
       device cache file.

EXAMPLES

       For  a more extensive set of examples, documented more fully, see the 00QUICKSTART file of
       the lsof distribution.

       To list all open files, use:

              lsof

       To list all open Internet, x.25 (HP-UX), and UNIX domain files, use:

              lsof -i -U

       To list all open IPv4 network files in use by the process whose PID is 1234, use:

              lsof -i 4 -a -p 1234

       Presuming the UNIX dialect supports IPv6, to list only open IPv6 network files, use:

              lsof -i 6

       To  list  all  files  using  any  protocol  on  ports   513,   514,   or   515   of   host
       wonderland.cc.purdue.edu, use:

              lsof -i @wonderland.cc.purdue.edu:513-515

       To  list  all files using any protocol on any port of mace.cc.purdue.edu (cc.purdue.edu is
       the default domain), use:

              lsof -i @mace

       To list all open files for login name ``abe'', or user ID 1234, or process 456, or process
       123, or process 789, use:

              lsof -p 456,123,789 -u 1234,abe

       To list all open files on device /dev/hd4, use:

              lsof /dev/hd4

       To find the process that has /u/abe/foo open, use:

              lsof /u/abe/foo

       To send a SIGHUP to the processes that have /u/abe/bar open, use:

              kill -HUP `lsof -t /u/abe/bar`

       To  find any open file, including an open UNIX domain socket file, with the name /dev/log,
       use:

              lsof /dev/log

       To find processes with open files on the NFS  file  system  named  /nfs/mount/point  whose
       server  is  inaccessible,  and  presuming  your mount table supplies the device number for
       /nfs/mount/point, use:

              lsof -b /nfs/mount/point

       To do the preceding search with warning messages suppressed, use:

              lsof -bw /nfs/mount/point

       To ignore the device cache file, use:

              lsof -Di

       To obtain PID and command name field output for each process, file descriptor, file device
       number, and file inode number for each file of each process, use:

              lsof -FpcfDi

       To  list  the  files  at descriptors 1 and 3 of every process running the lsof command for
       login ID ``abe'' every 10 seconds, use:

              lsof -c lsof -a -d 1 -d 3 -u abe -r10

       To list the current working directory of processes running a command that is exactly  four
       characters long and has an 'o' or 'O' in character three, use this regular expression form
       of the -c c option:

              lsof -c /^..o.$/i -a -d cwd

       To find an IP version 4 socket file by its associated numeric dot-form address, use:

              lsof -i@128.210.15.17

       To find an IP version 6  socket  file  (when  the  UNIX  dialect  supports  IPv6)  by  its
       associated numeric colon-form address, use:

              lsof -i@[0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7]

       To find an IP version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports IPv6) by an associated
       numeric colon-form address that has a run of zeroes in it - e.g., the loop-back address  -
       use:

              lsof -i@[::1]

       To obtain a repeat mode marker line that contains the current time, use:

              lsof -rm====%T====

       To add spaces to the previous marker line, use:

              lsof -r "m==== %T ===="

BUGS

       Since  lsof  reads  kernel  memory  in  its search for open files, rapid changes in kernel
       memory may produce unpredictable results.

       When a file has multiple record locks, the  lock  status  character  (following  the  file
       descriptor)  is  derived from a test of the first lock structure, not from any combination
       of the individual record locks that might be described by multiple lock structures.

       Lsof can't search for files with restrictive access  permissions  by  name  unless  it  is
       installed with root set-UID permission.  Otherwise it is limited to searching for files to
       which its user or its set-GID group (if any) has access permission.

       The display of the destination address of a raw socket (e.g., for  ping)  depends  on  the
       UNIX  operating  system.   Some dialects store the destination address in the raw socket's
       protocol control block, some do not.

       Lsof can't always represent Solaris device numbers in the same way that ls(1)  does.   For
       example, the major and minor device numbers that the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions report
       for the directory on which CD-ROM files are mounted (typically /cdrom) are not the same as
       the  ones  that  it  reports  for  the device on which CD-ROM files are mounted (typically
       /dev/sr0).  (Lsof reports the directory numbers.)

       The support for /proc file systems is available only for  BSD  and  Tru64  UNIX  dialects,
       Linux,  and  dialects  derived  from  SYSV  R4  - e.g., FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris,
       UnixWare.

       Some /proc file items - device number, inode number, and file size -  are  unavailable  in
       some  dialects.  Searching for files in a /proc file system may require that the full path
       name be specified.

       No text (txt) file descriptors are displayed for Linux processes.  All entries  for  files
       other  than  the  current  working  directory,  the  root  directory,  and  numerical file
       descriptors are labeled mem descriptors.

       Lsof can't search for Tru64 UNIX named pipes by name, because their kernel  implementation
       of lstat(2) returns an improper device number for a named pipe.

       Lsof  can't  report  fully  or  correctly on HP-UX 9.01, 10.20, and 11.00 locks because of
       insufficient access to kernel data or errors in the kernel data.  See the  lsof  FAQ  (The
       FAQ section gives its location.)  for details.

       The  AIX SMT file type is a fabrication.  It's made up for file structures whose type (15)
       isn't defined in the AIX /usr/include/sys/file.h header file.  One way to create such file
       structures is to run X clients with the DISPLAY variable set to ``:0.0''.

       The  +|-f[cfgGn]  option is not supported under /proc-based Linux lsof, because it doesn't
       read kernel structures from kernel memory.

ENVIRONMENT

       Lsof may access these environment variables.

       LANG              defines a language locale.  See setlocale(3)  for  the  names  of  other
                         variables  that  can  be  used in place of LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_TYPE,
                         etc.

       LSOFDEVCACHE      defines the path to a device cache file.  See the DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM
                         AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE section for more information.

       LSOFPERSDCPATH    defines  the  middle  component of a modified personal device cache file
                         path.  See the MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE  CACHE  PATH  section  for  more
                         information.

FAQ

       Frequently-asked  questions  and their answers (an FAQ) are available in the 00FAQ file of
       the lsof distribution.

       That  file  is  also  available   via   anonymous   ftp   from   lsof.itap.purdue.edu   at
       pub/tools/unix/lsofFAQ.  The URL is:

              ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof/FAQ

FILES

       /dev/kmem         kernel virtual memory device

       /dev/mem          physical memory device

       /dev/swap         system paging device

       .lsof_hostname    lsof's  device  cache file (The suffix, hostname, is the first component
                         of the host's name returned by gethostname(2).)

AUTHORS

       Lsof was written by Victor A.Abell <abe@purdue.edu> of  Purdue  University.   Many  others
       have contributed to lsof.  They're listed in the 00CREDITS file of the lsof distribution.

DISTRIBUTION

       The   latest   distribution  of  lsof  is  available  via  anonymous  ftp  from  the  host
       lsof.itap.purdue.edu.  You'll  find  the  lsof  distribution  in  the  pub/tools/unix/lsof
       directory.

       You can also use this URL:

              ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof

       Lsof  is  also mirrored elsewhere.  When you access lsof.itap.purdue.edu and change to its
       pub/tools/unix/lsof directory,  you'll  be  given  a  list  of  some  mirror  sites.   The
       pub/tools/unix/lsof directory also contains a more complete list in its mirrors file.  Use
       mirrors with caution - not all mirrors always have the latest lsof revision.

       Some pre-compiled Lsof executables are available on lsof.itap.purdue.edu, but their use is
       discouraged  - it's better that you build your own from the sources.  If you feel you must
       use a pre-compiled executable, please read the cautions that appear in the README files of
       the pub/tools/unix/lsof/binaries subdirectories and in the 00* files of the distribution.

       More  information on the lsof distribution can be found in its README.lsof_<version> file.
       If you intend to get the lsof distribution and build it, please read README.lsof_<version>
       and the other 00* files of the distribution before sending questions to the author.

SEE ALSO

       Not  all the following manual pages may exist in every UNIX dialect to which lsof has been
       ported.

       access(2), awk(1),  crash(1),  fattach(3C),  ff(1),  fstat(8),  fuser(1),  gethostname(2),
       isprint(3), kill(1), localtime(3), lstat(2), modload(8), mount(8), netstat(1), ofiles(8L),
       perl(1), ps(1), readlink(2), setlocale(3), stat(2), strftime(3), time(2), uname(1).

                                          Revision-4.91                                   LSOF(8)