Provided by: mtree-netbsd_20180822-4_amd64 bug

NAME

     mtree — map a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS

     mtree [-cCdDelLMPruUWx] [-i | -m] [-f spec] [-p path] [-k keywords] [-K keywords]
           [-R keywords] [-E tags] [-I tags] [-N dbdir] [-s seed] [-X exclude-file]

DESCRIPTION

     The mtree utility compares the file hierarchy rooted in the current directory against a
     specification read from the standard input.  Messages are written to the standard output for
     any files whose characteristics do not match the specification, or which are missing from
     either the file hierarchy or the specification.

     The options are as follows:

     -c    Print a specification for the file hierarchy to the standard output.

     -d    Ignore everything except directory type files.

     -C    Print (‘dump’) the specification as provided by -f spec in a format that's easier to
           parse with various tools.  The full path name is always printed as the first field,
           and -k, -K, and -R can be used to control which other keywords are printed, and -E and
           -I can be used to control which files are printed.

     -D    As per -C, except that the path name is always printed as the last field instead of
           the first.

     -E tags
           Add the comma separated tags to the “exclusion” list.  Non-directories with tags which
           are in the exclusion list are not printed with -D.

     -e    Don't complain about files that are in the file hierarchy, but not in the
           specification.

     -f spec
           Read the specification from file, instead of from the standard input.

     -I tags
           Add the comma separated tags to the “inclusion” list.  Non-directories with tags which
           are in the inclusion list are printed with -D.  If no inclusion list is provided, the
           default is to display all files.

     -i    If specified, set the schg and/or sappnd flags.

     -K keywords
           Add the specified (whitespace or comma separated) keywords to the current set of
           keywords.  If ‘all’ is specified, add all of the other keywords.

     -k keywords
           Use the type keyword plus the specified (whitespace or comma separated) keywords
           instead of the current set of keywords.  If ‘all’ is specified, use all of the other
           keywords.  If the type keyword is not desired, suppress it with -R type.

     -l    Do “loose” permissions checks, in which more stringent permissions will match less
           stringent ones. For example, a file marked mode 0444 will pass a check for mode 0644.
           “Loose” checks apply only to read, write and execute permissions -- in particular, if
           other bits like the sticky bit or suid/sgid bits are set either in the specification
           or the file, exact checking will be performed. This flag may not be set at the same
           time as the -u or -U flags.

     -L    Follow all symbolic links in the file hierarchy.

     -m    If the schg and/or sappnd flags are specified, reset these flags. Note that this is
           only possible with securelevel less than 1 (i.e. in single user mode or while the
           system is running in insecure mode). See init(8) for information on security levels.

     -M    Permit merging of specification entries with different types, with the last entry take
           precedence.

     -N dbdir
           Use the user database text file master.passwd and group database text file group from
           dbdir, rather than using the results from the system's getpwnam(3) and getgrnam(3)
           (and related) library calls.

     -p path
           Use the file hierarchy rooted in path, instead of the current directory.

     -P    Don't follow symbolic links in the file hierarchy, instead consider the symbolic link
           itself in any comparisons.  This is the default.

     -r    Remove any files in the file hierarchy that are not described in the specification.

     -R keywords
           Remove the specified (whitespace or comma separated) keywords from the current set of
           keywords.  If ‘all’ is specified, remove all of the other keywords.

     -s seed
           Display a single checksum to the standard error output that represents all of the
           files for which the keyword cksum was specified.  The checksum is seeded with the
           specified value.

     -u    Modify the owner, group, permissions, and flags of existing files, the device type of
           devices, and symbolic link targets, to match the specification.  Create any missing
           directories, devices or symbolic links.  User, group, and permissions must all be
           specified for missing directories to be created.  Note that unless the -i option is
           given, the schg and sappnd flags will not be set, even if specified. If -m is given,
           these flags will be reset.  Exit with a status of 0 on success, 2 if the file
           hierarchy did not match the specification, and 1 if any other error occurred.

     -U    Same as -u except that a mismatch is not considered to be an error if it was
           corrected.

     -W    Don't attempt to set various file attributes such as the ownership, mode, flags, or
           time when creating new directories or changing existing entries.  This option will be
           most useful when used in conjunction with -u or -U.

     -x    Don't descend below mount points in the file hierarchy.

     -X exclude-file
           The specified file contains fnmatch(3) patterns matching files to be excluded from the
           specification, one to a line.  If the pattern contains a ‘/’ character, it will be
           matched against entire pathnames (relative to the starting directory); otherwise, it
           will be matched against basenames only.  Comments are permitted in the exclude-list
           file.

     Specifications are mostly composed of “keywords”, i.e. strings that that specify values
     relating to files.  No keywords have default values, and if a keyword has no value set, no
     checks based on it are performed.

     Currently supported keywords are as follows:

     cksum   The checksum of the file using the default algorithm specified by the cksum(1)
             utility.

     device  The device number to use for block or char file types.  The argument must be one of
             the following forms:

             format,major,minor
                   A device with major and minor fields, for an operating system specified with
                   format.  See below for valid formats.

             format,major,unit,subunit
                   A device with major, unit, and subunit fields, for an operating system
                   specified with format.  (Currently this is only supported by the bsdos
                   format.)

             number
                   Opaque number (as stored on the file system).

             The following values for format are recognized: native, 386bsd, 4bsd, bsdos,
             freebsd, hpux, isc, linux, netbsd, osf1, sco, solaris, sunos, svr3, svr4, and
             ultrix.

             See mknod(8) for more details.

     flags   The file flags as a symbolic name.  See chflags(1) for information on these names.
             If no flags are to be set the string ‘none’ may be used to override the current
             default.  Note that the schg and sappnd flags are treated specially (see the -i and
             -m options).

     ignore  Ignore any file hierarchy below this file.

     gid     The file group as a numeric value.

     gname   The file group as a symbolic name.

     link    The file the symbolic link is expected to reference.

     md5     The MD5 cryptographic message digest of the file.

     md5digest
             Synonym for md5.

     mode    The current file's permissions as a numeric (octal) or symbolic value.

     nlink   The number of hard links the file is expected to have.

     optional
             The file is optional; don't complain about the file if it's not in the file
             hierarchy.

     rmd160  The RMD-160 cryptographic message digest of the file.

     rmd160digest
             Synonym for rmd160.

     sha1    The SHA-1 cryptographic message digest of the file.

     sha1digest
             Synonym for sha1.

     sha256  The 256-bits SHA-2 cryptographic message digest of the file.

     sha256digest
             Synonym for sha256.

     sha384  The 384-bits SHA-2 cryptographic message digest of the file.

     sha384digest
             Synonym for sha384.

     sha512  The 512-bits SHA-2 cryptographic message digest of the file.

     sha512digest
             Synonym for sha512.

     size    The size, in bytes, of the file.

     tags    Comma delimited tags to be matched with -E and -I.  These may be specified without
             leading or trailing commas, but will be stored internally with them.

     time    The last modification time of the file.

     type    The type of the file; may be set to any one of the following:

             block   block special device
             char    character special device
             dir     directory
             fifo    fifo
             file    regular file
             link    symbolic link
             socket  socket

     uid     The file owner as a numeric value.

     uname   The file owner as a symbolic name.

     The default set of keywords are flags, gid, link, mode, nlink, size, time, type, and uid.

     There are four types of lines in a specification:

     1.   Set global values for a keyword.  This consists of the string ‘/set’ followed by
          whitespace, followed by sets of keyword/value pairs, separated by whitespace.
          Keyword/value pairs consist of a keyword, followed by an equals sign (‘=’), followed by
          a value, without whitespace characters.  Once a keyword has been set, its value remains
          unchanged until either reset or unset.

     2.   Unset global values for a keyword.  This consists of the string ‘/unset’, followed by
          whitespace, followed by one or more keywords, separated by whitespace.  If ‘all’ is
          specified, unset all of the keywords.

     3.   A file specification, consisting of a path name, followed by whitespace, followed by
          zero or more whitespace separated keyword/value pairs.

          The path name may be preceded by whitespace characters.  The path name may contain any
          of the standard path name matching characters (‘[’, ‘]’, ‘?’ or ‘*’), in which case
          files in the hierarchy will be associated with the first pattern that they match.
          mtree uses strsvis(3) (in VIS_CSTYLE format) to encode path names containing non-
          printable characters. Whitespace characters are encoded as ‘\s’ (space), ‘\t’ (tab),
          and ‘\n’ (new line).  ‘#’ characters in path names are escaped by a preceding backslash
          ‘\’ to distinguish them from comments.

          Each of the keyword/value pairs consist of a keyword, followed by an equals sign (‘=’),
          followed by the keyword's value, without whitespace characters.  These values override,
          without changing, the global value of the corresponding keyword.

          The first path name entry listed must be a directory named ‘.’, as this ensures that
          intermixing full and relative path names will work consistently and correctly.
          Multiple entries for a directory named ‘.’ are permitted; the settings for the last
          such entry override those of the existing entry.

          A path name that contains a slash (‘/’) that is not the first character will be treated
          as a full path (relative to the root of the tree).  All parent directories referenced
          in the path name must exist.  The current directory path used by relative path names
          will be updated appropriately.  Multiple entries for the same full path are permitted
          if the types are the same (unless -M is given, and then the types may differ); in this
          case the settings for the last entry take precedence.

          A path name that does not contain a slash will be treated as a relative path.
          Specifying a directory will cause subsequent files to be searched for in that directory
          hierarchy.

     4.   A line containing only the string ‘..’ which causes the current directory path (used by
          relative paths) to ascend one level.

     Empty lines and lines whose first non-whitespace character is a hash mark (‘#’) are ignored.

     The mtree utility exits with a status of 0 on success, 1 if any error occurred, and 2 if the
     file hierarchy did not match the specification.

FILES

     /etc/mtree  system specification directory

EXAMPLES

     To detect system binaries that have been “trojan horsed”, it is recommended that mtree be
     run on the file systems, and a copy of the results stored on a different machine, or, at
     least, in encrypted form.  The seed for the -s option should not be an obvious value and the
     final checksum should not be stored on-line under any circumstances!  Then, periodically,
     mtree should be run against the on-line specifications and the final checksum compared with
     the previous value.  While it is possible for the bad guys to change the on-line
     specifications to conform to their modified binaries, it shouldn't be possible for them to
     make it produce the same final checksum value.  If the final checksum value changes, the
     off-line copies of the specification can be used to detect which of the binaries have
     actually been modified.

     The -d and -u options can be used in combination to create directory hierarchies for
     distributions and other such things.

SEE ALSO

     chflags(1), chgrp(1), chmod(1), cksum(1), stat(2), fnmatch(3), fts(3), strsvis(3), chown(8),
     mknod(8)

HISTORY

     The mtree utility appeared in 4.3BSD-Reno.  The optional keyword appeared in NetBSD 1.2.
     The -U flag appeared in NetBSD 1.3.  The flags and md5 keywords, and -i and -m flags
     appeared in NetBSD 1.4.  The device, rmd160, sha1, tags, and all keywords, -D, -E, -I, -l,
     -L, -N, -P, -R, -W, and -X flags, and support for full paths appeared in NetBSD 1.6.  The
     sha256, sha384, and sha512 keywords appeared in NetBSD 3.0.