Provided by: libguestfs-tools_1.40.2-2ubuntu2_amd64 bug

名前

       virt-dib - Run diskimage-builder elements

書式

        virt-dib -B DIB-LIB [options] elements...

説明

       Virt-dib is a tool for using the elements of "diskimage-builder" to build a new disk
       image, generate new ramdisks, etc.

       Virt-dib is intended as safe replacement for "diskimage-builder" and its
       "ramdisk-image-create" mode, see "COMPARISON WITH DISKIMAGE-BUILDER" for a quick
       comparison with usage of "diskimage-builder".

       "diskimage-builder" is part of the TripleO OpenStack project:
       https://wiki.openstack.org/wiki/TripleO.

   Build simple images of distributions
        virt-dib \
          -B /path/to/diskimage-builder/lib \
          -p /path/to/diskimage-builder/elements \
          --envvar DIB_RELEASE=jessie \
          --name debian-jessie \
          debian vm

       This builds a Debian Jessie (8.x) disk image, suitable for running as virtual machine,
       saved as debian-jessie.qcow2.

   Build ramdisks
        virt-dib \
          -B /path/to/diskimage-builder/lib \
          -p /path/to/diskimage-builder/elements \
          --ramdisk \
          --name ramdisk \
          ubuntu deploy-ironic

       This builds a ramdisk for the Ironic OpenStack component based on the Ubuntu distribution.

オプション

       --help
           ヘルプを表示します。

       -B PATH
           Set the path to the library directory of "diskimage-builder". This is usually the lib
           subdirectory in the sources and when installed, and /usr/share/diskimage-builder/lib
           when installed in /usr.

           This parameter is mandatory, as virt-dib needs to provide it for the elements (as some
           of them might use scripts in it).  Virt-dib itself does not make use of the library
           directory.

       --arch ARCHITECTURE
           Use the specified architecture for the output image.  The default value is the same as
           the host running virt-dib.

           Right now this option does nothing more than setting the "ARCH" environment variable
           for the elements, and it’s up to them to produce an image for the requested
           architecture.

       --checksum
           Generate checksum files for the generated image.  The supported checksums are MD5, and
           SHA256.

       --colors
       --colours
           Use ANSI colour sequences to colourize messages.  This is the default when the output
           is a tty.  If the output of the program is redirected to a file, ANSI colour sequences
           are disabled unless you use this option.

       --debug LEVEL
           Set the debug level to "LEVEL", which is a non-negative integer number.  The default
           is 0.

           This debug level is different than what -x and -v set, and it increases the debugging
           information printed out.  Specifically, this sets the "DIB_DEBUG_TRACE", and any value
           > 0 enables tracing in the scripts executed.

       --docker-target TARGET
           Set the repository and tag for docker.

           This is used only when the formats include "docker", and it is required in that case.

       --drive DISK
           Add the specified disk to be used as helper drive where to cache files of the
           elements, like disk images, distribution packages, etc.

           See "HELPER DRIVE".

       --drive-format raw
       --drive-format qcow2
           Specify the format of the helper drive.  If this flag is not given then it is auto-
           detected from the drive itself.

           If working with untrusted raw-format guest disk images, you should ensure the format
           is always specified.

           This option is used only if --drive is specified.

           See "HELPER DRIVE".

       -p PATH
       --element-path PATH
           Add a new path with elements.  Paths are used in the same order as the -p parameters
           appear, so a path specified first is looked first, and so on.

           Obviously, it is recommended to add the path to the own elements of
           "diskimage-builder", as most of the other elements will rely on them.

       --extra-packages PACKAGE,...
           Install additional packages in the image being built.

           This relies on the "install-packages" binary provided by the package management
           elements.

           This option can be specified multiple times, each time with multiple packages
           separated by comma.

       --envvar VARIABLE
       --envvar VARIABLE=VALUE
           Carry or set an environment variable for the elements.

           See "ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES" below for more information on the interaction and usage of
           environment variables.

           This option can be used in two ways:

           --envvar VARIABLE
               Carry the environment variable "VARIABLE". If it is not set, nothing is exported
               to the elements.

           --envvar VARIABLE=VALUE
               Set the environment variable "VARIABLE" with value "VALUE" for the elements,
               regardless whether an environment variable with the same name exists.

               This can be useful to pass environment variable without exporting them in the
               environment where virt-dib runs.

       --exclude-element ELEMENT
           Ignore the specified element.

       --exclude-script SCRIPT
           Ignore any element script named "SCRIPT", whichever element it is in.

           This can be useful in case some script does not run well with virt-dib, for example
           when they really need "diskimage-builder"'s environment.

       --formats FORMAT,...
           Set the list of output formats, separating them with comma.

           Supported formats are:

           "docker"
               Import the image to docker, running docker import.  The target for the image must
               be specified using --docker-target.

               Please note this operation usually requires the docker service to be enabled,
               otherwise it will fail.  Furthermore, docker is run using sudo(8), so make sure
               the user has the permissions to run at least docker.

           "qcow2" (enabled by default)
               QEMU’s qcow2.  This output format requires the "qemu-img" tool.

           "raw"
               Raw disk format.

           "squashfs"
               An squashfs filesystem, compressed with XZ.  This output format requires the
               "squashfs" feature; see also "AVAILABILITY" in guestfs(3).

           "tar"
               An uncompressed tarball.

           "tgz"
               A tarball compressed with gzip.

           "vhd"
               "Virtual Hard Disk" disk image.  This output format requires the "vhd-util" tool.

               Please note that the version of "vhd-util" tool needs to be patched to support the
               "convert" subcommand, and to be bootable.  The patch is available here:
               https://github.com/emonty/vhd-util/blob/master/debian/patches/citrix.

       --fs-type FILESYSTEM
           Set the filesystem type to use for the root filesystem.  The default is "ext4".

           See also "guestfs_filesystem_available" in guestfs(3).

       --image-cache DIRECTORY
           Set the path in the host where cache the resources used by the elements of the
           "extra-data.d" phase.  The default is ~/.cache/image-create.

           Please note that most of the resources fetched in phases other than "extra-data.d"
           will be cached in the helper drive specified with --drive; see also "HELPER DRIVE".

       --install-type TYPE
           Specify the default installation type.  Defaults to "source".

           Set to "package" to use package based installations by default.

       --machine-readable
       --machine-readable=format
           このオプションは、他のプログラムにより解析されるときに、よりマシンに易しい出力を作成す
           るために使用されます。以下の "マシン可読な出力" 参照。

       -m MB
       --memsize MB
           Change the amount of memory allocated to the appliance. Increase this if you find that
           the virt-dib execution runs out of memory.

           The default can be found with this command:

            guestfish get-memsize

       --mkfs-options "OPTION STRING"
           Add the specified options to mkfs(1), to be able to fine-tune the root filesystem
           creation; the options are passed to the driver of mfks(1), and not to mfks(1) itself.
           Note that --fs-type is used to change the filesystem type.

           You should use --mkfs-options at most once.  To pass multiple options, separate them
           with space, eg:

            virt-dib ... --mkfs-options '-O someopt -I foo'

       --network
       --no-network
           Enable or disable network access from the guest during the installation.

           Enabled is the default.  Use --no-network to disable access.

           The network only allows outgoing connections and has other minor limitations.  See
           "NETWORK" in virt-rescue(1).

           This does not affect whether the guest can access the network once it has been booted,
           because that is controlled by your hypervisor or cloud environment and has nothing to
           do with virt-dib.

           If you use --no-network, then the environment variable "DIB_OFFLINE" is set to 1,
           signaling the elements that they should use only cached resources when available.
           Note also that, unlike with "diskimage-builder" where elements may still be able to
           access to the network even with "DIB_OFFLINE=", under virt-dib network will not be
           accessible at all.

       --name NAME
           Set the name of the output image file.  The default is "image".

           According to the chosen name, there will be the following in the current directory:

           $NAME.ext
               For each output format, a file named after the output image with the extension
               depending on the format; for example: $NAME.qcow2, $NAME.raw, etc.

               Not applicable in ramdisk mode, see "RAMDISK BUILDING".

           $NAME.d
               A directory containing any files created by the elements, for example dib-
               manifests directory (created by the "manifests" element), ramdisks and kernels in
               ramdisk mode, and so on.

           $NAME.ext.checksum
               When --checksum is specified, there will be files for each supported checksum
               type; for example: $NAME.ext.md5, $NAME.ext.sha256, etc.

               Not applicable in ramdisk mode, see "RAMDISK BUILDING".

       --no-delete-on-failure
           Don’t delete the output files on failure to build.  You can use this to debug failures
           to run scripts.

           The default is to delete the output files if virt-dib fails (or, for example, some
           script that it runs fails).

       --python PYTHON
           Specify a different Python interpreter to use.  Parts of "diskimage-builder" are
           implemented in Python, and thus an interpreter is needed.

           "PYTHON" can either be an executable filename (e.g. python2, which is then searched in
           $PATH), or a full path (e.g.  /usr/bin/python2).  If not specified, the default value
           is python.

       -q
       --quiet
           Don’t print ordinary progress messages.

       --qemu-img-options option[,option,...]
           Pass --qemu-img-options option(s) to the qemu-img(1) command to fine-tune the output
           format.  Options available depend on the output format (see --formats) and the
           installed version of the qemu-img program.

           You should use --qemu-img-options at most once.  To pass multiple options, separate
           them with commas, eg:

            virt-dib ... --qemu-img-options cluster_size=512,preallocation=metadata ...

       --ramdisk
           Set the ramdisk building mode.

           See "RAMDISK BUILDING".

       --ramdisk-element NAME
           Set the name for the additional element added in ramdisk building mode.  The default
           is "ramdisk".

           See "RAMDISK BUILDING".

       --root-label LABEL
           Set the label for the root filesystem in the created image.

           Please note that some filesystems have different restrictions on the length of their
           labels; for example, on "ext2/3/4" filesystems labels cannot be longer than 16
           characters, while on "xfs" they have at most 12 characters.

           The default depends on the actual filesystem for the root partition (see --fs-type):
           on "xfs" is "img-rootfs", while "cloudimg-rootfs" on any other filesystem.

       --size SIZE
           Select the size of the output disk, where the size can be specified using common names
           such as "32G" (32 gigabytes) etc.  The default size is "5G".

           To specify size in bytes, the number must be followed by the lowercase letter b, eg:
           "--size 10737418240b".

           See also virt-resize(1) for resizing partitions of an existing disk image.

       --skip-base
           Skip the inclusion of the "base" element.

       --smp N
           Enable N ≥ 2 virtual CPUs for scripts to use.

       -u  Do not compress resulting qcow2 images.  The default is to compress them.

       -v
       --verbose
           デバッグメッセージを有効にします。

       -V
       --version
           バージョン番号を表示して、終了します。

       -x  libguestfs API 呼び出しのトレースを有効にします。

環境変数

       Unlike with "diskimage-builder", the environment of the host is not inherited in the
       appliance when running most of the elements (i.e. all except the ones in the
       "extra-data.d" phase).

       To set environment for the elements being run, it is necessary to tell virt-dib to use
       them, with the option --envvar.  Such option allows to selectively export environment
       variables when running the elements, and it is the preferred way to pass environment
       variables to the elements.

       To recap: if you want the environment variable "MYVAR" (and its content) to be available
       to the elements, you can do either

        export MYVAR   # whichever is its value
        virt-dib ... --envvar MYVAR ...

       または

        virt-dib ... --envvar MYVAR=value_of_it ...

HELPER DRIVE

       Virt-dib runs most of the element in its own appliance, and thus not on the host.  Because
       of this, there is no possibility for elements to cache resources directly on the host.

       To solve this issue, virt-dib allows the usage of an helper drive where to store cached
       resources, like disk images, distribution packages, etc. While this means that there is a
       smaller space available for caching, at least it allows to limit the space on the host for
       caches, without assuming that elements will do that by themselves.

       Currently this disk is either required to have a single partition on it, or the first
       partition on it will be used.  A disk with the latter configuration can be easily created
       with guestfish(1) like the following:

        guestfish -N filename.img=fs:ext4:10G exit

       The above will create a disk image called filename.img, 10G big, with a single partition
       of type ext4; see "PREPARED DISK IMAGES" in guestfish(1).

       It is recommended for it to be ≥ 10G or even more, as elements will cache disk images,
       distribution packages, etc.  As with any disk image, the helper disk can be easily resized
       using virt-resize(1) if more space in it is needed.

       The drive can be accessed like any other disk image, for example using other tools of
       libguestfs such as guestfish(1):

        guestfish -a filename.img -m /dev/sda1

       If no helper drive is specified with --drive, all the resources cached during a virt-dib
       run will be discarded.

   RESOURCES INSIDE THE DRIVE
       Inside the helper drive, it is possible to find the following resources:

       /home
           This directory is set as "HOME" environment variable during the build.  It contains
           mostly the image cache (saved as /home/.cache/image-create), and whichever other
           resource is cached in the home directory of the user running the various tools.

       /virt-dib-*.log
           These are the logs of the elements being run within the libguestfs appliance, which
           means all the phases except "extra-data.d".

RAMDISK BUILDING

       Virt-dib can emulate also "ramdisk-image-create", which is a secondary operation mode of
       "diskimage-builder".  Instead of being a different tool name, virt-dib provides easy
       access to this mode using the --ramdisk switch.

       In this mode:

       ·   there is an additional ramdisk element added (see --ramdisk-element)

       ·   no image is produced (so --formats is ignored)

       ·   $NAME.d (see --name) will contain initrd, kernel, etc

TEMPORARY DIRECTORY

       Virt-dib uses the standard temporary directory used by libguestfs, see "ENVIRONMENT
       VARIABLES" in guestfs(3).

       By default this location is /tmp (default value for "TMPDIR"), which on some systems may
       be on a tmpfs filesystem, and thus defaulting to a maximum size of half of physical RAM.
       If virt-dib exceeds this, it may hang or exit early with an error.  The solution is to
       point "TMPDIR" to a permanent location used as temporary location, for example:

        mkdir local-tmp
        env TMPDIR=$PWD/local-tmp virt-dib ...
        rm -rf local-tmp

EXTRA DEPENDENCIES

       Because of virt-dib runs most of the elements in its own appliance, all the tools and
       libraries used by elements running outside the guest (typically "root.d",
       "block-device.d", and "cleanup.d")  need to be present in the appliance as well.  In case
       they are not, scripts will fail typically with a "command not found" error.

       For tools and libraries packaged by the distribution, the easy solution is to tell
       libguestfs to include additional packages in the appliance.  This is doable by e.g.
       creating a new file with the additional packages:

        # echo wget > /usr/lib64/guestfs/supermin.d/dib-my-extra

       The actual path to the supermin.d directory depends on the distribution; additional files
       can list more packages, each in its own line.  For more details, see supermin(1).

COMPARISON WITH DISKIMAGE-BUILDER

       Virt-dib is intended as safe replacement for "diskimage-builder" and its
       "ramdisk-image-create" mode; the user-notable differences consist in:

       ·   the command line arguments; some of the arguments are the same as available in
           "diskimage-builder", while some have different names:

            disk-image-create             virt-dib
            -----------------             --------
            -a ARCH                       --arch ARCH
            --image-size SIZE             --size SIZE
            --max-online-resize SIZE      doable using --mkfs-options
            -n                            --skip-base
            -o IMAGENAME                  --name IMAGENAME
            -p PACKAGE(S)                 --extra-packages PACKAGE(S)
            -t FORMAT(S)                  --formats FORMAT(S)
            -x                            --debug 1
            -x -x                         --debug 2
            -x -x [-x ...]                --debug 3/4/etc

       ·   the location of non-image output files (like ramdisks and kernels)

       ·   the way some of the cached resources are saved: using an helper drive, not directly on
           the disk where virt-dib is run

       ·   the need to specify a target size for the output disk, as opposed to
           "diskimage-builder" calculating an optimal one

       ·   the handling of environment variables, see "ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES".

           Furthermore, other than the libguestfs own environment variables (see "ENVIRONMENT
           VARIABLES" in guestfs(3)), virt-dib does not read any other environment variable: this
           means that all the options and behaviour changes are specified solely using command
           line arguments

       ·   extra tools needed on some out-of-chroot phases need to be available in the appliance,
           see "EXTRA DEPENDENCIES".

       Elements themselves should notice no difference in they way they are run; behaviour
       differences may due to wrong assumptions in elements, or not correct virt-dib emulation.

       Known issues at the moment:

       ·   (none)

マシン可読な出力

       The --machine-readable option can be used to make the output more machine friendly, which
       is useful when calling virt-dib from other programs, GUIs etc.

       Use the option on its own to query the capabilities of the virt-dib binary.  Typical
       output looks like this:

        $ virt-dib --machine-readable
        virt-dib
        output:qcow2
        output:tar
        output:raw
        output:vhd

       A list of features is printed, one per line, and the program exits with status 0.

       The "output:" features refer to the output formats (--formats command line option)
       supported by this binary.

       It is possible to specify a format string for controlling the output; see "ADVANCED
       MACHINE READABLE OUTPUT" in guestfs(3).

TESTING

       Virt-dib has been tested with "diskimage-builder" (and its elements)  ≥ 0.1.43; from time
       to time also with "tripleo-image-elements" and "sahara-image-elements".

       Previous versions may work, but it is not guaranteed.

終了ステータス

       このプログラムは、成功すると 0 を、エラーがあると 0 以外を返します。

関連項目

       guestfs(3), guestfish(1), virt-resize(1), http://libguestfs.org/.

著者

       Pino Toscano ("ptoscano at redhat dot com")

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright (C) 2015 Red Hat Inc.

LICENSE

BUGS

       To get a list of bugs against libguestfs, use this link:
       https://bugzilla.redhat.com/buglist.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

       To report a new bug against libguestfs, use this link:
       https://bugzilla.redhat.com/enter_bug.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

       When reporting a bug, please supply:

       ·   The version of libguestfs.

       ·   Where you got libguestfs (eg. which Linux distro, compiled from source, etc)

       ·   Describe the bug accurately and give a way to reproduce it.

       ·   Run libguestfs-test-tool(1) and paste the complete, unedited output into the bug
           report.