Provided by: libguestfs-tools_1.40.2-2ubuntu2_amd64 bug

名前

       virt-sparsify - 仮想マシンのディスクをスパースにします

書式

        virt-sparsify [--options] indisk outdisk

        virt-sparsify [--options] --in-place disk

説明

       Virt-sparsify is a tool which can make a virtual machine disk (or any disk image) sparse
       a.k.a. thin-provisioned.  This means that free space within the disk image can be
       converted back to free space on the host.

       Virt-sparsify can locate and sparsify free space in most filesystems (eg. ext2/3/4, btrfs,
       NTFS, etc.), and also in LVM physical volumes.

       Virt-sparsify はさまざまなディスクフォーマットを変換することができます。例えば、raw ディス
       クイメージをシンプロビジョニングされた qcow2 イメージに変換することができます。

       Virt-sparsify can operate on any disk image, not just ones from virtual machines.  However
       if a virtual machine has multiple disks and uses volume management, then virt-sparsify
       will work but not be very effective (http://bugzilla.redhat.com/887826).

   IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT SPARSE OUTPUT IMAGES
       If the input is raw, then the default output is raw sparse.  You must check the output
       size using a tool that understands sparseness such as "du -sh".  It can make a huge
       difference:

        $ ls -lh test1.img
        -rw-rw-r--. 1 rjones rjones 100M Aug  8 08:08 test1.img
        $ du -sh test1.img
        3.6M   test1.img

       (見た目の容量 100M と実際の容量 3.6M を比較します)

   IMPORTANT LIMITATIONS
       ·   The virtual machine must be shut down before using this tool.

       ·   Virt-sparsify may require up to 2x the virtual size of the source disk image (1
           temporary copy + 1 destination image).  This is in the worst case and usually much
           less space is required.

           If you are using the --in-place option, then large amounts of temporary space are not
           required.

       ·   Virt-sparsify cannot resize disk images.  To do that, use virt-resize(1).

       ·   virt-sparsify は暗号化されたディスクを処理できません。 libguestfs は暗号化されたディス
           クをサポートしますが、暗号化されたディスク自体はスパース化できません。

       ·   Virt-sparsify cannot yet sparsify the space between partitions.  Note that this space
           is often used for critical items like bootloaders so it's not really unused.

       ·   In copy mode, qcow2 internal snapshots are not copied over to the destination image.

       You may also want to read the manual pages for the associated tools virt-filesystems(1)
       and virt-df(1) before starting.

       一般的な使用法は次のとおりです:

        virt-sparsify indisk outdisk

       which copies "indisk" to "outdisk", making the output sparse.  "outdisk" is created, or
       overwritten if it already exists.  The format of the input disk is detected (eg. qcow2)
       and the same format is used for the output disk.

       形式を変換するには --convert オプションを使用します:

        virt-sparsify disk.raw --convert qcow2 disk.qcow2

       Virt-sparsify tries to zero and sparsify free space on every filesystem it can find within
       the source disk image.  You can get it to ignore (don't zero free space on) certain
       filesystems by doing:

        virt-sparsify --ignore /dev/sda1 indisk outdisk

       ディスクイメージにあるファイルシステムの一覧を取得するには virt-filesystems(1) を参照して
       ください。

       Since virt-sparsify ≥ 1.26, you can now sparsify a disk image in place by doing:

        virt-sparsify --in-place disk.img

オプション

       --help
           ヘルプを表示します。

       --check-tmpdir ignore
       --check-tmpdir continue
       --check-tmpdir warn
       --check-tmpdir fail
           Check if "TMPDIR" or --tmp directory has enough space to complete the operation.  This
           is just an estimate.

           If the check indicates a problem, then you can either:

           ·   ignore it,

           ·   print a warning and continue,

           ·   warn and wait for the user to press the Return key (this is the default), or:

           ·   fail and exit.

           You cannot use this option and --in-place together.

       --colors
       --colours
           Use ANSI colour sequences to colourize messages.  This is the default when the output
           is a tty.  If the output of the program is redirected to a file, ANSI colour sequences
           are disabled unless you use this option.

       --compress
           出力ファイルを圧縮します。これは 出力形式が "qcow2" の場合 のみ 機能します。

           You cannot use this option and --in-place together.

       --convert raw
       --convert qcow2
       --convert [other formats]
           Use "output-format" as the format for the destination image.  If this is not
           specified, then the input format is used.

           サポートされる既知の動作済み出力形式は次のとおりです: "raw", "qcow2", "vdi"。

           qemu-img(1) プログラムによりサポートされるすべての形式を使用できます。たとえば、"vmdk"
           ですが、他の形式のサポートは QEMU に依存します。

           Specifying the --convert option is usually a good idea, because then virt-sparsify
           doesn't need to try to guess the input format.

           出力形式を詳細に調整します。関連項目: --compress, -o.

           You cannot use this option and --in-place together.

       --echo-keys
           When prompting for keys and passphrases, virt-sparsify normally turns echoing off so
           you cannot see what you are typing.  If you are not worried about Tempest attacks and
           there is no one else in the room you can specify this flag to see what you are typing.

       --format raw
       --format qcow2
           Specify the format of the input disk image.  If this flag is not given then it is
           auto-detected from the image itself.

           If working with untrusted raw-format guest disk images, you should ensure the format
           is always specified.

       --ignore filesystem
       --ignore volgroup
           Ignore the named filesystem.

           When not using --in-place: Free space on the filesystem will not be zeroed, but
           existing blocks of zeroes will still be sparsified.

           When using --in-place, the filesystem is ignored completely.

           In the second form, this ignores the named volume group.  Use the volume group name
           without the /dev/ prefix, eg. --ignore vg_foo

           このオプションは複数回指定できます。

       --in-place
           Do in-place sparsification instead of copying sparsification.  See "IN-PLACE
           SPARSIFICATION" below.

       --key SELECTOR
           Specify a key for LUKS, to automatically open a LUKS device when using the inspection.
           "SELECTOR" can be in one of the following formats:

           --key "DEVICE":key:KEY_STRING
               Use the specified "KEY_STRING" as passphrase.

           --key "DEVICE":file:FILENAME
               Read the passphrase from FILENAME.

       --keys-from-stdin
           Read key or passphrase parameters from stdin.  The default is to try to read
           passphrases from the user by opening /dev/tty.

       --machine-readable
       --machine-readable=format
           このオプションは、他のプログラムにより解析されるときに、よりマシンに易しい出力を作成す
           るために使用されます。以下の "マシン可読な出力" 参照。

       -o option[,option,...]
           Pass -o option(s) to the qemu-img(1) command to fine-tune the output format.  Options
           available depend on the output format (see --convert) and the installed version of the
           qemu-img program.

           You should use -o at most once.  To pass multiple options, separate them with commas,
           eg:

            virt-sparsify --convert qcow2 \
              -o cluster_size=512,preallocation=metadata ...

           You cannot use this option and --in-place together.

       -q
       --quiet
           This disables progress bars and other unnecessary output.

       --tmp block_device
       --tmp dir
           In copying mode only, use the named device or directory as the location of the
           temporary overlay (see also "TMPDIR" below).

           If the parameter given is a block device, then the block device is written to
           directly.  Note this erases the existing contents of the block device.

           If the parameter is a directory, then this is the same as setting the "TMPDIR"
           environment variable.

           You cannot use this option and --in-place together.

       --tmp prebuilt:file
           In copying mode only, the specialized option --tmp prebuilt:file (where "prebuilt:" is
           a literal string) causes virt-sparsify to use the qcow2 "file" as temporary space.

           ·   The file must be freshly formatted as qcow2, with indisk as the backing file.

           ·   If you rerun virt-sparsify, you must recreate the file before each run.

           ·   Virt-sparsify does not delete the file.

           This option is used by oVirt which requires a specially formatted temporary file.

       -v
       --verbose
           デバッグ用の冗長なメッセージを有効にします。

       -V
       --version
           バージョン番号を表示して、終了します。

       -x  libguestfs API 呼び出しのトレースを有効にします。

       --zero パーティション
       --zero 論理ボリューム
           仮想マシンにある名前付きパーティションまたは論理ボリュームの内容をゼロ上書きします。デ
           バイスにあるすべてのデータは失われます。しかし、スパース化は素晴らしいことです!このオ
           プションを複数回指定できます。

IN-PLACE SPARSIFICATION

       Since virt-sparsify ≥ 1.26, the tool is able to do in-place sparsification (instead of
       copying from an input disk to an output disk).  This is more efficient.  It is not able to
       recover quite as much space as copying sparsification.

       To use this mode, specify a disk image which will be modified in place:

        virt-sparsify --in-place disk.img

       Some options are not compatible with this mode: --convert, --compress and -o because they
       require wholesale disk format changes; --check-tmpdir because large amounts of temporary
       space are not required.

       In-place sparsification works using discard (a.k.a trim or unmap)  support.

マシン可読な出力

       The --machine-readable option can be used to make the output more machine friendly, which
       is useful when calling virt-sparsify from other programs, GUIs etc.

       このオプションを使用するには 2 通りの方法があります。

       Firstly use the option on its own to query the capabilities of the virt-sparsify binary.
       Typical output looks like this:

        $ virt-sparsify --machine-readable
        virt-sparsify
        ntfs
        btrfs

       A list of features is printed, one per line, and the program exits with status 0.

       Secondly use the option in conjunction with other options to make the regular program
       output more machine friendly.

       At the moment this means:

       1.  Progress bar messages can be parsed from stdout by looking for this regular
           expression:

            ^[0-9]+/[0-9]+$

       2.  The calling program should treat messages sent to stdout (except for progress bar
           messages) as status messages.  They can be logged and/or displayed to the user.

       3.  The calling program should treat messages sent to stderr as error messages.  In
           addition, virt-sparsify exits with a non-zero status code if there was a fatal error.

       All versions of virt-sparsify have supported the --machine-readable option.

       It is possible to specify a format string for controlling the output; see "ADVANCED
       MACHINE READABLE OUTPUT" in guestfs(3).

WINDOWS 8

       Windows 8 "fast startup" can prevent virt-sparsify from working.  See "WINDOWS HIBERNATION
       AND WINDOWS 8 FAST STARTUP" in guestfs(3).

環境変数

       TMPDIR
           Location of the temporary directory used for the potentially large temporary overlay
           file.

           In virt-sparsify ≥ 1.28, you can override this environment variable using the --tmp
           option.

           You should ensure there is enough free space in the worst case for a full copy of the
           source disk (virtual size), or else set $TMPDIR to point to another directory that has
           enough space.

           This defaults to /tmp.

           Note that if $TMPDIR is a tmpfs (eg. if /tmp is on tmpfs, or if you use
           "TMPDIR=/dev/shm"), tmpfs defaults to a maximum size of half of physical RAM.  If
           virt-sparsify exceeds this, it will hang.  The solution is either to use a real disk,
           or to increase the maximum size of the tmpfs mountpoint, eg:

            mount -o remount,size=10G /tmp

           If you are using the --in-place option, then large amounts of temporary space are not
           required.

       他の環境変数は "環境変数" in guestfs(3) を参照してください。

終了ステータス

       This program returns 0 if the operation completed without errors.  (This doesn't
       necessarily mean that space could be freed up.)

       A non-zero exit code indicates an error.

       If the exit code is 3 and the --in-place option was used, that indicates that discard
       support is not available in libguestfs, so copying mode must be used instead.

関連項目

       virt-df(1), virt-filesystems(1), virt-resize(1), virt-rescue(1), guestfs(3), guestfish(1),
       truncate(1), fallocate(1), qemu-img(1), http://libguestfs.org/.

著者

       Richard W.M. Jones http://people.redhat.com/~rjones/

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright (C) 2011-2019 Red Hat Inc.

LICENSE

BUGS

       To get a list of bugs against libguestfs, use this link:
       https://bugzilla.redhat.com/buglist.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

       To report a new bug against libguestfs, use this link:
       https://bugzilla.redhat.com/enter_bug.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

       When reporting a bug, please supply:

       ·   The version of libguestfs.

       ·   Where you got libguestfs (eg. which Linux distro, compiled from source, etc)

       ·   Describe the bug accurately and give a way to reproduce it.

       ·   Run libguestfs-test-tool(1) and paste the complete, unedited output into the bug
           report.