Provided by: bcal_2.1-1build1_amd64 bug


       bcal - Storage expression calculator.


       bcal [-c N] [-f loc] [-s bytes] [expr] [N [unit]] [-b [expr]] [-m] [-d] [-h]


       bcal  (Byte  CALculator) is a command-line utility to help with numerical calculations and
       expressions involving data storage units, addressing, base conversion etc. It invokes  GNU
       bc for non-storage expressions.

       bcal follows Ubuntu's standard unit conversion and notation policy:


         * evaluate arithmetic expressions involving storage units
         * perform general purpose calculations (using bc)
         * convert to IEC/SI standard data storage units
         * interactive mode with the last valid result stored for reuse
         * show the address in bytes
         * show address as LBA:OFFSET
         * convert CHS to LBA and vice versa
         * base conversion to binary, decimal and hex
         * custom sector size, max heads/cylinder and max sectors/track
         * minimal dependencies


       1.  Interactive mode: bcal enters the REPL mode if no arguments are provided. Storage unit
           conversion, base conversion and expression evaluation are supported in this mode.  The
           last valid result is stored in the variable r.

       2.  Expression:  Expression  passed  as  argument  in  one-shot mode must be within double
           quotes. Inner spaces are ignored. Supported operators: +, -, *, /,  %  and  C  bitwise
           operators (except ~ due to storage width dependency).

       3.  N   [unit]:   N   can   be  a  decimal  or  '0x'  prefixed  hex  value.  unit  can  be
           B/KiB/MiB/GiB/TiB/kB/MB/GB/TB following Ubuntu policy. Default  is  byte.  As  all  of
           these tokens are unique, unit is case-insensitive.

       4.  Numeric  representation:  Decimal  and  hex  are  recognized  in  expressions and unit
           conversions. Binary is also recognized in other operations.

       5.  Syntax: Prefix hex inputs with '0x', binary inputs with '0b'.

       6.  Precision: 128 bits if __uint128_t is available or 64 bits for numerical  conversions.
           Floating  point operations use long double. Negative values in storage expressions are
           unsupported. Only 64-bit operating systems are supported.

       7.  Fractional bytes do not exist, because they can't be addressed. bcal shows  the  floor
           value of non-integer bytes.

       8.  CHS and LBA syntax:
             - LBA: 'lLBA-MAX_HEAD-MAX_SECTOR'   [NOTE: LBA starts with 'l' (case ignored)]
             - CHS: 'cC-H-S-MAX_HEAD-MAX_SECTOR' [NOTE: CHS starts with 'c' (case ignored)]
             - Format conversion arguments must be hyphen separated.
             -  Any  unspecified  value,  including  the  one  preceding the first '-' to the one
           following the last '-', is considered '0' (zero).
             - Examples:
               - 'c-50--0x12-' -> C = 0, H = 50, S = 0, MH = 0x12, MS = 0
               - 'l50-0x12' -> LBA = 50, MH = 0x12, MS = 0

       9.  Default values:
             - sector size: 0x200 (512)
             - max heads per cylinder: 0x10 (16)
             - max sectors per track: 0x3f (63)

       10. bc variables: scale = 10, ibase = 10. last and r are synced when toggling bc mode.  bc
           is not called in minimal output mode.


       -c=N   Show decimal, binary and hex representation of positive integer N.

       -f=loc Convert  CHS to LBA or LBA to CHS. loc is hyphen-separated representation of LBA or
              CHS. Please refer to the Operational Notes section for more details.

              Sector size in bytes. Default value is 512.

              Start in bc mode. If expression is provided, evaluate in bc and quit.

       -m     Show minimal output (e.g. decimal bytes).

       -d     Enable debug information and logs.

       -h     Show program help, storage sizes on the system and exit.


       b      Toggle bc mode.

       r      Show result from last operation.

       s      Show sizes of storage types.

       ?      Show prompt help.

       q, double Enter
              Quit the program.


       1.  Evaluate arithmetic expression of storage units

              $ bcal "(5kb+2mb)/3"
              $ bcal "5 tb / 12"
              $ bcal "2.5mb*3"
              $ bcal "(2giB * 2) / (2kib >> 2)"

       2.  Convert storage capacity to other units and get address, LBA.

              $ bcal 20140115 b
              $ bcal 0x1335053 B
              $ bcal 0xaabbcc kb
              $ bcal 0xdef Gib
              Note that the units are case-insensitive.

       3.  Convert storage capacity, set sector size to 4096 to calculate LBA.

              $ bcal 0xaabbcc kb -s 4096

       4.  Convert LBA to CHS.

              $ bcal -f l500
              $ bcal -f l0x600-18-0x7e
              $ bcal -f l0x300-0x12-0x7e

       5.  Convert CHS to LBA.

              $ bcal -f c10-10-10
              $ bcal -f c0x10-0x10-0x10
              $ bcal -f c0x10-10-2-0x12
              $ bcal -f c-10-2-0x12
              $ bcal -f c0x10-10--0x12

       6.  Show binary, decimal and hex representations of a number.

              $ bcal -c 20140115
              $ bcal -c 0b1001100110101000001010011
              $ bcal -c 0x1335053
              bcal> c 20140115 // Interactive mode

       7.  Invoke bc.

              $ bcal -b '3.5 * 2.1 + 5.7'
              bcal> b // Interactive mode
              bc vars: scale = 10, ibase = 10, last = r
              bc> 3.5 * 2.1 + 5.7


       Arun Prakash Jana <>




       Copyright © 2016 Arun Prakash Jana <>

       License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <>.
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is  NO  WARRANTY,
       to the extent permitted by law.