Provided by: bcal_2.1-1build1_amd64

**NAME**

bcal - Storage expression calculator.

**SYNOPSIS**

bcal[-cN][-floc][-sbytes][expr][N[unit]][-b[expr]][-m][-d][-h]

**DESCRIPTION**

bcal(Byte CALculator) is a command-line utility to help with numerical calculations and expressions involving data storage units, addressing, base conversion etc. It invokes GNUbcfor non-storage expressions.bcalfollows Ubuntu's standard unit conversion and notation policy:https://wiki.ubuntu.com/UnitsPolicy

**FEATURES**

* evaluate arithmetic expressions involving storage units * perform general purpose calculations (using bc) * convert to IEC/SI standard data storage units * interactive mode with the last valid result stored for reuse * show the address in bytes * show address as LBA:OFFSET * convert CHS to LBA and vice versa * base conversion to binary, decimal and hex * custom sector size, max heads/cylinder and max sectors/track * minimal dependencies

**OPERATIONAL** **NOTES**

1.Interactivemode:bcalenters the REPL mode if no arguments are provided. Storage unit conversion, base conversion and expression evaluation are supported in this mode. The last valid result is stored in the variabler. 2.Expression: Expression passed as argument in one-shot mode must be within double quotes. Inner spaces are ignored. Supported operators: +, -, *, /, % and C bitwise operators (except ~ due to storage width dependency). 3.N[unit]:Ncan be a decimal or '0x' prefixed hex value.unitcan be B/KiB/MiB/GiB/TiB/kB/MB/GB/TB following Ubuntu policy. Default is byte. As all of these tokens are unique,unitis case-insensitive. 4.Numericrepresentation: Decimal and hex are recognized in expressions and unit conversions. Binary is also recognized in other operations. 5.Syntax: Prefix hex inputs with '0x', binary inputs with '0b'. 6.Precision: 128 bits if__uint128_tis available or 64 bits for numerical conversions. Floating point operations uselongdouble. Negative values in storage expressions are unsupported. Only 64-bit operating systems are supported. 7.Fractionalbytesdonotexist, because they can't be addressed.bcalshows the floor value of non-integerbytes. 8.CHSandLBAsyntax: - LBA: 'lLBA-MAX_HEAD-MAX_SECTOR' [NOTE: LBA starts with 'l' (case ignored)] - CHS: 'cC-H-S-MAX_HEAD-MAX_SECTOR' [NOTE: CHS starts with 'c' (case ignored)] - Format conversion arguments must be hyphen separated. - Any unspecified value, including the one preceding the first '-' to the one following the last '-', is considered '0' (zero). - Examples: - 'c-50--0x12-' -> C = 0, H = 50, S = 0, MH = 0x12, MS = 0 - 'l50-0x12' -> LBA = 50, MH = 0x12, MS = 0 9.Defaultvalues: - sector size: 0x200 (512) - max heads per cylinder: 0x10 (16) - max sectors per track: 0x3f (63) 10.bcvariables:scale= 10,ibase= 10.lastandrare synced when togglingbcmode.bcis not called in minimal output mode.

**OPTIONS**

-c=NShow decimal, binary and hex representation of positive integerN.-f=locConvert CHS to LBA or LBA to CHS.locis hyphen-separated representation of LBA or CHS. Please refer to theOperationalNotessection for more details.-s=bytesSector size in bytes. Default value is 512.-b=[expr]Start inbcmode. If expression is provided, evaluate inbcand quit.-mShow minimal output (e.g. decimal bytes).-dEnable debug information and logs.-hShow program help, storage sizes on the system and exit.

**PROMPT** **KEYS**

bTogglebcmode.rShow result from last operation.sShow sizes of storage types.?Show prompt help.q,doubleEnterQuit the program.

**EXAMPLES**

1. Evaluate arithmetic expression of storage units$bcal"(5kb+2mb)/3"$bcal"5tb/12"$bcal"2.5mb*3"$bcal"(2giB*2)/(2kib>>2)"2. Convert storage capacity to other units and get address, LBA.$bcal20140115b$bcal0x1335053B$bcal0xaabbcckb$bcal0xdefGibNote that the units are case-insensitive. 3. Convert storage capacity, set sector size to 4096 to calculate LBA.$bcal0xaabbcckb-s40964. Convert LBA to CHS.$bcal-fl500$bcal-fl0x600-18-0x7e$bcal-fl0x300-0x12-0x7e5. Convert CHS to LBA.$bcal-fc10-10-10$bcal-fc0x10-0x10-0x10$bcal-fc0x10-10-2-0x12$bcal-fc-10-2-0x12$bcal-fc0x10-10--0x126. Show binary, decimal and hex representations of a number.$bcal-c20140115$bcal-c0b1001100110101000001010011$bcal-c0x1335053bcal>c20140115//Interactivemode7. Invokebc.$bcal-b'3.5*2.1+5.7'bcal>b//Interactivemodebcvars:scale=10,ibase=10,last=rbc>3.5*2.1+5.7

**AUTHORS**

Arun Prakash Jana <engineerarun@gmail.com>

**HOME**

https://github.com/jarun/bcal

**REPORTING** **BUGS**

https://github.com/jarun/bcal/issues

**LICENSE**

Copyright © 2016 Arun Prakash Jana <engineerarun@gmail.com> License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>. This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.