Provided by: cvs_1.12.13+real-27_amd64

#### NAME

       cvs - Concurrent Versions System



#### SYNOPSIS

       cvs [ cvs_options ]
cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]



#### NOTE

       This  manual  page  is  a  summary  of  parts  of  the cvs documentation and automatically
generated from an appendix of the CVS manual (the Cederqvist), which is also the target of
all  cross-references  found  in this manual page; please refer to the full CVS manual for
more in-depth documentation of the Concurrent Versions System.

If you're reading this manual page as part  of  the  MirBSD  online  (HTML)  manual  pages
client/server protocol description, if necessary).

If you installed cvs via the Debian or MirPorts Framework package management systems,
/usr/mpkg/share/doc/cvs/cvs.pdf (MirPorts Framework) or
/usr/share/doc/cvs/cvs.pdf (Debian), respectively,
are versions of the Cederqvist rendered as books, for printing and reading on screen.

If you have a Texinfo reader such as info installed (part of the base  system  on  MirBSD;
part of the info package on Debian), you can read the Cederqvist by entering:
info cvs

Quick introduction to info so you aren't immediately lost:

arrow keys
to move on the page

Tab
to move to the next hyperlink

Return
to activate the hyperlink under the cursor

l (lowercase ell)
to go to the previously visited page

Page Up/b, Page Down/Space
to   move   by  screen  pages,  including  advancing  to  the  previous  (or  next,
respectively) section at the first (last) screen page

p, n
to go to the previous (next) page on the current navigation hierarchy level

t  to go to the "Top" page, i.e. the start of the document

/<search-term>Return
to start a search from the current cursor position and jump to the first result

/Return

q  to exit the info viewer

manual page.



#### CVScommands

   Guide to CVS commands
This appendix describes the overall structure of cvs commands, and describes some commands
in detail (others are described elsewhere; for a quick reference to cvs commands, see node
'Invoking  CVS'  in  the CVS manual, and for an alphabetical list of all cvs commands, see
node 'CVS command list' in the CVS manual).



#### Structure

   Overall structure of CVS commands
The overall format of all cvs commands is:

cvs [ cvs_options ] cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

cvs

The name of the cvs program.

cvs_options

Some options that affect all sub-commands of cvs.  These are described below.

cvs_command

One of several different sub-commands.  Some of the commands have aliases  that  can  be
used  instead;  those aliases are noted in the reference manual for that command.  There
are only two situations where you may  omit  cvs_command:  cvs  -H  elicits  a  list  of
available commands, and cvs -v displays version information on cvs itself.

command_options

Options that are specific for the command.

command_args

Arguments to the commands.

There  is  unfortunately  some  confusion between cvs_options and command_options.  When
given as a cvs_option, some options only affect some of the commands.  When given  as  a
command_option  it  may  have a different meaning, and be accepted by more commands.  In
other words,  do  not  take  the  above  categorization  too  seriously.   Look  at  the



#### Exitstatus

   CVS's exit status
cvs  can indicate to the calling environment whether it succeeded or failed by setting its
exit status.  The exact way of testing the exit status will vary from one operating system
to  another.   For  example  in  a unix shell script the $? variable will be 0 if the last command returned a successful exit status, or greater than 0 if the exit status indicated failure. If cvs is successful, it returns a successful status; if there is an error, it prints an error message and returns a failure status. The one exception to this is the cvs diff command. It will return a successful status if it found no differences, or a failure status if there were differences or if there was an error. Because this behavior provides no good way to detect errors, in the future it is possible that cvs diff will be changed to behave like the other cvs commands.  #### ~/.cvsrc  Default options and the ~/.cvsrc file There are some command_options that are used so often that you might have set up an alias or some other means to make sure you always specify that option. One example (the one that drove the implementation of the .cvsrc support, actually) is that many people find the default output of the diff command to be very hard to read, and that either context diffs or unidiffs are much easier to understand. The ~/.cvsrc file is a way that you can add default options to cvs_commands within cvs, instead of relying on aliases or other shell scripts. The format of the ~/.cvsrc file is simple. The file is searched for a line that begins with the same name as the cvs_command being executed. If a match is found, then the remainder of the line is split up (at whitespace characters) into separate options and added to the command arguments before any options from the command line. If a command has two names (e.g., checkout and co), the official name, not necessarily the one used on the command line, will be used to match against the file. So if this is the contents of the user's ~/.cvsrc file: log -N diff -uN rdiff -u update -Pd checkout -P release -d the command cvs checkout foo would have the -P option added to the arguments, as well as cvs co foo. With the example file above, the output from cvs diff foobar will be in unidiff format. cvs diff -c foobar will provide context diffs, as usual. Getting "old" format diffs would be slightly more complicated, because diff doesn't have an option to specify use of the "old" format, so you would need cvs -f diff foobar. In place of the command name you can use cvs to specify global options (see node 'Global options' in the CVS manual). For example the following line in .cvsrc cvs -z6 causes cvs to use compression level 6.  #### Globaloptions  The available cvs_options (that are given to the left of cvs_command) are: --allow-root=rootdir May be invoked multiple times to specify one legal cvsroot directory with each invocation. Also causes CVS to preparse the configuration file for each specified root, which can be useful when configuring write proxies, See node 'Password authentication server' in the CVS manual & node 'Write proxies' in the CVS manual. -a Authenticate all communication between the client and the server. Only has an effect on the cvs client. As of this writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI connection (see node 'GSSAPI authenticated' in the CVS manual). Authentication prevents certain sorts of attacks involving hijacking the active tcp connection. Enabling authentication does not enable encryption. -b bindir In cvs 1.9.18 and older, this specified that rcs programs are in the bindir directory. Current versions of cvs do not run rcs programs; for compatibility this option is accepted, but it does nothing. -T tempdir Use tempdir as the directory where temporary files are located. The cvs client and server store temporary files in a temporary directory. The path to this temporary directory is set via, in order of precedence: · The argument to the global -T option. · The value set for TmpDir in the config file (server only - see node 'config' in the CVS manual). · The contents of the$TMPDIR environment variable  (%TMPDIR%  on  Windows  -  see  node
'Environment variables' in the CVS manual).

·   /tmp

Temporary  directories  should  always  be  specified  as  an absolute pathname.  When
running a CVS client, -T affects only the local process; specifying -T for the  client
has no effect on the server and vice versa.

-d cvs_root_directory

Use  cvs_root_directory as the root directory pathname of the repository.  Overrides the
setting of the $CVSROOT environment variable. See node 'Repository' in the CVS manual. -e editor Use editor to enter revision log information. Overrides the setting of the$CVSEDITOR
and  $EDITOR environment variables. For more information, see node 'Committing your changes' in the CVS manual. -f Do not read the ~/.cvsrc file. This option is most often used because of the non-orthogonality of the cvs option set. For example, the cvs log option -N (turn off display of tag names) does not have a corresponding option to turn the display on. So if you have -N in the ~/.cvsrc entry for log, you may need to use -f to show the tag names. -g Forges group-writable permissions on files in the working copy. This option is typically used when you have multiple users sharing a single checked out source tree, allowing them to operate their shells with a less dangerous umask at the expense of cvs security. To use this feature, create a directory to hold the checked-out source tree, set it to a private group, and set up the directory such that files created under it inherit the gid of the directory. On BSD systems, this occurs automatically. On SYSV systems and GNU/Linux, the sgid bit must be set on the directory for this. The users who are to share the checked out tree must be placed in that group which owns the directory. Note that the sharing of a single checked-out source tree is very different from giving several users access to a common cvs repository. Access to a common cvs repository already maintains shared group-write permissions and does not require this option. Due to the security implications, setting this option globally in your .cvsrc file is strongly discouraged; if you must, ensure all source checkouts are "firewalled" within a private group or a private mode 0700 directory. This option is a MidnightBSD extension merged into Debian and MirBSD cvs. -H --help Display usage information about the specified cvs_command (but do not actually execute the command). If you don't specify a command name, cvs -H displays overall help for cvs, including a list of other help options. -R Turns on read-only repository mode. This allows one to check out from a read-only repository, such as within an anoncvs server, or from a cd-rom repository. Same effect as if the CVSREADONLYFS environment variable is set. Using -R can also considerably speed up checkouts over NFS. -n Do not change any files. Attempt to execute the cvs_command, but only to issue reports; do not remove, update, or merge any existing files, or create any new files. Note that cvs will not necessarily produce exactly the same output as without -n. In some cases the output will be the same, but in other cases cvs will skip some of the processing that would have been required to produce the exact same output. -Q Cause the command to be really quiet; the command will only generate output for serious problems. -q Cause the command to be somewhat quiet; informational messages, such as reports of recursion through subdirectories, are suppressed. -r Make new working files read-only. Same effect as if the$CVSREAD environment variable
is set (see node 'Environment variables' in the CVS manual).  The  default  is  to  make
working files writable, unless watches are on (see node 'Watches' in the CVS manual).

-s variable=value

Set a user variable (see node 'Variables' in the CVS manual).

-t

Trace   program   execution;  display  messages  showing  the  steps  of  cvs  activity.
Particularly useful with -n to explore the potential impact of an unfamiliar command.

-v

--version

Display version and copyright information for cvs.

-w

Make new working files read-write.  Overrides the setting of  the  $CVSREAD environment variable. Files are created read-write by default, unless$CVSREAD is set or -r is
given.

-x

Encrypt all communication between the client and the server.  Only has an effect on  the
cvs client.  As of this writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI connection
(see node 'GSSAPI authenticated' in the CVS manual) or a Kerberos connection  (see  node
'Kerberos  authenticated'  in the CVS manual).  Enabling encryption implies that message
traffic is also authenticated.  Encryption support is not available by default; it  must
be enabled using a special configure option, --enable-encryption, when you build cvs.

-z level

Request  compression level for network traffic.  cvs interprets level identically to the
gzip program.  Valid levels are 1 (high speed, low compression) to 9  (low  speed,  high
compression),  or  0 to disable compression (the default).  Data sent to the server will
be compressed at the requested level and the client will request the server use the same
compression  level  for data returned.  The server will use the closest level allowed by
the server administrator to compress returned data.  This option only has an effect when
passed to the cvs client.



#### Commonoptions

   Common command options
This section describes the command_options that are available across several cvs commands.
These options are always given to the right of cvs_command. Not all commands  support  all
of  these  options;  each  option  is  only  supported  for commands where it makes sense.
However, when a command has one of these options you can almost always count on  the  same
behavior  of  the  option  as in other commands.  (Other command options, which are listed
with the individual commands, may have different behavior from  one  cvs  command  to  the
other).

Note:  the  history  command  is an exception; it supports many options that conflict even
with these standard options.

-D date_spec

Use the most recent revision no later than date_spec.  date_spec is a single argument, a
date description specifying a date in the past.

The  specification  is  sticky  when you use it to make a private copy of a source file;
that is, when you get a working file using -D, cvs records the date  you  specified,  so
on sticky tags/dates, see node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS manual).

-D is available with the annotate, checkout, diff,  export,  history,  ls,  rdiff,  rls,
rtag,  tag,  and  update  commands.  (The history command uses this option in a slightly
different way; see node 'history options' in the CVS manual).

For a complete description of the date formats accepted by cvs,  see  node  'Date  input
formats' in the CVS manual.

Remember  to  quote  the  argument  to  the -D flag so that your shell doesn't interpret
spaces as argument separators.  A command using the -D flag can look like this:

$cvs diff -D "1 hour ago" cvs.texinfo -f When you specify a particular date or tag to cvs commands, they normally ignore files that do not contain the tag (or did not exist prior to the date) that you specified. Use the -f option if you want files retrieved even when there is no match for the tag or date. (The most recent revision of the file will be used). Note that even with -f, a tag that you specify must exist (that is, in some file, not necessary in every file). This is so that cvs will continue to give an error if you mistype a tag name. -f is available with these commands: annotate, checkout, export, rdiff, rtag, and update. WARNING: The commit and remove commands also have a -f option, but it has a different behavior for those commands. See node 'commit options' in the CVS manual, and node 'Removing files' in the CVS manual. -k kflag Override the default processing of RCS keywords other than -kb. See node 'Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual, for the meaning of kflag. Used with the checkout and update commands, your kflag specification is sticky; that is, when you use this option with a checkout or update command, cvs associates your selected kflag with any files it operates on, and continues to use that kflag with future commands on the same files until you specify otherwise. The -k option is available with the add, checkout, diff, export, import, rdiff, and update commands. WARNING: Prior to CVS version 1.12.2, the -k flag overrode the -kb indication for a binary file. This could sometimes corrupt binary files. See node 'Merging and keywords' in the CVS manual, for more. -l Local; run only in current working directory, rather than recursing through subdirectories. Available with the following commands: annotate, checkout, commit, diff, edit, editors, export, log, rdiff, remove, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers. -m message Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor. Available with the following commands: add, commit and import. -n Do not run any tag program. (A program can be specified to run in the modules database (see node 'modules' in the CVS manual); this option bypasses it). Note: this is not the same as the cvs -n program option, which you can specify to the left of a cvs command! Available with the checkout, commit, export, and rtag commands. -P Prune empty directories. See node 'Removing directories' in the CVS manual. -p Pipe the files retrieved from the repository to standard output, rather than writing them in the current directory. Available with the checkout and update commands. -R Process directories recursively. This is the default for all cvs commands, with the exception of ls & rls. Available with the following commands: annotate, checkout, commit, diff, edit, editors, export, ls, rdiff, remove, rls, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers. -r tag -r tag[:date] Use the revision specified by the tag argument (and the date argument for the commands which accept it) instead of the default head revision. As well as arbitrary tags defined with the tag or rtag command, two special tags are always available: HEAD refers to the most recent version available in the repository (also known as the tip of the MAIN branch, also known as trunk; the name of a branch refers to its tip; this version of cvs introduces .bhead, but only for the diff command, for the same), and BASE refers to the revision you last checked out into the current working directory. The tag specification is sticky when you use this with checkout or update to make your own copy of a file: cvs remembers the tag and continues to use it on future update commands, until you specify otherwise (for more information on sticky tags/dates, see node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS manual). The tag can be either a symbolic or numeric tag, as described in node 'Tags' in the CVS manual, or the name of a branch, as described in node 'Branching and merging' in the CVS manual. When tag is the name of a branch, some commands accept the optional date argument to specify the revision as of the given date on the branch. When a command expects a specific revision, the name of a branch is interpreted as the most recent revision on that branch. As a Debian and MirBSD cvs extension, specifying BASE as the date portion of the argument yields the base revision of the branch specified by the tag portion of the argument, i.e. the revision on the parent branch the tag branch split off, or, where both branches were the same. This option has not received very much testing, beware! Specifying the -q global option along with the -r command option is often useful, to suppress the warning messages when the rcs file does not contain the specified tag. Note: this is not the same as the overall cvs -r option, which you can specify to the left of a cvs command! -r tag is available with the commit and history commands. -r tag[:date] is available with the annotate, checkout, diff, export, rdiff, rtag, and update commands. -W Specify file names that should be filtered. You can use this option repeatedly. The spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvswrappers file. Available with the following commands: import, and update.  #### admin  Administration front-end for RCS · Requires: repository, working directory. · Changes: repository. · Synonym: rcs This is the cvs interface to assorted administrative facilities. Some of them have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for historical purposes. Some of the questionable options are likely to disappear in the future. This command does work recursively, so extreme care should be used. On unix, if there is a group named cvsadmin, only members of that group can run cvs admin commands, except for those specified using the UserAdminOptions configuration option in the CVSROOT/config file. Options specified using UserAdminOptions can be run by any user. See node 'config' in the CVS manual for more on UserAdminOptions. The cvsadmin group should exist on the server, or any system running the non-client/server cvs. To disallow cvs admin for all users, create a group with no users in it. On NT, the cvsadmin feature does not exist and all users can run cvs admin.  #### adminoptions  Some of these options have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for historical purposes. Some even make it impossible to use cvs until you undo the effect! -Aoldfile Might not work together with cvs. Append the access list of oldfile to the access list of the rcs file. -alogins Might not work together with cvs. Append the login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins to the access list of the rcs file. -b[rev] Set the default branch to rev. In cvs, you normally do not manipulate default branches; sticky tags (see node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS manual) are a better way to decide which branch you want to work on. There is one reason to run cvs admin -b: to revert to the vendor's version when using vendor branches (see node 'Reverting local changes' in the CVS manual). There can be no space between -b and its argument. -cstring Sets the comment leader to string. The comment leader is not used by current versions of cvs or rcs 5.7. Therefore, you can almost surely not worry about it. See node 'Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual. -e[logins] Might not work together with cvs. Erase the login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins from the access list of the RCS file. If logins is omitted, erase the entire access list. There can be no space between -e and its argument. -I Run interactively, even if the standard input is not a terminal. This option does not work with the client/server cvs and is likely to disappear in a future release of cvs. -i Useless with cvs. This creates and initialises a new rcs file, without depositing a revision. With cvs, add files with the cvs add command (see node 'Adding files' in the CVS manual). -ksubst Set the default keyword substitution to subst. See node 'Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual. Giving an explicit -k option to cvs update, cvs export, or cvs checkout overrides this default. -l[rev] Lock the revision with number rev. If a branch is given, lock the latest revision on that branch. If rev is omitted, lock the latest revision on the default branch. There can be no space between -l and its argument. This can be used in conjunction with the rcslock.pl script in the contrib directory of the cvs source distribution to provide reserved checkouts (where only one user can be editing a given file at a time). See the comments in that file for details (and see the README file in that directory for disclaimers about the unsupported nature of contrib). According to comments in that file, locking must set to strict (which is the default). -L Set locking to strict. Strict locking means that the owner of an RCS file is not exempt from locking for checkin. For use with cvs, strict locking must be set; see the discussion under the -l option above. -mrev:msg Replace the log message of revision rev with msg. -Nname[:[rev]] Act like -n, except override any previous assignment of name. For use with magic branches, see node 'Magic branch numbers' in the CVS manual. -nname[:[rev]] Associate the symbolic name name with the branch or revision rev. It is normally better to use cvs tag or cvs rtag instead. Delete the symbolic name if both : and rev are omitted; otherwise, print an error message if name is already associated with another number. If rev is symbolic, it is expanded before association. A rev consisting of a branch number followed by a . stands for the current latest revision in the branch. A : with an empty rev stands for the current latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk. For example, cvs admin -nname: associates name with the current latest revision of all the RCS files; this contrasts with cvs admin -nname:$  which  associates
name  with  the  revision  numbers  extracted  from keyword strings in the corresponding
working files.

-orange

Deletes (outdates) the revisions given by range.

Note that this command can be quite dangerous unless you know exactly what you are doing
(for example see the warnings below about how the rev1:rev2 syntax is confusing).

If  you  are short on disc this option might help you.  But think twice before using it—
there is no way short of restoring the latest backup  to  undo  this  command!   If  you
delete  different  revisions  than  you  planned,  either due to carelessness or (heaven
forbid) a cvs bug, there is no opportunity to correct the error before the revisions are
deleted.   It  probably  would  be a good idea to experiment on a copy of the repository
first.

Specify range in one of the following ways:

rev1::rev2

Collapse all revisions between rev1 and rev2, so that cvs only stores the  differences
associated  with  going from rev1 to rev2, not intermediate steps.  For example, after
-o 1.3::1.5 one can retrieve revision 1.3, revision 1.5, or  the  differences  to  get
from  1.3  to  1.5,  but not the revision 1.4, or the differences between 1.3 and 1.4.
Other examples: -o 1.3::1.4 and -o 1.3::1.3 have  no  effect,  because  there  are  no
intermediate revisions to remove.

::rev

Collapse  revisions between the beginning of the branch containing rev and rev itself.
The branchpoint and rev are left intact.  For example, -o ::1.3.2.6  deletes  revision
1.3.2.1,  revision  1.3.2.5,  and  everything  in  between, but leaves 1.3 and 1.3.2.6
intact.

rev::

Collapse revisions between rev and the end of the branch containing rev.  Revision rev
is left intact but the head revision is deleted.

rev

Delete the revision rev.  For example, -o 1.3 is equivalent to -o 1.2::1.4.

rev1:rev2

Delete  the  revisions from rev1 to rev2, inclusive, on the same branch.  One will not
be able to retrieve rev1 or rev2 or any of the revisions in between.  For example, the
command cvs admin -oR_1_01:R_1_02 . is rarely useful.  It means to delete revisions up
to, and including, the tag R_1_02.  But beware!  If there  are  files  that  have  not
changed  between  R_1_02  and  R_1_03  the  file will have the same numerical revision
number assigned to the tags R_1_02 and R_1_03.  So not only will it be  impossible  to
retrieve  R_1_02;  R_1_03 will also have to be restored from the tapes!  In most cases
you want to specify rev1::rev2 instead.

:rev

Delete revisions from the beginning of the branch containing rev up to  and  including
rev.

rev:

Delete  revisions  from  revision  rev, including rev itself, to the end of the branch
containing rev.

None of the revisions to be deleted may have branches or locks.

If any of the revisions to be deleted have symbolic names, and one  specifies  one  of
the  ::  syntaxes,  then  cvs will give an error and not delete any revisions.  If you
really want to delete both the symbolic names and  the  revisions,  first  delete  the
symbolic  names  with  cvs tag -d, then run cvs admin -o.  If one specifies the non-::
syntaxes, then cvs will delete the revisions but leave the symbolic names pointing  to
nonexistent  revisions.   This  behavior  is preserved for compatibility with previous
versions of cvs, but because it isn't very useful, in the future it may change  to  be
like the :: case.

Due  to  the  way cvs handles branches rev cannot be specified symbolically if it is a
branch.  See node 'Magic branch numbers' in the CVS manual, for an explanation.

Make sure that no-one has checked out a copy of the  revision  you  outdate.   Strange
things  will  happen  if he starts to edit it and tries to check it back in.  For this
reason, this option is not a good way to take  back  a  bogus  commit;  commit  a  new
revision undoing the bogus change instead (see node 'Merging two revisions' in the CVS
manual).

-q

Run quietly; do not print diagnostics.

-sstate[:rev]

Useful with cvs.  Set the state attribute of the revision rev to state.   If  rev  is  a
branch number, assume the latest revision on that branch.  If rev is omitted, assume the
latest revision on the default branch.  Any  identifier  is  acceptable  for  state.   A
useful  set  of  states  is  Exp  (for  experimental),  Stab  (for stable), and Rel (for
released).  By default, the state of a new revision is set to Exp when  it  is  created.
The  state is visible in the output from cvs log (see node 'log' in the CVS manual), and
in the $Log$ and $State$ keywords (see node 'Keyword substitution' in the  CVS  manual).
Note  that  cvs  uses  the  dead state for its own purposes (see node 'Attic' in the CVS
manual); to take a file to or from the dead state use commands like cvs remove  and  cvs

-t[file]

Useful  with  cvs.   Write descriptive text from the contents of the named file into the
RCS file, deleting the existing text.  The file pathname may  not  begin  with  -.   The
descriptive  text  can  be  seen  in  the output from cvs log (see node 'log' in the CVS
manual).  There can be no space between -t and its argument.

If file is omitted, obtain the text from standard input, terminated by end-of-file or by
a line containing . by itself.  Prompt for the text if interaction is possible; see -I.

-t-string

Similar  to  -tfile.  Write descriptive text from the string into the rcs file, deleting
the existing text.  There can be no space between -t and its argument.

-U

Set locking to non-strict.  Non-strict locking means that the owner of a file  need  not
lock  a  revision  for  checkin.   For use with cvs, strict locking must be set; see the
discussion under the -l option above.

-u[rev]

See the option -l above, for a discussion of using this option  with  cvs.   Unlock  the
revision  with  number  rev.   If  a branch is given, unlock the latest revision on that
branch.  If rev is omitted, remove the latest lock held by the caller.   Normally,  only
the  locker  of  a revision may unlock it; somebody else unlocking a revision breaks the
lock.  This causes the original locker to  be  sent  a  commit  notification  (see  node
'Getting  Notified'  in  the  CVS  manual).   There  can  be no space between -u and its
argument.

-Vn

In previous versions of cvs, this option meant to write  an  rcs  file  which  would  be
acceptable  to  rcs  version n, but it is now obsolete and specifying it will produce an
error.

-xsuffixes

In previous versions of cvs, this was documented as a way of specifying the names of the
rcs  files.   However, cvs has always required that the rcs files used by cvs end in ,v,
so this option has never done anything useful.



#### annotate

   What revision modified each line of a file?
· Synopsis: annotate [options] files...

rannotate [options] files...

· Requires: repository.

· Changes: nothing.

For each file in files, print the head revision of the trunk, together with  information
on  the last modification for each line.  If backwards annotation is requested, show the
first modification  after  the  specified  revision.   (Backwards  annotation  currently
appears to be broken.)



#### annotateoptions

       These  standard  options  are  supported by annotate (see node 'Common options' in the CVS
manual, for a complete description of them):

-b

Backwards, show when a line was removed.  Currently appears to be broken.

-l

Local directory only, no recursion.

-R

Process directories recursively.

-f

-F

Annotate binary files.

-r tag[:date]

Annotate file as of specified revision/tag or, when date  is  specified  and  tag  is  a
branch  tag,  the  version  from the branch tag as it existed on date.  See node 'Common
options' in the CVS manual.

-D date

Annotate file as of specified date.



#### annotateexample

       For example:

$cvs annotate ssfile Annotations for ssfile *************** 1.1 (mary 27-Mar-96): ssfile line 1 1.2 (joe 28-Mar-96): ssfile line 2 The file ssfile currently contains two lines. The ssfile line 1 line was checked in by mary on March 27. Then, on March 28, joe added a line ssfile line 2, without modifying the ssfile line 1 line. This report doesn't tell you anything about lines which have been deleted or replaced; you need to use cvs diff for that (see node 'diff' in the CVS manual). The options to cvs annotate are listed in node 'Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual, and can be used to select the files and revisions to annotate. The options are described in more detail there and in node 'Common options' in the CVS manual.  #### checkout  Check out sources for editing · Synopsis: checkout [options] modules... · Requires: repository. · Changes: working directory. · Synonyms: co, get Create or update a working directory containing copies of the source files specified by modules. You must execute checkout before using most of the other cvs commands, since most of them operate on your working directory. The modules are either symbolic names for some collection of source directories and files, or paths to directories or files in the repository. The symbolic names are defined in the modules file. See node 'modules' in the CVS manual. Depending on the modules you specify, checkout may recursively create directories and populate them with the appropriate source files. You can then edit these source files at any time (regardless of whether other software developers are editing their own copies of the sources); update them to include new changes applied by others to the source repository; or commit your work as a permanent change to the source repository. Note that checkout is used to create directories. The top-level directory created is always added to the directory where checkout is invoked, and usually has the same name as the specified module. In the case of a module alias, the created sub-directory may have a different name, but you can be sure that it will be a sub-directory, and that checkout will show the relative path leading to each file as it is extracted into your private work area (unless you specify the -Q global option). The files created by checkout are created read-write, unless the -r option to cvs (see node 'Global options' in the CVS manual) is specified, the CVSREAD environment variable is specified (see node 'Environment variables' in the CVS manual), or a watch is in effect for that file (see node 'Watches' in the CVS manual). Note that running checkout on a directory that was already built by a prior checkout is also permitted. This is similar to specifying the -d option to the update command in the sense that new directories that have been created in the repository will appear in your work area. However, checkout takes a module name whereas update takes a directory name. Also to use checkout this way it must be run from the top level directory (where you originally ran checkout from), so before you run checkout to update an existing directory, don't forget to change your directory to the top level directory. For the output produced by the checkout command see node 'update output' in the CVS manual.  #### checkoutoptions  These standard options are supported by checkout (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them): -D date Use the most recent revision no later than date. This option is sticky, and implies -P. See node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates. -f Only useful with the -D or -r flags. If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file). -k kflag Process keywords according to kflag. See node 'Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual. This option is sticky; future updates of this file in this working directory will use the same kflag. The status command can be viewed to see the sticky options. See node 'Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual, for more information on the status command. -l Local; run only in current working directory. -n Do not run any checkout program (as specified with the -o option in the modules file; see node 'modules' in the CVS manual). -P Prune empty directories. See node 'Moving directories' in the CVS manual. -p Pipe files to the standard output. -R Checkout directories recursively. This option is on by default. -r tag[:date] Checkout the revision specified by tag or, when date is specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on date. This option is sticky, and implies -P. See node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates. Also, see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual. In addition to those, you can use these special command options with checkout: -A Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options. See node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates. -c Copy the module file, sorted, to the standard output, instead of creating or modifying any files or directories in your working directory. -d dir Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using the module name. In general, using this flag is equivalent to using mkdir dir; cd dir followed by the checkout command without the -d flag. There is an important exception, however. It is very convenient when checking out a single item to have the output appear in a directory that doesn't contain empty intermediate directories. In this case only, cvs tries to shorten'' pathnames to avoid those empty directories. For example, given a module foo that contains the file bar.c, the command cvs co -d dir foo will create directory dir and place bar.c inside. Similarly, given a module bar which has subdirectory baz wherein there is a file quux.c, the command cvs co -d dir bar/baz will create directory dir and place quux.c inside. Using the -N flag will defeat this behavior. Given the same module definitions above, cvs co -N -d dir foo will create directories dir/foo and place bar.c inside, while cvs co -N -d dir bar/baz will create directories dir/bar/baz and place quux.c inside. -j tag With two -j options, merge changes from the revision specified with the first -j option to the revision specified with the second j option, into the working directory. With one -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to the revision specified with the -j option, into the working directory. The ancestor revision is the common ancestor of the revision which the working directory is based on, and the revision specified in the -j option. In addition, each -j option can contain an optional date specification which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to one within a specific date. An optional date is specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier. See node 'Branching and merging' in the CVS manual. -N Only useful together with -d dir. With this option, cvs will not shorten'' module paths in your working directory when you check out a single module. See the -d flag for examples and a discussion. -s Like -c, but include the status of all modules, and sort it by the status string. See node 'modules' in the CVS manual, for info about the -s option that is used inside the modules file to set the module status.  #### checkoutexamples  Get a copy of the module tc:$ cvs checkout tc

Get a copy of the module tc as it looked one day ago:

$cvs commit -r 1.8 file The -f option disables recursion (i.e., it implies -l). To force cvs to commit a new revision for all files in all subdirectories, you must use -f -R. -m message Use message as the log message, instead of invoking an editor.  #### commitexamples  Committing to a branch You can commit to a branch revision (one that has an even number of dots) with the -r option. To create a branch revision, use the -b option of the rtag or tag commands (see node 'Branching and merging' in the CVS manual). Then, either checkout or update can be used to base your sources on the newly created branch. From that point on, all commit changes made within these working sources will be automatically added to a branch revision, thereby not disturbing main-line development in any way. For example, if you had to create a patch to the 1.2 version of the product, even though the 2.0 version is already under development, you might do:$ cvs rtag -b -r FCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module
$cvs checkout -r FCS1_2_Patch product_module$ cd product_module
[[ hack away ]]
$cvs commit This works automatically since the -r option is sticky. Creating the branch after editing Say you have been working on some extremely experimental software, based on whatever revision you happened to checkout last week. If others in your group would like to work on this software with you, but without disturbing main-line development, you could commit your change to a new branch. Others can then checkout your experimental stuff and utilise the full benefit of cvs conflict resolution. The scenario might look like: [[ hacked sources are present ]]$ cvs tag -b EXPR1
$cvs update -r EXPR1$ cvs commit

The  update  command  will  make  the -r EXPR1 option sticky on all files.  Note that your
changes to the files will never be  removed  by  the  update  command.   The  commit  will
automatically  commit  to the correct branch, because the -r is sticky.  You could also do
like this:

[[ hacked sources are present ]]
$cvs tag -b EXPR1$ cvs commit -r EXPR1

but then, only those files that were changed by you will have the -r  EXPR1  sticky  flag.
If  you  hack  away,  and  commit  without  specifying  the  -r EXPR1 flag, some files may
accidentally end up on the main trunk.

To work with you on the experimental change, others would simply do

cvs checkout -r EXPR1 whatever_module  #### diff  Show differences between revisions · Synopsis: diff [-lR] [-k kflag] [format_options] [(-r rev1[:date1] | -D date1) [-r rev2[:date2] | -D date2]] [files...] · Requires: working directory, repository. · Changes: nothing. The diff command is used to compare different revisions of files. The default action is to compare your working files with the revisions they were based on, and report any differences that are found. If any file names are given, only those files are compared. If any directories are given, all files under them will be compared. The exit status for diff is different than for other cvs commands; for details see node 'Exit status' in the CVS manual.  #### diffoptions  These standard options are supported by diff (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them): -D date Use the most recent revision no later than date. See -r for how this affects the comparison. -k kflag Process keywords according to kflag. See node 'Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual. -l Local; run only in current working directory. -R Examine directories recursively. This option is on by default. -r tag[:date] Compare with revision specified by tag or, when date is specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on date. Zero, one or two -r options can be present. With no -r option, the working file will be compared with the revision it was based on. With one -r, that revision will be compared to your current working file. With two -r options those two revisions will be compared (and your working file will not affect the outcome in any way). One or both -r options can be replaced by a -D date option, described above. The following options specify the format of the output. They have the same meaning as in GNU diff. Most options have two equivalent names, one of which is a single letter preceded by -, and the other of which is a long name preceded by --. -lines Show lines (an integer) lines of context. This option does not specify an output format by itself; it has no effect unless it is combined with -c or -u. This option is obsolete. For proper operation, patch typically needs at least two lines of context. -a Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they do not seem to be text. -b Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences of one or more white space characters to be equivalent. -B Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines. --binary Read and write data in binary mode. --brief Report only whether the files differ, not the details of the differences. -c Use the context output format. -C lines --context[=lines] Use the context output format, showing lines (an integer) lines of context, or three if lines is not given. For proper operation, patch typically needs at least two lines of context. --changed-group-format=format Use format to output a line group containing differing lines from both files in if-then-else format. See node 'Line group formats' in the CVS manual. -d Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes. This makes diff slower (sometimes much slower). -e --ed Make output that is a valid ed script. --expand-tabs Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to preserve the alignment of tabs in the input files. -f Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has changes in the order they appear in the file. -F regexp In context and unified format, for each hunk of differences, show some of the last preceding line that matches regexp. --forward-ed Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has changes in the order they appear in the file. -H Use heuristics to speed handling of large files that have numerous scattered small changes. --horizon-lines=lines Do not discard the last lines lines of the common prefix and the first lines lines of the common suffix. -i Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case letters equivalent. -I regexp Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp. --ifdef=name Make merged if-then-else output using name. --ignore-all-space Ignore white space when comparing lines. --ignore-blank-lines Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines. --ignore-case Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case to be the same. --ignore-matching-lines=regexp Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp. --ignore-space-change Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences of one or more white space characters to be equivalent. --initial-tab Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal or context format. This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to look normal. -L label Use label instead of the file name in the context format and unified format headers. --label=label Use label instead of the file name in the context format and unified format headers. --left-column Print only the left column of two common lines in side by side format. --line-format=format Use format to output all input lines in if-then-else format. See node 'Line formats' in the CVS manual. --minimal Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes. This makes diff slower (sometimes much slower). -n Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each command specifies the number of lines affected. -N --new-file In directory comparison, if a file is found in only one directory, treat it as present but empty in the other directory. --new-group-format=format Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the second file in if-then-else format. See node 'Line group formats' in the CVS manual. --new-line-format=format Use format to output a line taken from just the second file in if-then-else format. See node 'Line formats' in the CVS manual. --old-group-format=format Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the first file in if-then-else format. See node 'Line group formats' in the CVS manual. --old-line-format=format Use format to output a line taken from just the first file in if-then-else format. See node 'Line formats' in the CVS manual. -p Show which C function each change is in. --rcs Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each command specifies the number of lines affected. --report-identical-files -s Report when two files are the same. --show-c-function Show which C function each change is in. --show-function-line=regexp In context and unified format, for each hunk of differences, show some of the last preceding line that matches regexp. --side-by-side Use the side by side output format. --speed-large-files Use heuristics to speed handling of large files that have numerous scattered small changes. --suppress-common-lines Do not print common lines in side by side format. -t Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to preserve the alignment of tabs in the input files. -T Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal or context format. This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to look normal. --text Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they do not appear to be text. -u Use the unified output format. --unchanged-group-format=format Use format to output a group of common lines taken from both files in if-then-else format. See node 'Line group formats' in the CVS manual. --unchanged-line-format=format Use format to output a line common to both files in if-then-else format. See node 'Line formats' in the CVS manual. -U lines --unified[=lines] Use the unified output format, showing lines (an integer) lines of context, or three if lines is not given. For proper operation, patch typically needs at least two lines of context. -w Ignore white space when comparing lines. -W columns --width=columns Use an output width of columns in side by side format. -y Use the side by side output format.  #### Linegroupformats  Line group formats let you specify formats suitable for many applications that allow if-then-else input, including programming languages and text formatting languages. A line group format specifies the output format for a contiguous group of similar lines. For example, the following command compares the TeX file myfile with the original version from the repository, and outputs a merged file in which old regions are surrounded by \begin{em}-\end{em} lines, and new regions are surrounded by \begin{bf}-\end{bf} lines. cvs diff \ --old-group-format='\begin{em} %<\end{em} ' \ --new-group-format='\begin{bf} %>\end{bf} ' \ myfile The following command is equivalent to the above example, but it is a little more verbose, because it spells out the default line group formats. cvs diff \ --old-group-format='\begin{em} %<\end{em} ' \ --new-group-format='\begin{bf} %>\end{bf} ' \ --unchanged-group-format='%=' \ --changed-group-format='\begin{em} %<\end{em} \begin{bf} %>\end{bf} ' \ myfile Here is a more advanced example, which outputs a diff listing with headers containing line numbers in a plain English'' style. cvs diff \ --unchanged-group-format='' \ --old-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) deleted at %df: %<' \ --new-group-format='-------- %dN line%(N=1?:s) added after %de: %>' \ --changed-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) changed at %df: %<-------- to: %>' \ myfile To specify a line group format, use one of the options listed below. You can specify up to four line group formats, one for each kind of line group. You should quote format, because it typically contains shell metacharacters. --old-group-format=format These line groups are hunks containing only lines from the first file. The default old group format is the same as the changed group format if it is specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs the line group as-is. --new-group-format=format These line groups are hunks containing only lines from the second file. The default new group format is same as the changed group format if it is specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs the line group as-is. --changed-group-format=format These line groups are hunks containing lines from both files. The default changed group format is the concatenation of the old and new group formats. --unchanged-group-format=format These line groups contain lines common to both files. The default unchanged group format is a format that outputs the line group as-is. In a line group format, ordinary characters represent themselves; conversion specifications start with % and have one of the following forms. %< stands for the lines from the first file, including the trailing newline. Each line is formatted according to the old line format (see node 'Line formats' in the CVS manual). %> stands for the lines from the second file, including the trailing newline. Each line is formatted according to the new line format. %= stands for the lines common to both files, including the trailing newline. Each line is formatted according to the unchanged line format. %% stands for %. %c'C' where C is a single character, stands for C. C may not be a backslash or an apostrophe. For example, %c':' stands for a colon, even inside the then-part of an if-then-else format, which a colon would normally terminate. %c'\O' where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the character with octal code O. For example, %c'\0' stands for a null character. Fn where F is a printf conversion specification and n is one of the following letters, stands for n's value formatted with F. e The line number of the line just before the group in the old file. f The line number of the first line in the group in the old file; equals e + 1. l The line number of the last line in the group in the old file. m The line number of the line just after the group in the old file; equals l + 1. n The number of lines in the group in the old file; equals l - f + 1. E, F, L, M, N Likewise, for lines in the new file. The printf conversion specification can be %d, %o, %x, or %X, specifying decimal, octal, lower case hexadecimal, or upper case hexadecimal output respectively. After the % the following options can appear in sequence: a - specifying left-justification; an integer specifying the minimum field width; and a period followed by an optional integer specifying the minimum number of digits. For example, %5dN prints the number of new lines in the group in a field of width 5 characters, using the printf format "%5d". (A=B?T:E) If A equals B then T else E. A and B are each either a decimal constant or a single letter interpreted as above. This format spec is equivalent to T if A's value equals B's; otherwise it is equivalent to E. For example, %(N=0?no:%dN) line%(N=1?:s) is equivalent to no lines if N (the number of lines in the group in the new file) is 0, to 1 line if N is 1, and to %dN lines otherwise.  #### Lineformats  Line formats control how each line taken from an input file is output as part of a line group in if-then-else format. For example, the following command outputs text with a one-column change indicator to the left of the text. The first column of output is - for deleted lines, | for added lines, and a space for unchanged lines. The formats contain newline characters where newlines are desired on output. cvs diff \ --old-line-format='-%l ' \ --new-line-format='|%l ' \ --unchanged-line-format=' %l ' \ myfile To specify a line format, use one of the following options. You should quote format, since it often contains shell metacharacters. --old-line-format=format formats lines just from the first file. --new-line-format=format formats lines just from the second file. --unchanged-line-format=format formats lines common to both files. --line-format=format formats all lines; in effect, it sets all three above options simultaneously. In a line format, ordinary characters represent themselves; conversion specifications start with % and have one of the following forms. %l stands for the contents of the line, not counting its trailing newline (if any). This format ignores whether the line is incomplete. %L stands for the contents of the line, including its trailing newline (if any). If a line is incomplete, this format preserves its incompleteness. %% stands for %. %c'C' where C is a single character, stands for C. C may not be a backslash or an apostrophe. For example, %c':' stands for a colon. %c'\O' where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the character with octal code O. For example, %c'\0' stands for a null character. Fn where F is a printf conversion specification, stands for the line number formatted with F. For example, %.5dn prints the line number using the printf format "%.5d". See node 'Line group formats' in the CVS manual, for more about printf conversion specifications. The default line format is %l followed by a newline character. If the input contains tab characters and it is important that they line up on output, you should ensure that %l or %L in a line format is just after a tab stop (e.g. by preceding %l or %L with a tab character), or you should use the -t or --expand-tabs option. Taken together, the line and line group formats let you specify many different formats. For example, the following command uses a format similar to diff's normal format. You can tailor this command to get fine control over diff's output. cvs diff \ --old-line-format='< %l ' \ --new-line-format='> %l ' \ --old-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)d%dE %<' \ --new-group-format='%dea%dF%(F=L?:,%dL) %>' \ --changed-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)c%dF%(F=L?:,%dL) %<— %>' \ --unchanged-group-format='' \ myfile  #### diffexamples  The following line produces a Unidiff (-u flag) between revision 1.14 and 1.19 of backend.c. Due to the -kk flag no keywords are substituted, so differences that only depend on keyword substitution are ignored. cvs diff -kk -u -r 1.14 -r 1.19 backend.c

Suppose  the experimental branch EXPR1 was based on a set of files tagged RELEASE_1_0.  To
see what has happened on that branch, the following can be used:

$cvs diff -r RELEASE_1_0 -r EXPR1 A command like this can be used to produce a context diff between two releases:$ cvs diff -c -r RELEASE_1_0 -r RELEASE_1_1 > diffs

If you are maintaining ChangeLogs, a command like the following  just  before  you  commit
not yet been committed will be printed.

$cvs diff -u | less  #### export  Export sources from CVS, similar to checkout · Synopsis: export [-flNnR] (-r rev[:date] | -D date) [-k subst] [-d dir] module... · Requires: repository. · Changes: current directory. This command is a variant of checkout; use it when you want a copy of the source for module without the cvs administrative directories. For example, you might use export to prepare source for shipment off-site. This command requires that you specify a date or tag (with -D or -r), so that you can count on reproducing the source you ship to others (and thus it always prunes empty directories). One often would like to use -kv with cvs export. This causes any keywords to be expanded such that an import done at some other site will not lose the keyword revision information. But be aware that doesn't handle an export containing binary files correctly. Also be aware that after having used -kv, one can no longer use the ident command (which is part of the rcs suite—see ident(1)) which looks for keyword strings. If you want to be able to use ident you must not use -kv.  #### exportoptions  These standard options are supported by export (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them): -D date Use the most recent revision no later than date. -f If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file). -l Local; run only in current working directory. -n Do not run any checkout program. -R Export directories recursively. This is on by default. -r tag[:date] Export the revision specified by tag or, when date is specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on date. See node 'Common options' in the CVS manual. In addition, these options (that are common to checkout and export) are also supported: -d dir Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using the module name. See node 'checkout options' in the CVS manual, for complete details on how cvs handles this flag. -k subst Set keyword expansion mode (see node 'Substitution modes' in the CVS manual). -N Only useful together with -d dir. See node 'checkout options' in the CVS manual, for complete details on how cvs handles this flag.  #### history  Show repository access history · Synopsis: history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files...] · Requires: the file$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history

· Changes: nothing.

cvs can keep a history log that tracks each use of  most  cvs  commands.   You  can  use
history to display this information in various formats.

To enable logging, the LogHistory config option must be set to some value other than the
empty string and the history  file  specified  by  the  HistoryLogPath  option  must  be
writable  by  all  users  who  may  run the cvs executable (see node 'config' in the CVS
manual).

To  enable  the  history  command,  logging  must  be   enabled   as   above   and   the
HistorySearchPath  config  option  (see  node 'config' in the CVS manual) must be set to
specify some number of the history logs created thereby and these files must be readable
by each user who might run the history command.

Creating  a  repository  via  the  cvs  init command will enable logging of all possible
events to a single history log  file  ($CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history) with read and write permissions for all users (see node 'Creating a repository' in the CVS manual). Note: history uses -f, -l, -n, and -p in ways that conflict with the normal use inside cvs (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual).  #### historyoptions  Several options (shown above as -report) control what kind of report is generated: -c Report on each time commit was used (i.e., each time the repository was modified). -e Everything (all record types). Equivalent to specifying -x with all record types. Of course, -e will also include record types which are added in a future version of cvs; if you are writing a script which can only handle certain record types, you'll want to specify -x. -m module Report on a particular module. (You can meaningfully use -m more than once on the command line.) -o Report on checked-out modules. This is the default report type. -T Report on all tags. -x type Extract a particular set of record types type from the cvs history. The types are indicated by single letters, which you may specify in combination. Certain commands have a single record type: F release O checkout E export T rtag One of five record types may result from an update: C A merge was necessary but collisions were detected (requiring manual merging). G A merge was necessary and it succeeded. U A working file was copied from the repository. P A working file was patched to match the repository. W The working copy of a file was deleted during update (because it was gone from the repository). One of three record types results from commit: A A file was added for the first time. M A file was modified. R A file was removed. The options shown as -flags constrain or expand the report without requiring option arguments: -a Show data for all users (the default is to show data only for the user executing history). -l Show last modification only. -w Show only the records for modifications done from the same working directory where history is executing. The options shown as -options args constrain the report based on an argument: -b str Show data back to a record containing the string str in either the module name, the file name, or the repository path. -D date Show data since date. This is slightly different from the normal use of -D date, which selects the newest revision older than date. -f file Show data for a particular file (you can specify several -f options on the same command line). This is equivalent to specifying the file on the command line. -n module Show data for a particular module (you can specify several -n options on the same command line). -p repository Show data for a particular source repository (you can specify several -p options on the same command line). -r rev Show records referring to revisions since the revision or tag named rev appears in individual rcs files. Each rcs file is searched for the revision or tag. -t tag Show records since tag tag was last added to the history file. This differs from the -r flag above in that it reads only the history file, not the rcs files, and is much faster. -u name Show records for user name. -z timezone Show times in the selected records using the specified time zone instead of UTC.  #### import  Import sources into CVS, using vendor branches · Synopsis: import [-options] repository vendortag releasetag... · Requires: Repository, source distribution directory. · Changes: repository. Use import to incorporate an entire source distribution from an outside source (e.g., a source vendor) into your source repository directory. You can use this command both for initial creation of a repository, and for wholesale updates to the module from the outside source. See node 'Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, for a discussion on this subject. The repository argument gives a directory name (or a path to a directory) under the cvs root directory for repositories; if the directory did not exist, import creates it. When you use import for updates to source that has been modified in your source repository (since a prior import), it will notify you of any files that conflict in the two branches of development; use checkout -j to reconcile the differences, as import instructs you to do. If cvs decides a file should be ignored (see node 'cvsignore' in the CVS manual), it does not import it and prints I followed by the filename (see node 'import output' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of the output). If the file$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/cvswrappers  exists,  any  file  whose  names  match the
specifications in that file will be treated as packages and  the  appropriate  filtering
will  be  performed on the file/directory before being imported.  See node 'Wrappers' in
the CVS manual.

The outside source is saved in a first-level branch,  by  default  1.1.1.   Updates  are
leaves  of  this branch; for example, files from the first imported collection of source
will be revision 1.1.1.1, then files from the first imported  update  will  be  revision
1.1.1.2, and so on.

At  least three arguments are required.  repository is needed to identify the collection
of source.  vendortag is a tag for the entire branch (e.g., for 1.1.1).  You  must  also
specify  at  least  one  releasetag to uniquely identify the files at the leaves created
each time you execute import.  The releasetag should be new, not previously existing  in
the repository file, and uniquely identify the imported release,

Note  that  import does not change the directory in which you invoke it.  In particular,
it does not set up that directory as a cvs working directory; if you want to  work  with
the  sources  import  them first and then check them out into a different directory (see
node 'Getting the source' in the CVS manual).



#### importoptions

       This standard option is supported by import (see node 'Common options' in the CVS  manual,
for a complete description):

-m message

There are the following additional special options.

-b branch

See node 'Multiple vendor branches' in the CVS manual.

-k subst

Indicate  the  keyword  expansion  mode  desired.   This setting will apply to all files
created during the import,  but  not  to  any  files  that  previously  existed  in  the
repository.   See  node  'Substitution  modes' in the CVS manual, for a list of valid -k
settings.

-I name

Specify file names that should be ignored  during  import.   You  can  use  this  option
repeatedly.  To avoid ignoring any files at all (even those ignored by default), specify
-I !'.

name can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the  .cvsignore
file.  See node 'cvsignore' in the CVS manual.

-W spec

Specify  file  names  that  should  be  filtered during import.  You can use this option
repeatedly.

spec can be a file  name  pattern  of  the  same  type  that  you  can  specify  in  the
.cvswrappers file. See node 'Wrappers' in the CVS manual.

-X

Modify  the  algorithm  used  by  cvs  when importing new files so that new files do not
immediately appear on the main trunk.

Specifically, this flag causes cvs to mark new files as if they were deleted on the main
trunk,  by  taking the following steps for each file in addition to those normally taken
on import: creating a new revision on the main trunk indicating that  the  new  file  is
dead,  resetting  the  new file's default branch, and placing the file in the Attic (see
node 'Attic' in the CVS manual) directory.

Use  of  this  option  can  be  forced  on  a  repository-wide  basis  by  setting   the
ImportNewFilesToVendorBranchOnly  option in CVSROOT/config (see node 'config' in the CVS
manual).



#### importoutput

       import keeps you informed of its progress by printing a line for each  file,  preceded  by
one character indicating the status of the file:

U file

The  file  already  exists  in  the  repository and has not been locally modified; a new
revision has been created (if necessary).

N file

The file is a new file which has been added to the repository.

C file

The file already exists in the repository but has been locally modified; you  will  have
to merge the changes.

I file

The file is being ignored (see node 'cvsignore' in the CVS manual).

L file

The  file  is  a  symbolic link; cvs import ignores symbolic links.  People periodically
suggest that this behavior should be changed, but if there is a  consensus  on  what  it
should  be  changed to, it is not apparent.  (Various options in the modules file can be
used to recreate symbolic links on checkout, update, etc.; see node 'modules' in the CVS
manual.)



#### importexamples

       See node 'Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, and node 'From files' in the CVS manual.



#### log

   Print out history information for files
· Synopsis: log [options] [files...]

rlog [options] [files...]

· Requires: repository, working directory.

· Changes: nothing.

Display  log  information  for  files.  log used to call the rcs utility rlog.  Although
this is no longer true in the current sources, this history determines the format of the
output and the options, which are not quite in the style of the other cvs commands.

The output includes the location of the rcs file, the head revision (the latest revision
on the trunk), all symbolic names (tags) and some other things.  For each revision,  the
revision  number,  the date, the author, the number of lines added/deleted, the commitid
and the log message are printed.  All dates are displayed in local time at  the  client.
This  is typically specified in the $TZ environment variable, which can be set to govern how log displays dates. Note: log uses -R in a way that conflicts with the normal use inside cvs (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual).  #### logoptions  By default, log prints all information that is available. All other options restrict the output. Note that the revision selection options (-d, -r, -s, and -w) have no effect, other than possibly causing a search for files in Attic directories, when used in conjunction with the options that restrict the output to only log header fields (-b, -h, -R, and -t) unless the -S option is also specified. -b Print information about the revisions on the default branch, normally the highest branch on the trunk. -d dates Print information about revisions with a checkin date/time in the range given by the semicolon-separated list of dates. The date formats accepted are those accepted by the -D option to many other cvs commands (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual). Dates can be combined into ranges as follows: d1<d2 d2>d1 Select the revisions that were deposited between d1 and d2. <d d> Select all revisions dated d or earlier. d< >d Select all revisions dated d or later. d Select the single, latest revision dated d or earlier. The > or < characters may be followed by = to indicate an inclusive range rather than an exclusive one. Note that the separator is a semicolon (;). -h Print only the name of the rcs file, name of the file in the working directory, head, default branch, access list, locks, symbolic names, and suffix. -l Local; run only in current working directory. (Default is to run recursively). -N Do not print the list of tags for this file. This option can be very useful when your site uses a lot of tags, so rather than "more"'ing over 3 pages of tag information, the log information is presented without tags at all. -R Print only the name of the rcs file. -rrevisions Print information about revisions given in the comma-separated list revisions of revisions and ranges. The following table explains the available range formats: rev1:rev2 Revisions rev1 to rev2 (which must be on the same branch). rev1::rev2 The same, but excluding rev1. :rev ::rev Revisions from the beginning of the branch up to and including rev. rev: Revisions starting with rev to the end of the branch containing rev. rev:: Revisions starting just after rev to the end of the branch containing rev. branch An argument that is a branch means all revisions on that branch. branch1:branch2 branch1::branch2 A range of branches means all revisions on the branches in that range. branch. The latest revision in branch. A bare -r with no revisions means the latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk. There can be no space between the -r option and its argument. -S Suppress the header if no revisions are selected. -s states Print information about revisions whose state attributes match one of the states given in the comma-separated list states. Individual states may be any text string, though cvs commonly only uses two states, Exp and dead. See node 'admin options' in the CVS manual for more information. -t Print the same as -h, plus the descriptive text. -wlogins Print information about revisions checked in by users with login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins. If logins is omitted, the user's login is assumed. There can be no space between the -w option and its argument. log prints the intersection of the revisions selected with the options -d, -s, and -w, intersected with the union of the revisions selected by -b and -r.  #### logexamples  Since log shows dates in local time, you might want to see them in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or some other timezone. To do this you can set your$TZ  environment  variable
before invoking cvs:

$TZ=UTC cvs log foo.c$ TZ=EST cvs log bar.c

(If  you  are  using  a  csh-style shell, like tcsh, you would need to prefix the examples
above with env.)



#### ls&rls

   List files in the repository
· ls [-e | -l] [-RP] [-r tag[:date]] [-D date] [path...]

rls [-e | -l] [-RP] [-r tag[:date]] [-D date] [path...]

· Requires: repository for rls, repository & working directory for ls.

· Changes: nothing.

· Synonym: dir & list are synonyms for ls and rdir & rlist are synonyms for rls.

The ls and rls commands are used to list files and directories in the repository.

By default ls lists the files and directories that belong  in  your  working  directory,
what would be there after an update.

By  default  rls  lists the files and directories on the tip of the trunk in the topmost
directory of the repository.

Both commands accept an optional list of file  and  directory  names,  relative  to  the
working  directory  for ls and the topmost directory of the repository for rls.  Neither
is recursive by default.



#### ls&rlsoptions

       These standard options are supported by ls & rls:

-d

Show dead revisions (with tag when specified).

-e

Display in CVS/Entries format.  This format  is  meant  to  remain  easily  parsable  by
automation.

-l

Display all details.

-P

Don't list contents of empty directories when recursing.

-R

List recursively.

-r tag[:date]

Show  files  specified  by  tag  or, when date is specified and tag is a branch tag, the
version from the branch tag as it existed on date.  See node 'Common options' in the CVS
manual.

-D date

Show files from date.



#### rlsexamples

         $cvs rls cvs rls: Listing module: .' CVSROOT first-dir$ cvs rls CVSROOT
cvs rls: Listing module: CVSROOT'
checkoutlist
commitinfo
config
cvswrappers
modules
notify
rcsinfo
taginfo
verifymsg



#### rdiff

   Create 'patch' format diffs between revisions
· rdiff  [-flags]  [-V  vn]  (-r  tag1[:date1]  |  -D  date1) [-r tag2[:date2] | -D date2]
modules...

· Requires: repository.

· Changes: nothing.

· Synonym: patch

Builds a Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two releases, that can be fed  directly
into  the  patch program to bring an old release up-to-date with the new release.  (This
is one of the few cvs commands that operates directly from the repository,  and  doesn't
require a prior checkout.) The diff output is sent to the standard output device.

You  can  specify  (using  the standard -r and -D options) any combination of one or two
revisions or dates.  If only one revision or date is specified, the patch file  reflects
differences  between  that  revision  or  date and the current head revisions in the rcs
file.

Note that if the software release affected is contained in more than one directory, then
it  may be necessary to specify the -p option to the patch command when patching the old
sources, so that patch is able to find the files that are located in other directories.



#### rdiffoptions

       These standard options are supported by rdiff  (see  node  'Common  options'  in  the  CVS
manual, for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later than date.

-f

If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring
the file).

-k kflag

Process keywords according to kflag.  See node 'Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual.

-l

Local; don't descend subdirectories.

-R

Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

-r tag

Use the revision specified by tag, or when date is specified and tag is  a  branch  tag,
the version from the branch tag as it existed on date.  See node 'Common options' in the
CVS manual.

In addition to the above, these options are available:

-c

Use the context diff format.  This is the default format.

-p

Show which C function each change is in.

-s

Create a summary change report instead of a patch.   The  summary  includes  information
about files that were changed or added between the releases.  It is sent to the standard
output device.  This is useful for finding out, for example, which  files  have  changed
between two dates or revisions.

-t

A  diff  of  the  top two revisions is sent to the standard output device.  This is most
useful for seeing what the last change to a file was.

-u

Use the unidiff format for the context diffs.  Remember that old versions of  the  patch
program  can't  handle  the unidiff format, so if you plan to post this patch to the net
you should probably not use -u.

-V vn

Expand keywords according to the rules current in rcs version vn (the  expansion  format
changed  with  rcs  version  5).  Note that this option is no longer accepted.  cvs will
always expand keywords the way that rcs version 5 does.



#### rdiffexamples

       Suppose you receive mail from foo@example.net asking for an update from release 1.2 to 1.4
of  the  tc  compiler.   You have no such patches on hand, but with cvs that can easily be
fixed with a command such as this:

$cvs rdiff -c -r FOO1_2 -r FOO1_4 tc | \$$Mail -s 'The patches you asked for' foo@example.net Suppose you have made release 1.3, and forked a branch called R_1_3fix for bug fixes. R_1_3_1 corresponds to release 1.3.1, which was made some time ago. Now, you want to see how much development has been done on the branch. This command can be used:$ cvs patch -s -r R_1_3_1 -r R_1_3fix module-name
cvs rdiff: Diffing module-name
File ChangeLog,v changed from revision 1.52.2.5 to 1.52.2.6
File foo.c,v changed from revision 1.52.2.3 to 1.52.2.4
File bar.h,v changed from revision 1.29.2.1 to 1.2



#### release

   Indicate that a directory is no longer in use
· release [-d] directories...

· Requires: Working directory.

· Changes: Working directory, history log.

This command is meant to safely cancel the effect of cvs checkout.   Since  cvs  doesn't
lock  files,  it  isn't  strictly  necessary to use this command.  You can always simply
delete your working directory, if you like; but you risk losing  changes  you  may  have
forgotten,  and  you  leave no trace in the cvs history file (see node 'history file' in
the CVS manual) that you've abandoned your checkout.

Use cvs release to avoid these  problems.   This  command  checks  that  no  uncommitted
changes  are  present;  that  you  are executing it from immediately above a cvs working
directory; and that the repository recorded for your files is the same as the repository
defined in the module database.

If  all  these  conditions  are  true,  cvs  release  leaves  a  record of its execution
(attesting to your intentionally abandoning your checkout) in the cvs history log.



#### releaseoptions

       The release command supports one command option:

-d

Delete your working copy of the file if the release succeeds.  If this flag is not given

WARNING:   The  release command deletes all directories and files recursively.  This has
the very serious side-effect that any  directory  that  you  have  created  inside  your
checked-out  sources,  and  not added to the repository (using the add command; see node
'Adding files' in the CVS manual) will be silently deleted—even if it is non-empty!



#### releaseoutput

       Before release releases your sources it will print a one-line message for any file that is
not up-to-date.

U file

P file

There  exists a newer revision of this file in the repository, and you have not modified
your local copy of the file (U and P mean the same thing).

A file

The file has been added to your private copy of  the  sources,  but  has  not  yet  been
committed  to  the repository.  If you delete your copy of the sources this file will be
lost.

R file

The file has been removed from your private copy of the sources, but has  not  yet  been
removed  from  the  repository,  since you have not yet committed the removal.  See node
'commit' in the CVS manual.

M file

The file is modified in your working directory.  There might also be  a  newer  revision
inside the repository.

? file

file  is  in  your  working directory, but does not correspond to anything in the source
repository, and is not in the list of files for cvs to ignore (see  the  description  of
the  -I option, and see node 'cvsignore' in the CVS manual).  If you remove your working
sources, this file will be lost.



#### releaseexamples

       Release the tc directory, and delete your local working copy of the files.

$cd .. # You must stand immediately above the # sources when you issue cvs release.$ cvs release -d tc
You have [0] altered files in this repository.
Are you sure you want to release (and delete) directory tc': y
$ #### server&pserver  Act as a server for a client on stdin/stdout · pserver [-c path] server [-c path] · Requires: repository, client conversation on stdin/stdout · Changes: Repository or, indirectly, client working directory. The cvs server and pserver commands are used to provide repository access to remote clients and expect a client conversation on stdin & stdout. Typically these commands are launched from inetd or via ssh (see node 'Remote repositories' in the CVS manual). server expects that the client has already been authenticated somehow, typically via ssh, and pserver attempts to authenticate the client itself. Only one option is available with the server and pserver commands: -c path Load configuration from path rather than the default location$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/config
(see node 'config' in the CVS manual).   path  must  be  /etc/cvs.conf  or  prefixed  by
/etc/cvs/.  This option is supported beginning with cvs release 1.12.13.



#### suck

   Download RCS ,v file raw
· suck module/pa/th

· Requires: repository

Locates  the  file  module/pa/th,v  or  module/pa/Attic/th,v and downloads it raw as RCS
comma-v file.

Output consists of  the  real  pathname  of  the  comma-v  file,  relative  to  the  CVS
repository, followed by a newline and the binary file content immediately thereafter.



#### update

   Bring work tree in sync with repository
· update  [-ACdflPpR] [-I name] [-j rev [-j rev]] [-k kflag] [-r tag[:date] | -D date] [-W
spec] files...

· Requires: repository, working directory.

· Changes: working directory.

After you've run checkout to  create  your  private  copy  of  source  from  the  common
repository,  other  developers  will continue changing the central source.  From time to
time, when it is convenient in your development process, you can use the update  command
from  within your working directory to reconcile your work with any revisions applied to
the source repository since your last checkout or update.  Without the -C option, update
will also merge any differences between the local copy of files and their base revisions
into any destination revisions specified with -r, -D, or -A.



#### updateoptions

       These standard options are available with update (see node 'Common  options'  in  the  CVS
manual, for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later than date.  This option is sticky, and implies -P.
See node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.

-f

Only useful with the -D or -r flags.  If no matching revision  is  found,  retrieve  the
most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file).

-k kflag

Process keywords according to kflag.  See node 'Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual.
This option is sticky; future updates of this file in this working  directory  will  use
the  same  kflag.  The status command can be viewed to see the sticky options.  See node
'Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual, for more information on the status command.

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.  See node 'Recursive behavior' in the  CVS
manual.

-P

Prune empty directories.  See node 'Moving directories' in the CVS manual.

-p

Pipe files to the standard output.

-R

Update  directories  recursively  (default).   See  node 'Recursive behavior' in the CVS
manual.

-r tag[:date]

Retrieve the revisions specified by tag or, when date is specified and tag is  a  branch
tag,  the version from the branch tag as it existed on date.  This option is sticky, and
implies -P.  See node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more  information  on  sticky
tags/dates. Also see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual.

These special options are also available with update.

-A

Reset  any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  See node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS manual,

-C

Overwrite locally modified files with clean copies from  the  repository  (the  modified
file is saved in .#file.revision, however).

-d

Create  any directories that exist in the repository if they're missing from the working
directory.  Normally, update acts only  on  directories  and  files  that  were  already

This  is  useful  for updating directories that were created in the repository since the
initial checkout; but it has an unfortunate side effect.  If  you  deliberately  avoided
certain  directories  in  the repository when you created your working directory (either
through use of a module name or by listing explicitly  the  files  and  directories  you
wanted  on the command line), then updating with -d will create those directories, which
may not be what you want.

-I name

Ignore files whose names match name (in your working directory) during the update.   You
can  specify  -I  more than once on the command line to specify several files to ignore.
Use -I ! to avoid ignoring any files at all.  See node 'cvsignore' in  the  CVS  manual,
for other ways to make cvs ignore some files.

-Wspec

Specify  file  names  that  should  be  filtered during update.  You can use this option
repeatedly.

spec can be a file  name  pattern  of  the  same  type  that  you  can  specify  in  the
.cvswrappers file. See node 'Wrappers' in the CVS manual.

-jrevision

With  two -j options, merge changes from the revision specified with the first -j option
to the revision specified with the second j option, into the working directory.

With one -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to the  revision  specified
with  the  -j  option,  into the working directory.  The ancestor revision is the common
ancestor of the revision which the working directory  is  based  on,  and  the  revision
specified in the -j option.

Note  that  using  a single -j tagname option rather than -j branchname to merge changes
from a branch will often not remove files which were removed on the  branch.   See  node
'Merging adds and removals' in the CVS manual, for more.

In  addition, each -j option can contain an optional date specification which, when used
with branches, can limit the chosen revision to one within a specific date.  An optional
date is specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

See node 'Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.



#### updateoutput

       update  and checkout keep you informed of their progress by printing a line for each file,
preceded by one character indicating the status of the file:

U file

The file was brought up to date with respect to the repository.  This is  done  for  any
file that exists in the repository but not in your working directory, and for files that
you haven't changed but are not the most recent versions available in the repository.

P file

Like U, but the cvs server sends a patch instead of an entire file.   This  accomplishes
the same thing as U using less bandwidth.

A file

The  file  has  been added to your private copy of the sources, and will be added to the
source repository when you run commit on the file.  This is a reminder to you  that  the
file needs to be committed.

R file

The  file  has  been  removed from your private copy of the sources, and will be removed
from the source repository when you run commit on the file.  This is a reminder  to  you
that the file needs to be committed.

M file

The file is modified in  your  working  directory.

M  can  indicate  one  of  two states for a file you're working on: either there were no
modifications to the same file in the repository, so that your file remains as you  last
saw  it; or there were modifications in the repository as well as in your copy, but they
were merged successfully, without conflict, in your working directory.

cvs will print some messages if it merges your work, and a backup copy of  your  working
file  (as it looked before you ran update) will be made.  The exact name of that file is
printed while update runs.

C file

A conflict was detected while trying to merge your changes to file with changes from the
source  repository.   file  (the  copy  in  your working directory) is now the result of
attempting to merge the two revisions; an unmodified copy of your file is also  in  your
working  directory,  with  the  name .#file.revision where revision is the revision that
your modified file started from.  Resolve the conflict as described in  node  'Conflicts
example'  in  the  CVS  manual.   (Note that some systems automatically purge files that
begin with .# if they have not been accessed for a few days.  If you intend  to  keep  a
copy  of  your original file, it is a very good idea to rename it.)  Under vms, the file
name starts with __ rather than .#.

? file

file is in your working directory, but does not correspond to  anything  in  the  source
repository,  and  is  not in the list of files for cvs to ignore (see the description of
the -I option, and see node 'cvsignore' in the CVS manual).



#### AUTHORS

       Dick Grune
Original author of the cvs shell script version posted to comp.sources.unix in  the
volume6  release  of  December,  1986.   Credited  with  much  of  the cvs conflict
resolution algorithms.

Brian Berliner
Coder and designer of the cvs program itself in April, 1989, based on the  original
work done by Dick.

Jeff Polk
Helped Brian with the design of the cvs module and vendor branch support and author
of the checkin(1) shell script (the ancestor of cvs import).

Larry Jones, Derek R. Price, and Mark D. Baushke
Have helped maintain cvs for many years.

And many others too numerous to mention here.



#### SEEALSO

       The most comprehensive manual for CVS is Version Management with CVS by Per Cederqvist  et
al. (see NOTE at top).