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NAME

       duc - index, query and graph disk usage

SYNOPSIS

       duc subcommand options

DESCRIPTION

       Duc is a collection of tools for inspecting and visualizing disk usage.

       Duc maintains an indexed database of accumulated sizes of directories of your file system,
       and allows you to query this database with some tools, or create fancy sunburst graphs  to
       show you where your bytes are.

       Duc  scales quite well, it has been tested on systems with more then 500 million files and
       several petabytes of storage.

USAGE

       Duc comes with a command line tool called duc, which is used to create, maintain and query
       the  disk  usage  database.  run  duc  help  to get a list of available commands. duc help
       <subcommand> describes the usage of a specific subcommand.  Run  duc  help  --all  for  an
       extensive list of all commands and their options.

       Duc  allows any option to be placed either on the command line or in a configuration file.
       Options on the command line are preceded by a double-leading-dash (--option), some options
       have  a  corresponding  short option which can be used as well with a single leading dash.
       (-o)

       At startup duc tries to read its configuration from three  locations  in  this  particular
       order: /etc/ducrc, ~/.config/duc/ducrc, ~/.ducrc and ./.ducrc.

       A  configuration file consists of sections and parameters. The section names correspond to
       the duc subcommands for which the parameters in that section apply. A section begins  with
       the  name  of  the section in square brackets and continues until the next section begins.
       Sections contain parameters, one per line, which consist  of  a  single  option  name  for
       boolean  flags,  or  an  option  name  and a value for options which take a value. See the
       EXAMPLES section for an example of the configuration file format.

CREATING THE INDEX

       Duc needs an index file of the file system before it is able to show any  information.  To
       create  the index, run the duc index command. For example, to create an index of your home
       directory run duc index ~

           $ duc index /usr
           Skipping lost+found: Permission denied
           Indexed 333823 files and 48200 directories, (35.0GB total) in 1 seconds

       The default location of the  database  is  $HOME/.duc.db.  To  use  a  different  database
       location,  use the DUC_DATABASE environment variable or specify the database location with
       the --database argument.

       You can run duc index at any time later to rebuild the index.

       By default Duc indexes  all  directories  it  encounters  during  file  system  traversal,
       including  special  file systems like /proc and /sys, and network file systems like NFS or
       Samba mounts. There are a few options to select what parts of your filesystem you want  to
       include  or  exclude  from  the  scan,  check  the  documentation  below  for  the options
       --one-file-system, --exclude, --fs-exclude and --fs-include for more details.

QUERYING THE INDEX

       Duc has various subcommands for querying or exploring the index:

       ·   duc info shows a list of available directory trees in the database, and the  time  and
           date of the last scan.

       ·   duc ls lists all files and directories under the given path on the console.

       ·   duc  ui  runs  a  ncurses  based  console user interface for exploring the file system
           usage.

       ·   duc gui starts a graphical (X11) interface representing the file system in a  sunburst
           graph.  Click  on a directory to redraw the graph from the perspective of the selected
           directory. Click in the center of the graph to go up one directory in the tree.

OPTIONS

       This section list all available subcommands and describes their usage and options.

   Global options
       These options apply to all Duc subcommands:

       --debug
              increase verbosity to debug level

       -h, --help
              show help

       -q, --quiet
              quiet mode, do not print any warning

       -v, --verbose
              increase verbosity

       --version
              output version information and exit

   duc help
       Options for command duc help [options]:

       -a, --all
              show complete help for all commands

   duc index
       The ´index´ subcommand performs a recursive scan of the given paths on the filesystem  and
       calculates  the  inclusive  size of all directories. The results are written to the index,
       and can later be queried by one of the other duc tools.

       Options for command duc index [options] PATH ...:

       -b, --bytes
              show file size in exact number of bytes

       -d, --database=VAL
              use database file VAL

       -e, --exclude=VAL
              exclude files matching VAL

       -H, --check-hard-links
              count hard links only once. if two or more hard links point to the same file,  only
              one of the hard links is displayed and counted

       -f, --force
              force writing in case of corrupted db

       --fs-exclude=VAL
              exclude file system type VAL during indexing. VAL is a comma separated list of file
              system types as found in your systems fstab, for example ext3,ext4,dosfs

       --fs-include=VAL
              include file system type VAL during indexing. VAL is a comma separated list of file
              system types as found in your systems fstab, for example ext3,ext4,dosfs

       --hide-file-names
              hide file names in index (privacy). the names of directories will be preserved, but
              the names of the individual files will be hidden

       -m, --max-depth=VAL
              limit directory names to given depth. when this option is given duc  will  traverse
              the  complete file system, but will only the first VAL levels of directories in the
              database to reduce the size of the index

       -x, --one-file-system
              skip directories on different file systems

       -p, --progress
              show progress during indexing

       --dry-run
              do not update database, just crawl

       --uncompressed
              do not use compression for database. Duc  enables  compression  if  the  underlying
              database  supports  this.  This  reduces  index size at the cost of slightly longer
              indexing time

   duc info
       Options for command duc info [options]:

       -a, --apparent
              show apparent instead of actual file size

       -b, --bytes
              show file size in exact number of bytes

       -d, --database=VAL
              select database file to use [~/.duc.db]

   duc ls
       The ´ls´ subcommand queries the duc database and lists the inclusive size of all files and
       directories  on  the  given  path.  If  no  path is given the current working directory is
       listed.

       Options for command duc ls [options] [PATH]:

       -a, --apparent
              show apparent instead of actual file size

       --ascii
              use ASCII characters instead of UTF-8 to draw tree

       -b, --bytes
              show file size in exact number of bytes

       -F, --classify
              append file type indicator (one of */) to entries

       -c, --color
              colorize output (only on ttys)

       --count
              show number of files instead of file size

       -d, --database=VAL
              select database file to use [~/.duc.db]

       --dirs-only
              list only directories, skip individual files

       --full-path
              show full path instead of tree in recursive view

       -g, --graph
              draw graph with relative size for each entry

       -l, --levels=VAL
              traverse up to ARG levels deep [4]

       -n, --name-sort
              sort output by name instead of by size

       -R, --recursive
              recursively list subdirectories

   duc xml
       Options for command duc xml [options] [PATH]:

       -d, --database=VAL
              select database file to use [~/.duc.db]

       -x, --exclude-files
              exclude file from xml output, only include directories

       -s, --min_size=VAL
              specify min size for files or directories

   duc graph
       The ´graph´ subcommand queries the duc database and generates a sunburst graph showing the
       disk  usage  of  the  given  path.  If no path is given a graph is created for the current
       working directory.

       By default the graph is written to the file ´duc.png´, which can be  overridden  by  using
       the  -o/--output  option.  The output can be sent to stdout by using the special file name
       ´-´.

       Options for command duc graph [options] [PATH]:

       -a, --apparent
              Show apparent instead of actual file size

       -d, --database=VAL
              select database file to use [~/.duc.db]

       --count
              show number of files instead of file size

       -f, --format=VAL
              select output format png|svg|pdf|html [png]

       --fuzz=VAL
              use radius fuzz factor when drawing graph [0.7]

       --gradient
              draw graph with color gradient

       -l, --levels=VAL
              draw up to ARG levels deep [4]

       -o, --output=VAL
              output file name [duc.png]

       --palette=VAL
              select palette. available  palettes  are:  size,  rainbow,  greyscale,  monochrome,
              classic

       --ring-gap=VAL
              leave a gap of VAL pixels between rings

       -s, --size=VAL
              image size [800]

   duc cgi
       Options for command duc cgi [options] [PATH]:

       -a, --apparent
              Show apparent instead of actual file size

       -b, --bytes
              show file size in exact number of bytes

       --count
              show number of files instead of file size

       --css-url=VAL
              url of CSS style sheet to use instead of default CSS

       -d, --database=VAL
              select database file to use [~/.duc.db]

       --footer=VAL
              select HTML file to include as footer

       --fuzz=VAL
              use radius fuzz factor when drawing graph [0.7]

       --gradient
              draw graph with color gradient

       --header=VAL
              select HTML file to include as header

       -l, --levels=VAL
              draw up to ARG levels deep [4]

       --list generate table with file list

       --palette=VAL
              select  palette.  available  palettes  are:  size,  rainbow, greyscale, monochrome,
              classic

       --ring-gap=VAL
              leave a gap of VAL pixels between rings

       -s, --size=VAL
              image size [800]

       --tooltip
              enable tooltip when hovering over the graph. enabling the  tooltip  will  cause  an
              asynchronous  HTTP  request  every time the mouse is moved and can greatly increase
              the HTTP traffic to the web server

   duc gui
       The ´gui´ subcommand queries the duc database and runs an  interactive  graphical  utility
       for  exploring  the  disk usage of the given path. If no path is given the current working
       directory is explored.

       The following keys can be used to navigate and alter the graph:

           +           increase maximum graph depth
           -           decrease maximum graph depth
           0           Set default graph depth
           a           Toggle between apparent and actual disk usage
           b           Toggle between exact byte count and abbreviated sizes
           c           Toggle between file size and file count
           f           toggle graph fuzz
           g           toggle graph gradient
           p           toggle palettes
           backspace   go up one directory

       Options for command duc gui [options] [PATH]:

       -a, --apparent
              show apparent instead of actual file size

       -b, --bytes
              show file size in exact number of bytes

       --count
              show number of files instead of file size

       --dark use dark background color

       -d, --database=VAL
              select database file to use [~/.duc.db]

       --fuzz=VAL
              use radius fuzz factor when drawing graph

       --gradient
              draw graph with color gradient

       -l, --levels=VAL
              draw up to VAL levels deep [4]

       --palette=VAL
              select palette. available  palettes  are:  size,  rainbow,  greyscale,  monochrome,
              classic

       --ring-gap=VAL
              leave a gap of VAL pixels between rings

   duc ui
       The  ´ui´  subcommand queries the duc database and runs an interactive ncurses utility for
       exploring the disk usage of the given path. If  no  path  is  given  the  current  working
       directory is explored.

       The following keys can be used to navigate and alter the file system:

           up, pgup, j:     move cursor up
           down, pgdn, k:   move cursor down
           home, 0:         move cursor to top
           end, $:          move cursor to bottom
           left, backspace: go up to parent directory (..)
           right, enter:    descent into selected directory
           a:               toggle between actual and apparent disk usage
           b:               toggle between exact and abbreviated sizes
           c:               Toggle between file size and file count
           h:               show help. press ´q´ to return to the main screen
           n:               toggle sort order between ´size´ and ´name´
           q, escape:       quit

       Options for command duc ui [options] [PATH]:

       -a, --apparent
              show apparent instead of actual file size

       -b, --bytes
              show file size in exact number of bytes

       --count
              show number of files instead of file size

       -d, --database=VAL
              select database file to use [~/.duc.db]

       -n, --name-sort
              sort output by name instead of by size

       --no-color
              do not use colors on terminal output

CGI INTERFACING

       The  duc  binary  has  support for a rudimentary CGI interface, currently only tested with
       apache. The CGI interface generates a simple HTML page with a list of indexed directories,
       and shows a clickable graph for navigating the file system. If the option --list is given,
       a list of top sized files/dirs is also written.

       Configuration is done by creating a simple shell script as .cgi in a  directory  which  is
       configured  for  CGI  execution  by  your web server (usually /usr/lib/cgi-bin). The shell
       script should simply start duc, and pass the location of the database to navigate.

       An example duc.cgi script would be

           #!/bin/sh
           /usr/local/bin/duc cgi -d /home/jenny/.duc.db

       ·   Make sure the database file is readable by the user (usually www-data)

       ·   Debugging is best done by inspecting the web server´s error log

       ·   Make sure the .cgi script has execute permissions (chmod +x duc.cgi)

       Some notes:

       ·   The HTML page is generated with a simple embedded CSS style sheet. If the style is not
           to  your  liking  you  can provide an external CSS url with the --css-url option which
           will then be used instead of the embedded style definition.

       ·   Add the option --list to generate a table of top sized files and  directories  in  the
           HTML page.

       ·   The  options  --header  and --footer allow you to insert your own HTML code before and
           after the main.

       The current CGI configuration is not very flexible, nor secure. It is not advised  to  run
       the CGI from public reachable web servers, use at your own risk.

A NOTE ON FILE SIZE AND DISK USAGE

       The concepts of ´file size´ and ´disk usage´ can be a bit confusing. Files on disk have an
       apparent size, which indicates how much bytes are in the file  from  the  users  point  of
       view;  this is the size reported by tools like ls -l. The apparent size can be any number,
       from 0 bytes up to several TB. The actual number of bytes which are used on the filesystem
       to  store the file can differ from this apparent size for a number of reasons: disks store
       data in blocks, which cause files to always take up a multiple of the  block  size,  files
       can  have  holes  (´sparse´  files),  and other technical reasons. This number is always a
       multiple of 512, which means that the actual size used for a file is almost always  a  bit
       more then its apparent size.

       Duc has two modes for counting file sizes:

       ·   apparent  size:  this  is  the  size as reported by ls. This number indicates the file
           length, which is usually smaller then the actual disk usage.

       ·   actual size: this is the size as reported by du and df. The actual file size tells you
           how much disk is actually used by a file, and is always a multiple of 512 bytes.

       The default mode used by duc is to use the ´actual size´. Most duc commands to report disk
       usage (duc ls, duc graph, duc gui, etc) have an option to change between these  two  modes
       (usually the -a), in the gui tool use the ´a´ key to toggle.

BUILDING from git

       If you use git clone to pull down the latest release, you will have to do the following:

       git clone https://github.com/zevv/duc
       cd duc
       aclocal
       automake --add-missing -c

       Then you can run the regular

       ./configure [ options ]
       make

       to the regular build of the software.

       A note for Redhat and derivates users. The package providing the development file for lmdb
       (lmdb-devel) does not include a lmdb.pc pkgconfig file. This could lead to  errors  during
       the configure phase:

       checking for LMDB... no
       configure: error: Package requirements (lmdb) were not met:

       To avoid the need to call pkg-config, you may set the environment variables
       LMDB_CFLAGS and LMDB_LIBS:

       LMDB_CFLAGS=" " LMDB_LIBS=-llmdb ./configure --with-db-backend=lmdb [ options ]

EXAMPLES

       Index the /usr directory, writing to the default database location ~/.duc.db:

           $ duc index /usr

       List all files and directories under /usr/local, showing relative file sizes in a graph:

           $ duc ls -Fg /usr/local
             4.7G lib/                 [+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++]
             3.1G share/               [++++++++++++++++++++++++++++               ]
             2.7G src/                 [++++++++++++++++++++++++                   ]
           814.9M bin/                 [+++++++                                    ]
           196.6M include/             [+                                          ]
            66.6M x86_64-w64-mingw32/  [                                           ]
            59.9M local/               [                                           ]
            38.8M i686-w64-mingw32/    [                                           ]
            20.3M sbin/                [                                           ]
            13.6M lib32/               [                                           ]
            13.3M libx32/              [                                           ]

       or use the -R options for the tree view:

           $ duc ls -RF /etc/logcheck
            24.0K `+- ignore.d.server/
             4.0K  |  `+- hddtemp
             4.0K  |   |- ntpdate
             4.0K  |   |- lirc
             4.0K  |   |- rsyslog
             4.0K  |   `- libsasl2-modules
             8.0K  |- ignore.d.workstation/
             4.0K  |   `- lirc
             8.0K  `- ignore.d.paranoid/
             4.0K      `- lirc

       Start the graphical interface to explore the file system using sunburst graphs:

           $ duc gui /usr

       Generate a graph of /usr/local in .png format:

           $ duc graph -o /tmp/usr.png /usr

       The  following sample configuration file defines default parameters for the duc ls and duc
       gui commands and defines a global option to configure the database path which is  used  by
       all subcommands

           [global]
           database /var/cache/duc.db

           [ls]
           recursive
           classify
           color

           [gui]
           fuzz 0.7
           palette rainbow
           levels 4

           [ui]
           color

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

       ·   What does the error ´Database version mismatch mean?´

           The  layout of the index database sometimes changes when new features are implemented.
           When you get this error you have probably upgraded to a newer version. Just remove the
           old database file and rebuild the index.

       ·   Duc crashes with a segmentation fault, is it that buggy?

           By  default  Duc  uses the Tokyocabinet database backend. Tokyocabinet is pretty fast,
           stores the database in a single file and has nice  compression  support  to  keep  the
           database small. Unfortunately, it is not always robust and sometimes chokes on corrupt
           database files. Try to remove the  database  and  rebuild  the  index.  If  the  error
           persists contact the authors.

FILES

       At  startup  duc  tries  to read its configuration from three locations in this particular
       order: /etc/ducrc, ~/.config/duc/ducrc, ~/.ducrc and ./.ducrc.

       Duc mainains an index of scanned directories, which defaults to ~/.duc.db. All tools  take
       the -d/--database option to override the database path.

AUTHORS

       ·   Ico Doornekamp duc@zevv.nl

       ·   John Stoffel john@stoffel.org

       Other contributors can be found in the Git log at GitHub.

LICENSE

       Duc  is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU
       General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; version 2 dated June,
       1991.  Duc  is  distributed  in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
       without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR  PURPOSE.
       See the GNU General Public License for more details.

                                           January 2017                                    DUC(1)