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       emacs - GNU project Emacs editor


       emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ... ]


       GNU  Emacs  is  a  version of Emacs, written by the author of the original (PDP-10) Emacs,
       Richard Stallman.  The user  functionality  of  GNU  Emacs  encompasses  everything  other
       editors do, and it is easily extensible since its editing commands are written in Lisp.

       The  primary  documentation  of  GNU  Emacs is in the GNU Emacs Manual, which you can read
       using Info, either from Emacs or as a standalone program.  Please look there for  complete
       and up-to-date documentation.  This man page is updated only when someone volunteers to do

       Emacs has an extensive interactive help facility, but the facility assumes that  you  know
       how to manipulate Emacs windows and buffers.  CTRL-h or F1 enters the Help facility.  Help
       Tutorial (CTRL-h t)  starts  an  interactive  tutorial  to  quickly  teach  beginners  the
       fundamentals  of  Emacs.   Help  Apropos  (CTRL-h  a) helps you find a command with a name
       matching a given pattern, Help Key (CTRL-h k) describes a given  key  sequence,  and  Help
       Function (CTRL-h f) describes a given Lisp function.

       GNU  Emacs's many special packages handle mail reading (RMail) and sending (Mail), outline
       editing (Outline), compiling (Compile), running subshells within  Emacs  windows  (Shell),
       running  a  Lisp  read-eval-print  loop  (Lisp-Interaction-Mode),  automated psychotherapy
       (Doctor), and much more.

   Emacs Options
       The following options are of general interest:

              file    Edit file.

              --file=file, --find-file=file, --visit=file
                      The same as specifying file directly as an argument.

              +number Go to the line specified by number (do not insert a space between  the  "+"
                      sign and the number).  This applies only to the next file specified.

                      Go to the specified line and column.

                      Change to directory.

              -q, --no-init-file
                      Do not load an init file.

              -nl, --no-shared-memory
                      Do not use shared memory.

                      Do not load the site-wide startup file.

              -nsl, --no-site-lisp
                      Do not add site-lisp directories to load-path.

                      Do not load a saved desktop.

              -Q, --quick
                      Similar  to  "-q  --no-site-file  --no-splash".   Also,  avoid processing X

                      Do not display a splash screen during start-up.

                      Enable Emacs Lisp debugger during the processing  of  the  user  init  file
                      ~/.emacs.  This is useful for debugging problems in the init file.

              -u user, --user=user
                      Load user's init file.

              -t file, --terminal=file
                      Use  specified  file  as  the terminal instead of using stdin/stdout.  This
                      must be the first argument specified in the command line.

              --daemon[=name], --bg-daemon[=name]
                      Start Emacs as a daemon, enabling the Emacs server and  disconnecting  from
                      the  terminal.   You  can  then  use  the  emacsclient (see emacsclient(1))
                      command to connect to the server (with optional name).

                      Like "--bg-daemon", but don't disconnect from the terminal.

                      Display Emacs version information and exit.

              --help  Display this help and exit.

       The following options  are  Lisp-oriented  (these  options  are  processed  in  the  order

              -f function, --funcall=function
                      Execute the lisp function function.

              -l file, --load=file
                      Load the lisp code in the file file.

              --eval=expr, --execute=expr
                      Evaluate the Lisp expression expr.

       The following options are useful when running Emacs as a batch editor:

              --batch Edit in batch mode.  The editor will send messages to stderr.  You must use
                      -l and -f options to specify files to execute and functions to call.

                      Run file as an Emacs Lisp script.

                      Insert contents of file into the current buffer.

              --kill  Exit Emacs while in batch mode.

              -L dir, --directory=dir
                      Add dir to the list of directories Emacs searches for Lisp files.

   Using Emacs with X
       Emacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system.   If  you  run  Emacs  from
       under X windows, it will create its own X window to display in.  You will probably want to
       start the editor as a background process so that you  can  continue  using  your  original

       Emacs can be started with the following X switches:

                      Specify  the  name  which  should  be assigned to the initial Emacs window.
                      This controls looking up X resources as well as the window title.

              -T name, --title=name
                      Specify the title for the initial X window.

              -r, -rv, --reverse-video
                      Display the Emacs window in reverse video.

              -fn font, --font=font
                      Set the Emacs window's font to that specified by font.  You will  find  the
                      various  X fonts in the /usr/lib/X11/fonts directory.  Note that Emacs will
                      only accept fixed  width  fonts.   Under  the  X11  Release  4  font-naming
                      conventions,  any  font  with the value "m" or "c" in the eleventh field of
                      the font name is a fixed width font.  Furthermore, fonts whose name are  of
                      the form widthxheight are generally fixed width, as is the font fixed.  See
                      xlsfonts(1) for more information.

                      When you specify a font, be sure to put a space between the switch and  the
                      font name.

                      Set additional X resources.

              --color, --color=mode
                      Override  color  mode for character terminals; mode defaults to "auto", and
                      can also be "never", "auto", "always", or a mode name like "ansi8".

              -bw pixels, --border-width=pixels
                      Set the Emacs window's border width to the number of  pixels  specified  by
                      pixels.  Defaults to one pixel on each side of the window.

              -ib pixels, --internal-border=pixels
                      Set the window's internal border width to the number of pixels specified by
                      pixels.  Defaults to one pixel of padding on each side of the window.

              -g geometry, --geometry=geometry
                      Set the Emacs window's width,  height,  and  position  as  specified.   The
                      geometry  specification  is  in  the  standard  X format; see X(7) for more
                      information.  The width and height are specified in characters; the default
                      for  GUI  frames  is  80 by 36.  See the Emacs manual, section "Options for
                      Window Size and Position", for information on  how  window  sizes  interact
                      with selecting or deselecting the tool bar and menu bar.

              -lsp pixels, --line-spacing=pixels
                      Additional space to put between lines.

              -vb, --vertical-scroll-bars
                      Enable vertical scrollbars.

              -fh, --fullheight
                      Make the first frame as high as the screen.

              -fs, --fullscreen
                      Make the first frame fullscreen.

              -fw, --fullwidth
                      Make the first frame as wide as the screen.

              -mm, --maximized
                      Maximize the first frame, like "-fw -fh".

              -fg color, --foreground-color=color
                      On color displays, set the color of the text.

                      Use the command M-x list-colors-display for a list of valid color names.

              -bg color, --background-color=color
                      On color displays, set the color of the window's background.

              -bd color, --border-color=color
                      On color displays, set the color of the window's border.

              -cr color, --cursor-color=color
                      On color displays, set the color of the window's text cursor.

              -ms color, --mouse-color=color
                      On color displays, set the color of the window's mouse cursor.

              -d displayname, --display=displayname
                      Create  the  Emacs window on the display specified by displayname.  Must be
                      the first option specified in the command line.

              -nbi, --no-bitmap-icon
                      Do not use picture of gnu for Emacs icon.

                      Start Emacs in iconified state.

              -nbc, --no-blinking-cursor
                      Disable blinking cursor.

                      Set parent window.

              -nw, --no-window-system
                      Tell Emacs not to create a graphical frame.  If you use  this  switch  when
                      invoking Emacs from an xterm(1) window, display is done in that window.

              -D, --basic-display
                      This option disables many display features; use it for debugging Emacs.

       You  can  set  X  default  values  for  your  Emacs  windows in your .Xresources file (see
       xrdb(1)).  Use the following format:


       where value specifies the default value of keyword.  Emacs lets you set default values for
       the following keywords:

              background (class Background)
                      For color displays, sets the window's background color.

              bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon)
                      If  bitmapIcon's  value  is  set  to  on,  the window will iconify into the
                      "kitchen sink."

              borderColor (class BorderColor)
                      For color displays, sets the color of the window's border.

              borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
                      Sets the window's border width in pixels.

              cursorColor (class Foreground)
                      For color displays, sets the color of the window's text cursor.

              cursorBlink (class CursorBlink)
                      Specifies whether to make the cursor blink.  The default is on.  Use off or
                      false to turn cursor blinking off.

              font (class Font)
                      Sets the window's text font.

              foreground (class Foreground)
                      For color displays, sets the window's text color.

              fullscreen (class Fullscreen)
                      The  desired fullscreen size.  The value can be one of fullboth, maximized,
                      fullwidth, or fullheight, which  correspond  to  the  command-line  options
                      "-fs",  "-mm",  "-fw",  and "-fh", respectively.  Note that this applies to
                      the initial frame only.

              geometry (class Geometry)
                      Sets the geometry of the Emacs window (as described above).

              iconName (class Title)
                      Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

              internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
                      Sets the window's internal border width in pixels.

              lineSpacing (class LineSpacing)
                      Additional space ("leading") between lines, in pixels.

              menuBar (class MenuBar)
                      Gives frames menu bars if on; don't have menu bars if off.  See  the  Emacs
                      manual,  sections  "Lucid  Resources"  and  "Motif  Resources",  for how to
                      control the appearance of the menu bar if you have one.

              minibuffer (class Minibuffer)
                      If none, don't make a minibuffer in this frame.  It  will  use  a  separate
                      minibuffer frame instead.

              paneFont (class Font)
                      Font name for menu pane titles, in non-toolkit versions of Emacs.

              pointerColor (class Foreground)
                      For color displays, sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.

              privateColormap (class PrivateColormap)
                      If  on,  use a private color map, in the case where the "default visual" of
                      class PseudoColor and Emacs is using it.

              reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
                      If reverseVideo's value is set to on,  the  window  will  be  displayed  in
                      reverse video.

              screenGamma (class ScreenGamma)
                      Gamma   correction   for   colors,   equivalent   to  the  frame  parameter

              scrollBarWidth (class ScrollBarWidth)
                      The  scroll  bar  width  in  pixels,  equivalent  to  the  frame  parameter

              selectionFont (class SelectionFont)
                      Font  name  for  pop-up menu items, in non-toolkit versions of Emacs.  (For
                      toolkit versions, see the Emacs  manual,  sections  "Lucid  Resources"  and
                      "Motif Resources".)

              selectionTimeout (class SelectionTimeout)
                      Number  of  milliseconds to wait for a selection reply.  A value of 0 means
                      wait as long as necessary.

              synchronous (class Synchronous)
                      Run Emacs in synchronous mode  if  on.   Synchronous  mode  is  useful  for
                      debugging X problems.

              title (class Title)
                      Sets the title of the Emacs window.

              toolBar (class ToolBar)
                      Number of lines to reserve for the tool bar.

              useXIM (class UseXIM)
                      Turns off use of X input methods (XIM) if false or off.

              verticalScrollBars (class ScrollBars)
                      Gives frames scroll bars if on; suppresses scroll bars if off.

              visualClass (class VisualClass)
                      Specify the "visual" that X should use.  This tells X how to handle colors.
                      The value should start with one  of  TrueColor,  PseudoColor,  DirectColor,
                      StaticColor,  GrayScale, and StaticGray, followed by -depth, where depth is
                      the number of color planes.


       You can order printed copies of the GNU Emacs Manual from the  Free  Software  Foundation,
       which develops GNU software.  See the online store at <>.
       Your  local  administrator  might  also  have  copies available.  As with all software and
       publications from FSF, everyone is permitted to make and distribute copies  of  the  Emacs
       manual.   The  Texinfo  source  to  the  manual  is  also  included  in  the  Emacs source


       /usr/local/share/info — files for the Info documentation browser.  The  complete  text  of
       the  Emacs  reference  manual  is  included  in  a  convenient tree structured form.  Also
       includes the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, useful to anyone wishing to  write  programs  in
       the Emacs Lisp extension language, and the Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/lisp  —  Lisp  source files and compiled files that define
       most editing commands.  Some are preloaded; others are autoloaded from this directory when

       /usr/local/libexec/emacs/$VERSION/$ARCH — various programs that are used with GNU Emacs.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc — various files of information.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DOC.*  —  contains  the  documentation strings for the
       Lisp primitives and preloaded Lisp functions of GNU Emacs.  They are stored here to reduce
       the size of Emacs proper.


       There  is  a mailing list,, for reporting Emacs bugs and fixes.  But
       before reporting something as a bug, please try to be sure that it really is a bug, not  a
       misunderstanding or a deliberate feature.  We ask you to read the section "Reporting Bugs"
       in the Emacs manual for hints on how and when to report bugs.  Also, include  the  version
       number  of  the  Emacs  you  are  running in every bug report that you send in.  Bugs tend
       actually to be fixed if they can be isolated, so it is in your interest to report them  in
       such a way that they can be easily reproduced.

       Do  not expect a personal answer to a bug report.  The purpose of reporting bugs is to get
       them fixed for everyone in the  next  release,  if  possible.   For  personal  assistance,
       consult  the  service  directory at <> for a list of
       people who offer it.

       Please do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing list.  For other Emacs  lists,
       see <>.


       Emacs is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under the terms stated in
       the GNU General Public License, a copy of which accompanies each copy of Emacs  and  which
       also appears in the reference manual.

       Copies of Emacs may sometimes be received packaged with distributions of Unix systems, but
       it is never included in the scope of any license covering those systems.   Such  inclusion
       violates  the  terms  on which distribution is permitted.  In fact, the primary purpose of
       the GNU General Public License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other restrictions
       to redistribution of Emacs.

       Richard Stallman encourages you to improve and extend Emacs, and urges that you contribute
       your extensions to the GNU library.  Eventually GNU (Gnu's Not Unix) will  be  a  complete
       replacement  for  Unix.   Everyone  will  be  free  to use, copy, study and change the GNU


       emacsclient(1), etags(1), X(7), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)


       Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the  Free  Software  Foundation.   For  detailed
       credits and acknowledgments, see the GNU Emacs manual.


       Copyright 1995, 1999-2019 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this document provided the
       copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this document under  the
       conditions  for  verbatim  copying,  provided  that  the  entire resulting derived work is
       distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this  document  into  another
       language,  under  the  above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission
       notice may be stated in a translation approved by the Free Software Foundation.