Provided by: exifprobe_2.0.1+git20170416.3c2b769-3_amd64 bug


       exifprobe - probe and report structure and metadata content of camera image files


       exifprobe [options] filename(s)


       Exifprobe reads image files produced by digital cameras (including several so-called "raw"
       file formats) and reports the structure of the files and the auxiliary data  and  metadata
       contained  within  them.  In  addition  to  TIFF,  JPEG, and EXIF, the program understands
       several  formats  which  may  contain  "raw"  camera  data,   including   MRW,   CIFF/CRW,
       JP2/JPEG2000,  RAF,  and  X3F,  as well as most most TIFF-derived "raw" formats, including
       DNG, ORF, CR2, NEF, K25/KDC/DCR, and PEF. Other TIFF or JPEG-derived formats (which  begin
       with  a  TIFF  header  or  JPEG  marker) should also be readable.  The program attempts to
       display ALL information in the image file, in a manner which mimics the structure  of  the
       file as closely as possible.

       Where  possible,  output  is  not  limited  to  “known”  data items.  I.e. for tagged file
       formats, unknown tags will be identified by tag number and type, and values shown  without
       interpretation.  Proprietary,  untagged  or  fixed  format  files  do not permit this, but
       unknown or undefined data can usually be dumped in a hex/ascii format for examination,  so
       long  as  the  file  structure  is understood. The program will report the contents of any
       properly structured TIFF IFD or CIFF directory encountered, even when entry tags  are  not
       recognized.   Recognized TIFF, TIFF/EP, DNG, and CIFF tags are expanded, including EXIF2.2
       sections and camera MakerNotes which are found to be in TIFF IFD format.  TIFF and/or JPEG
       sections found in MRW, RAF or JP2 files will be reported, along with the “native” sections
       of those formats. JP2 boxes will be reported whether known or  unknown,  and  expanded  if
       known.   Unknown  boxes cannot be expanded, since JP2 is not tagged below the box (or sub-
       box) level.

       An effort is made to identify all sub-images (in any image  format)  contained  in  multi-
       image  files;  the  location, size, and format of such images is reported, and a hex/ascii
       dump of the image data may be requested. Image data is not processed, but the program will
       recognize  and report all standard JPEG and JPEG2000 markers (including JPEG APPn markers)
       and will expand APP0 (JFIF/JFXX) and APP1 (EXIF) sections.

       Since the program does not attempt to display images or modify the contents of  files,  it
       can  often  recover from and report failures or warn about structural oddities which would
       confuse a display or image edit program.

       There are a wide variety of output formats, selectable  in  detail  by  the  “lower  case”
       options  described  in  the  OPTIONS  section  below.  These options select which items to
       print, and within narrow confines, how and  where  to  print  them.   A  large  number  of
       combinations  of  options  exist,  and some of those combinations may not be sensible.  In
       order to avoid the need for constant creativity or invention, three “prefabricated” output
       formats are provided, selected by the upper case option letters.

       The structural (-S) output format (default) provides a description of the image file which
       mimics as closely as possible the layout and structure of the  data  in  the  image  file,
       including file offsets of headers, section and segment markers, fully described TIFF IFDs,
       CIFF directories, or JP2 boxes, and the location of actual image  and/or  thumbnail  data.
       The  contents  of  each section are indented relative to the beginning of the section, and
       ”offset” values for TIFF IFDs and CIFF directories are reported at the offsets where  they
       are  found  (usually  following  the  entry  list for TIFF, or in the HEAP for CIFF).  The
       peculiar “reverse” structures of CIFF and X3F formats are handled sensibly.

       The report format (-R) shows the “logical” structure of the  image  file,  but  eliminates
       addresses, offsets, IFD value types and counts, etc., and prints “offset” directory values
       inline, while otherwise preserving the primary structure of the data.

       The list format (-L) omits all structural data. It writes only  “tag”  values  from  TIFF,
       Exif, and MakerNote IFDs, CIFF or other format directories or JP2 boxes, including section
       and image offsets and sizes.  Identifiable values from non-tagged formats are written in a
       similar manner.  This format may be useful for extracting information for photo galleries.

       The  structural  format  is  default.   This format provides maximum information about the
       contents of an image file, and may reveal information (sometimes  important)  which  other
       formats (or image info programs) may hide.

       In  all  formats, the filename, file type, file size, an image summary, and a summary file
       format will be displayed (even when all other output is disabled  by  option).  The  image
       summary  includes  a  summary  report,  for  each  subimage  found, giving the image type,
       compression type (if any), pixel size, data length, file offset where found,  and  section
       of  the  file which includes or references the image.  In some cases, short remarks may be
       included for images mentioned but not found, etc. The summary concludes with the number of
       images  found,  and  number  of  images  not  found (if any). The summary is followed by a
       listing of format sections found (TIFF/JPEG/EXIF, etc.) and a type  identifier  for  TIFF-
       derived types (e.g. CR2) where possible.

       An  environment  variable  may be set to a list of options to customize the default output
       behavior (see below).

       Camera-generated images which contain EXIF sections may also contain  sections  introduced
       by  a  MakerNote tag, which may contain information about camera or firmware settings used
       to produce the image.  The structure and contents of MakerNote sections is not mandated by
       the  Exif  specification,  but  many  camera  MakerNotes  are  written in TIFF IFD format,
       possibly offset following an ID string or new TIFF header (or both),  and  sometimes  with
       inventive  handling  of  “offsets”.   Exifprobe  currently  understands  and automatically
       detects such schemes and prints the contents of the IFD (and the ID string,  if  present).
       This  detection is not dependent upon make or model of camera.  Make and Model information
       will usually be available from the first TIFF IFD in the file;  this  information  may  be
       used  to  interpret the MakerNote information for “known” cameras; otherwise, tag numbers,
       sizes, types, and raw values from the IFD will be shown (if permitted by option settings).

       Some camera makes are known to use more than one  version  of  MakerNote,  depending  upon
       model.   If  an  unknown  model  from  that maker is encountered, the note will be briefly
       examined and a noteversion assigned automatically if possible.  If that  fails,  the  note
       will be displayed without interpretation.

       MakerNotes  which  are  not  in  a recognizable IFD format will be reported (start and end
       offsets) in structural (-S) and report (-R) formats  ,  and  the  beginning  of  the  note
       section  hex/ascii  dumped.  The remainder of the note may be dumped, in whole or in part,
       by the -M option (see below).

       In list (-L) format, the starting file offset and length supplied  by  the  MakerNote  tag
       will be reported, and three “pseudo” tags which report the offset (MakerNote.Offset), size
       (MakerNote.Length) and scheme (MakerNote.Scheme) will appear.

       In JPEG interchange format files, APP0 (JFIF,JFXX) and APP1 (Exif) segments will be  fully
       decoded,  and  the  “printable”  portions of APP12 sections will be displayed. APP3 (Meta)
       sections will be expanded and the contained TIFF IFD will be  displayed,  although  little
       interpretation  is  done.  Other  APP  markers  will  be reported, and the sections may be
       hex/ascii dumped in whole or in part using the -A option. APP1 sections not marked as Exif
       will be treated as unknown.

   ANSI Color
       The  program (by default) emits ANSI color escape sequences to highlight Exif, MakerNote ,
       and Interoperability sub-sections.  Errors and warnings are  highlighted  in  red.   These
       sequences  are effective, of course, only for terminals or terminal emulators (e.g. xterm)
       which respond to ANSI color escape sequences.  If a pager is used to  display  the  output
       when  these  sequences are present, a “raw” option to the pager may be required (e.g. less
       -R).  The use of these sequences may be toggled by the -c option.  LIST mode  turns  color
       sequences off.

       The program may be compiled without support for color sequences.


       In all formats, and regardless of option setting, the first three lines of output for each
       file processed are the filename, image type (TIFF, CIFF, JP2, etc.), and  the  file  size.
       If  the type (taken from the file header) specifies a data byte order, the byte order will
       be indicated with the type as `II' (Intel byte order) or `MM' (Motorola byte order).   The
       image summary and summary format will always be printed at the end.

   Structural Format
       Structural format output begins with a display of the file header.  The header is followed
       by lines of the form
       etc.  to indicate the beginning and end of each “section” of  the  file.   Actual  section
       names  will, of course, depend upon the file format and/or the tags encountered.  Only the
       TIFF IFD format is described here; other formats are similar, except that  JP2  box  names
       are printed inside square (rather than angle) brackets, and MRW section names inside curly

       Within sections, directory entries, subdirectories, the contents of  known  APP  sections,
       JPEG segment markers, etc. are printed.  Non-jpeg image data sections will be shown with a
       few lines of hex/ascii dump of the beginning of the data.

       Each line of output is preceded by a file offset given in hex and decimal.   File  offsets
       are preceded by the character `@', except that section end markers are preceded by `-' and
       the character `>' may be used to mark sections which are located outside the IFD in  which
       they  are  declared.   If that section includes a subsection which is similarly afflicted,
       the '>' is replaced by '+' in the subsection.  In JP2 files, the '@' is replaced  by  '=',
       for no particular reason.

       JPEG and JPEG2000 segment markers are written with the marker name, and the decoded values
       of any information associated with the marker.

       TIFF information is written in a manner which reflects the structure of the IFD, with  all
       values  interpreted  according  to  the  applicable specification where possible.  All IFD
       fields are reported.  The following fields will appear on each line (in the  order  given,
       following the file offset):

       ·      Tag number in hex and decimal representations, enclosed in brackets.

       ·      Tag  name (where known); names for unknown tags are created as a hex representation
              of the tag number prefixed by the string 'TAG_'.

       ·      The TIFF type number, name, and byte count for the associated  value,  enclosed  in
              square brackets.

       ·      The  “value/offset”  for  the  entry.   If  the value fits in the four bytes of the
              entry, the value is printed directly.

              If the value for the entry did not fit in the four bytes of  the  entry,  then  the
              value found is an offset to the actual location of the data; that offset is printed
              preceded by an '@' symbol.  The actual value will be printed  later,  at  the  file
              offset  where  it was found (except in some non-conforming MakerNote IFDs).  If the
              value requires interpretation (e.g. TIFF Orientation) it is followed by an '=' sign
              and the interpretation, enclosed in double quotes (e.g. “0,0 top left”).

       The list of entries will be followed by a line giving the offset to the next IFD (often 0)
       which is always found at the end of a TIFF IFD entry list.

       If there were offset entries found in the list above, the TIFF  (and  Exif)  specification
       requires  that  they will be located next in the file, immediately following the directory
       entries.  This stricture is frequently ignored in MakerNotes and TIFF-derived formats.   A
       line  reporting the beginning of these offset values will be printed immediately after the
       next IFD offset, followed by one line for each offset entry, with the tag  name  repeated,
       followed by the actual value, followed by its interpretation (if any).

       Multiple  values  in entries are printed on a single line, but large lists will be elided,
       with just the first two or three values shown, followed by an ellipsis,  followed  by  the
       last  value, the number of values, and the offset of the last value in the list.  The full
       value list may be printed using the -eA option.

       In structural format, ascii strings in the entry are printed for the entire  length  given
       in  the IFD entry, including nulls and non-ascii values (if present), which are printed in
       `backslashed' octal notation.  The -ea option may be used to  force  ascii  values  to  be
       printed  only up to the first null.  This option is often necessary for CIFF format files,
       and is enabled by default in “list” mode.

       Entries are indented slightly from the start identifier for the IFD, and subsegments (e.g.
       an  Exif  IFD,  SubIFD,  or  MakerNote)  will be further indented in order to indicate the
       structure of the file.

       The resulting output displays the contents of the IFD much as it appears in the file  (see
       the TIFF or EXIF specifications for descriptions of the IFD format).

       Finally,  the  start  and  end  of  actual  image data for the primary image (and possibly
       thumbnail or reduced-resolution image) is reported at the  end.   For  JPEG  images,  this
       usually  includes  display  of  the  JPEG segment markers within the image.  Binary format
       image data will be shown with a brief hex/ascii dump of the beginning of the data, between
       start and end markers.

       Note  that values preceded by `@' are always offsets from the beginning of the file to the
       actual value.  IFD offsets are usually recorded in the file as  offsets  relative  to  the
       beginning  of the TIFF header (which is offset from the beginning of the file in JPEG APP1
       files) but are adjusted by exifprobe to show offset from the beginning of the file.  If it
       is  important  to see the recorded value, the -er option may be used to print the recorded
       value in parentheses, following the adjusted file offset.

   Report Format
       The report format (-R) displays all sections and segments of  the  image  file,  including
       start  and end of sections, but eliminates much of the “cruft” of the structural format by
       eliminating address/offset information and much of the  `internal'  information  from  the
       TIFF  IFD  (tag  number,  type  and count).  Offset values are printed inline with the tag
       name.  The output is indented to show the logical structure of the image file, but is much
       less difficult to view than the structural format.

   List format
       The list format (-L) suppresses structural information, writing only content in the format
       tagname = value or tagname = value = “what value means”. For non-tagged file formats,  the
       tagname  will  be  replaced  by  a  fixed  identifier for the item. In LIST format, “long”
       tagnames are used, which include the names of all parent sections of the section in  which
       the  data is found.  Long tagnames can be toggled off, although this is unwise if the file
       contains multiple image sections.

       The “value” of tags or items which represent an  offset  to  a  subsection  or  image  are
       printed in list format as “@offset:length”.

       The  List  format  is  used  by  the  auxiliary  script  exifgrep, which permits selective
       extraction of information  e.g.  for  photo  galleries,  and  output  in  (almost)  “shell
       variable” format.

   Custom Formats
       The  -Z  option “zeroes” all option flags (except the longnames modifier), after which the
       lower-case options may be used  to  set  desired  options.   The  lower-case  options  are
       `toggles', which may also be used to turn off items in the pre-defined formats.

       As an example, the command:

           exifprobe -Z -et somefile.tif

       may  be  used  to  list  just the TIFF and Exif tags, without values (or anything else) in
       “long name” format.

            exifprobe -eNnT somefile.tif

       will print in structural format, suppressing output of hex and decimal  tag  numbers,  and
       tag type and count.

       The “zero-level” output still reports the file data and image summary as described above.


       The  environment  variable  EXIFPROBE_OPTIONS may be set to any valid option string, which
       will be evaluated before command line options. E.g.

       export EXIFPROBE_OPTIONS='-L -c'

       will make list format the default output format, and re-enable the color sequences  turned
       off by -L.

       Options  are  evaluated from left to right, so -Z should be given first, while -D (decimal
       only) or -X (hex only) should be given last.

       -S        Structure mode: (default) almost everything; offset values not inline

       -R        Report mode: like structural, but only tagnames and  decimal  values,  indented,

       -L        List mode: print only tags and values (including interpreted values); no section
                 info; no color

       -Z        turn off (zero) all optional output. Prints only filename,  filetype,  filesize,
                 image summary, and file format.

       -c        toggle use of ANSI color control sequences to emphasize EXIF sections.  (default
                 'on' except list mode, unless compiled with no color support)

       -a        toggle printing of addresses (file offsets) in hex and decimal

       -I        three-way toggle indent (after address -> before -> none)

       -o        toggle “inline” print of offset IFD values

       -p[items] toggle print identifiers for:

                 s   - sections (IFDs, APPn)

                 g   - segments (JPEG segments)

                 a   - JPEG APP0...APPn entries

                 l   - long names (dot-separated list of parent sections preceding item name)

                 e   - entries. Includes tag names, numbers, types, values.

                 m   - print MakerNote scheme description

                 M   - watch debug of MakerNote scheme detection

       -e[items] toggle print IFD entry items:

                 t   - tagname

                 n   - tag number in decimal

                 N   - tag number in hex

                 T   - entry type and count

                 v   - value in decimal

                 V   - value in hex

                 o   - file offset to value in decimal

                 O   - file offset to value in hex

                 r   - relative (unadjusted) offset in decimal

                 R   - also print “raw” values where normal values are  computed  (e.g.  rational
                     values,  or  some MakerNote values where APEX values must be computed from a
                     raw value).

                 A   - print ALL elements of multiple-value tags

                 a   - ascii "ignore length" (stop at first null)

       -D        limit all enabled numerical values to  decimal  only  (addresses,  tag  numbers,
                 offsets, values)

       -X        limit all enabled numerical values to hex only (addresses, tag numbers, offsets,

       -U[len|a] dump len (or all) bytes of UNDEFINED data found in TIFF IFDS in  hex/ascii  form
                 (but only if the structure of the data is not known)

       -M[len|a] dump  len  (or all) bytes of unrecognized MakerNotes in hex/ascii form (but only
                 if the structure of the data is not known)

       -A[len|a] dump len (or all) bytes of unrecognized JPEG APP segments in hex/ascii form (but
                 only if the structure of the data is not known)

       -B[len|a] dump len (or all) bytes of binary image data or failed JPEG image data

                 print  a  list of camera makes/models matching make or model as substrings.  `+'
                 by itself prints everything

       -O start_offset
                 start processing at file offset start_offset

       -n        print filename at beginning  of  each  line  of  output  (useful  when  grepping
                 multiple files in LIST mode)

       -N noteversion
                 force use of note version noteversion when interpreting MakerNotes.  Useful only
                 if you know what you're doing.

       -m make   Force the makernote code to interpret the note  according  to  the  make  given,
                 rather than that contained in the file.

       -l model  force  the  makernote  code  to interpret the note according to the model given,
                 rather than that contained in the file.

       -t        This option has effect only if set in EXIFPROBE_OPTIONS.  If  set  when  command
                 line  options  are  processed, color  will be be off by default if the output is
                 not to a tty.  Any command line option which toggles or sets color  (e.g.  “-R”)
                 will turn color back on.

       -u        Print  “raw”  Unicode  data.  Normally 16 bit data is printed as though the high
                 byte is zero (which is often the case).  Writing  the  nulls  would  annoy  most
                 ascii terminal devices, so the default is more hospitable.  The -u option forces
                 printing of the full value.

       -h        print a help message

       -V        print program version and copyright


       The TIFF6 specification:
       The Exif 2.2 specification:
       The JFIF specification:
       The TIFF/EP specification:
       The CIFF specification
       The X3F public specification
       The JPEG2000 public draft (outdated)


       Most diagnostics are printed “inline” to stdout, in red  if  color  is  enabled,  and  the
       program attempts to proceed.


       Interpretation  of  MakerNote  data for specific cameras is incomplete and probably always
       will be.  The X3F specification is incomplete, and the final JPEG2000/JP2 specification is
       not  freely available; support for these formats is therefore not complete, and may not be
       entirely accurate.

       The RAF file format support is preliminary (there is no published specification).

       Floating point values read from the file are expected to be in IEEE format (or  at  least,
       native format); i.e. no conversions are attempted.

       ANSI color sequence support should use termcap/terminfo facilities; it does not.


       Duane H. Hesser

                                              LOCAL                                  EXIFPROBE(1)