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NAME

       exiftool - Read and write meta information in files

SYNOPSIS

   Reading
       exiftool [OPTIONS] [-TAG...] [--TAG...] FILE...

   Writing
       exiftool [OPTIONS] -TAG[+-<]=[VALUE]... FILE...

   Copying
       exiftool [OPTIONS] -tagsFromFile SRCFILE [-SRCTAG[>DSTTAG]...] FILE...

   Other
       exiftool [ -ver | -list[w|f|r|wf|g[NUM]|d|x] ]

       For specific examples, see the EXAMPLES sections below.

       This documentation is displayed if exiftool is run without an input FILE when one is
       expected.

DESCRIPTION

       A command-line interface to Image::ExifTool, used for reading and writing meta information
       in a variety of file types.  FILE is one or more source file names, directory names, or
       "-" for the standard input.  Metadata is read from source files and printed in readable
       form to the console (or written to output text files with -w).

       To write or delete metadata, tag values are assigned using -TAG=[VALUE], and/or the
       -geotag, -csv= or -json= options.  To copy or move metadata, the -tagsFromFile feature is
       used.  By default the original files are preserved with "_original" appended to their
       names -- be sure to verify that the new files are OK before erasing the originals.  Once
       in write mode, exiftool will ignore any read-specific options.

       Note:  If FILE is a directory name then only supported file types in the directory are
       processed (in write mode only writable types are processed).  However, files may be
       specified by name, or the -ext option may be used to force processing of files with any
       extension.  Hidden files in the directory are also processed.  Adding the -r option causes
       subdirectories to be processed recursively, but those with names beginning with "." are
       skipped unless -r. is used.

       Below is a list of file types and meta information formats currently supported by ExifTool
       (r = read, w = write, c = create):

         File Types
         ------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+------------
         3FR   r     | DSS   r     | J2C   r     | ODP   r     | RAW   r/w
         3G2   r/w   | DV    r     | JNG   r/w   | ODS   r     | RIFF  r
         3GP   r/w   | DVB   r/w   | JP2   r/w   | ODT   r     | RSRC  r
         A     r     | DVR-MS r    | JPEG  r/w   | OFR   r     | RTF   r
         AA    r     | DYLIB r     | JSON  r     | OGG   r     | RW2   r/w
         AAE   r     | EIP   r     | K25   r     | OGV   r     | RWL   r/w
         AAX   r/w   | EPS   r/w   | KDC   r     | OPUS  r     | RWZ   r
         ACR   r     | EPUB  r     | KEY   r     | ORF   r/w   | RM    r
         AFM   r     | ERF   r/w   | LA    r     | OTF   r     | SEQ   r
         AI    r/w   | EXE   r     | LFP   r     | PAC   r     | SKETCH r
         AIFF  r     | EXIF  r/w/c | LNK   r     | PAGES r     | SO    r
         APE   r     | EXR   r     | LRV   r/w   | PBM   r/w   | SR2   r/w
         ARQ   r/w   | EXV   r/w/c | M2TS  r     | PCD   r     | SRF   r
         ARW   r/w   | F4A/V r/w   | M4A/V r/w   | PCX   r     | SRW   r/w
         ASF   r     | FFF   r/w   | MAX   r     | PDB   r     | SVG   r
         AVI   r     | FITS  r     | MEF   r/w   | PDF   r/w   | SWF   r
         AZW   r     | FLA   r     | MIE   r/w/c | PEF   r/w   | THM   r/w
         BMP   r     | FLAC  r     | MIFF  r     | PFA   r     | TIFF  r/w
         BPG   r     | FLIF  r/w   | MKA   r     | PFB   r     | TORRENT r
         BTF   r     | FLV   r     | MKS   r     | PFM   r     | TTC   r
         CHM   r     | FPF   r     | MKV   r     | PGF   r     | TTF   r
         COS   r     | FPX   r     | MNG   r/w   | PGM   r/w   | VCF   r
         CR2   r/w   | GIF   r/w   | MOBI  r     | PLIST r     | VRD   r/w/c
         CR3   r/w   | GPR   r/w   | MODD  r     | PICT  r     | VSD   r
         CRM   r/w   | GZ    r     | MOI   r     | PMP   r     | WAV   r
         CRW   r/w   | HDP   r/w   | MOS   r/w   | PNG   r/w   | WDP   r/w
         CS1   r/w   | HDR   r     | MOV   r/w   | PPM   r/w   | WEBP  r
         DCM   r     | HEIC  r/w   | MP3   r     | PPT   r     | WEBM  r
         DCP   r/w   | HEIF  r/w   | MP4   r/w   | PPTX  r     | WMA   r
         DCR   r     | HTML  r     | MPC   r     | PS    r/w   | WMV   r
         DFONT r     | ICC   r/w/c | MPG   r     | PSB   r/w   | WTV   r
         DIVX  r     | ICS   r     | MPO   r/w   | PSD   r/w   | WV    r
         DJVU  r     | IDML  r     | MQV   r/w   | PSP   r     | X3F   r/w
         DLL   r     | IIQ   r/w   | MRW   r/w   | QTIF  r/w   | XCF   r
         DNG   r/w   | IND   r/w   | MXF   r     | R3D   r     | XLS   r
         DOC   r     | INSV  r     | NEF   r/w   | RA    r     | XLSX  r
         DOCX  r     | INX   r     | NRW   r/w   | RAF   r/w   | XMP   r/w/c
         DPX   r     | ISO   r     | NUMBERS r   | RAM   r     | ZIP   r
         DR4   r/w/c | ITC   r     | O     r     | RAR   r     |

         Meta Information
         ----------------------+----------------------+---------------------
         EXIF           r/w/c  |  CIFF           r/w  |  Ricoh RMETA    r
         GPS            r/w/c  |  AFCP           r/w  |  Picture Info   r
         IPTC           r/w/c  |  Kodak Meta     r/w  |  Adobe APP14    r
         XMP            r/w/c  |  FotoStation    r/w  |  MPF            r
         MakerNotes     r/w/c  |  PhotoMechanic  r/w  |  Stim           r
         Photoshop IRB  r/w/c  |  JPEG 2000      r    |  DPX            r
         ICC Profile    r/w/c  |  DICOM          r    |  APE            r
         MIE            r/w/c  |  Flash          r    |  Vorbis         r
         JFIF           r/w/c  |  FlashPix       r    |  SPIFF          r
         Ducky APP12    r/w/c  |  QuickTime      r    |  DjVu           r
         PDF            r/w/c  |  Matroska       r    |  M2TS           r
         PNG            r/w/c  |  MXF            r    |  PE/COFF        r
         Canon VRD      r/w/c  |  PrintIM        r    |  AVCHD          r
         Nikon Capture  r/w/c  |  FLAC           r    |  ZIP            r
         GeoTIFF        r/w/c  |  ID3            r    |  (and more)

OPTIONS

       Case is not significant for any command-line option (including tag and group names),
       except for single-character options when the corresponding upper-case option exists.  Many
       single-character options have equivalent long-name versions (shown in brackets), and some
       options have inverses which are invoked with a leading double-dash.  Unrecognized options
       are interpreted as tag names (for this reason, multiple single-character options may NOT
       be combined into one argument).  Contrary to standard practice, options may appear after
       source file names on the exiftool command line.

   Option Summary
       Tag operations

         -TAG or --TAG                    Extract or exclude specified tag
         -TAG[+-^]=[VALUE]                Write new value for tag
         -TAG[+-]<=DATFILE                Write tag value from contents of file
         -TAG[+-]<SRCTAG                  Copy tag value (see -tagsFromFile)

         -tagsFromFile SRCFILE            Copy tag values from file
         -x TAG      (-exclude)           Exclude specified tag

       Input-output text formatting

         -args       (-argFormat)         Format metadata as exiftool arguments
         -b          (-binary)            Output metadata in binary format
         -c FMT      (-coordFormat)       Set format for GPS coordinates
         -charset [[TYPE=]CHARSET]        Specify encoding for special characters
         -csv[[+]=CSVFILE]                Export/import tags in CSV format
         -d FMT      (-dateFormat)        Set format for date/time values
         -D          (-decimal)           Show tag ID numbers in decimal
         -E, -ex     (-escape(HTML|XML))  Escape values for HTML (-E) or XML (-ex)
         -f          (-forcePrint)        Force printing of all specified tags
         -g[NUM...]  (-groupHeadings)     Organize output by tag group
         -G[NUM...]  (-groupNames)        Print group name for each tag
         -h          (-htmlFormat)        Use HMTL formatting for output
         -H          (-hex)               Show tag ID numbers in hexadecimal
         -htmlDump[OFFSET]                Generate HTML-format binary dump
         -j[[+]=JSONFILE] (-json)         Export/import tags in JSON format
         -l          (-long)              Use long 2-line output format
         -L          (-latin)             Use Windows Latin1 encoding
         -lang [LANG]                     Set current language
         -listItem INDEX                  Extract specific item from a list
         -n          (--printConv)        No print conversion
         -p FMTFILE  (-printFormat)       Print output in specified format
         -php                             Export tags as a PHP Array
         -s[NUM]     (-short)             Short output format
         -S          (-veryShort)         Very short output format
         -sep STR    (-separator)         Set separator string for list items
         -sort                            Sort output alphabetically
         -struct                          Enable output of structured information
         -t          (-tab)               Output in tab-delimited list format
         -T          (-table)             Output in tabular format
         -v[NUM]     (-verbose)           Print verbose messages
         -w[+|!] EXT (-textOut)           Write (or overwrite!) output text files
         -W[+|!] FMT (-tagOut)            Write output text file for each tag
         -Wext EXT   (-tagOutExt)         Write only specified file types with -W
         -X          (-xmlFormat)         Use RDF/XML output format

       Processing control

         -a          (-duplicates)        Allow duplicate tags to be extracted
         -e          (--composite)        Do not calculate composite tags
         -ee         (-extractEmbedded)   Extract information from embedded files
         -ext[+] EXT (-extension)         Process files with specified extension
         -F[OFFSET]  (-fixBase)           Fix the base for maker notes offsets
         -fast[NUM]                       Increase speed for slow devices
         -fileOrder [-]TAG                Set file processing order
         -i DIR      (-ignore)            Ignore specified directory name
         -if[NUM] EXPR                    Conditionally process files
         -m          (-ignoreMinorErrors) Ignore minor errors and warnings
         -o OUTFILE  (-out)               Set output file or directory name
         -overwrite_original              Overwrite original by renaming tmp file
         -overwrite_original_in_place     Overwrite original by copying tmp file
         -P          (-preserve)          Preserve file modification date/time
         -password PASSWD                 Password for processing protected files
         -progress[:[TITLE]]              Show file progress count
         -q          (-quiet)             Quiet processing
         -r[.]       (-recurse)           Recursively process subdirectories
         -scanForXMP                      Brute force XMP scan
         -u          (-unknown)           Extract unknown tags
         -U          (-unknown2)          Extract unknown binary tags too
         -wm MODE    (-writeMode)         Set mode for writing/creating tags
         -z          (-zip)               Read/write compressed information

       Other options

         -@ ARGFILE                       Read command-line arguments from file
         -k          (-pause)             Pause before terminating
         -list[w|f|wf|g[NUM]|d|x]         List various exiftool capabilities
         -ver                             Print exiftool version number

       Special features

         -geotag TRKFILE                  Geotag images from specified GPS log
         -globalTimeShift SHIFT           Shift all formatted date/time values
         -use MODULE                      Add features from plug-in module

       Utilities

         -delete_original[!]              Delete "_original" backups
         -restore_original                Restore from "_original" backups

       Advanced options

         -api OPT[[^]=[VAL]]              Set ExifTool API option
         -common_args                     Define common arguments
         -config CFGFILE                  Specify configuration file name
         -echo[NUM] TEXT                  Echo text to stdout or stderr
         -execute[NUM]                    Execute multiple commands on one line
         -srcfile FMT                     Process a different source file
         -stay_open FLAG                  Keep reading -@ argfile even after EOF
         -userParam PARAM[[^]=[VAL]]      Set user parameter (API UserParam opt)

   Option Details
       Tag operations

       -TAG Extract information for the specified tag (eg. "-CreateDate").  Multiple tags may be
            specified in a single command.  A tag name is the handle by which a piece of
            information is referenced.  See Image::ExifTool::TagNames for documentation on
            available tag names.  A tag name may include leading group names separated by colons
            (eg. "-EXIF:CreateDate", or "-Doc1:XMP:Creator"), and each group name may be prefixed
            by a digit to specify family number (eg.  "-1IPTC:City").  Use the -listg option to
            list available group names by family.

            A special tag name of "All" may be used to indicate all meta information (ie. -All).
            This is particularly useful when a group name is specified to extract all information
            in a group (but beware that unless the -a option is also used, some tags in the group
            may be suppressed by same-named tags in other groups).  The wildcard characters "?"
            and "*" may be used in a tag name to match any single character and zero or more
            characters respectively.
             These may not be used in a group name, with the exception that a group name of "*"
            (or "All") may be used to extract all instances of a tag (as if -a was used). Note
            that arguments containing wildcards must be quoted on the command line of most
            systems to prevent shell globbing.

            A "#" may be appended to the tag name to disable the print conversion on a per-tag
            basis (see the -n option).  This may also be used when writing or copying tags.

            If no tags are specified, all available information is extracted (as if "-All" had
            been specified).

            Note:  Descriptions, not tag names, are shown by default when extracting information.
            Use the -s option to see the tag names instead.

       --TAG
            Exclude specified tag from extracted information.  Same as the -x option.  Group
            names and wildcards are permitted as described above for -TAG.  Once excluded from
            the output, a tag may not be re-included by a subsequent option.  May also be used
            following a -tagsFromFile option to exclude tags from being copied (when redirecting
            to another tag, it is the source tag that should be excluded), or to exclude groups
            from being deleted when deleting all information (eg. "-all= --exif:all" deletes all
            but EXIF information).  But note that this will not exclude individual tags from a
            group delete (unless a family 2 group is specified, see note 4 below).  Instead,
            individual tags may be recovered using the -tagsFromFile option (eg. "-all=
            -tagsfromfile @ -artist").

       -TAG[+-^]=[VALUE]
            Write a new value for the specified tag (eg. "-comment=wow"), or delete the tag if no
            VALUE is given (eg. "-comment=").  "+=" and "-=" are used to add or remove existing
            entries from a list, or to shift date/time values (see Image::ExifTool::Shift.pl and
            note 6 below for more details).  "+=" may also be used to increment numerical values
            (or decrement if VALUE is negative), and "-=" may be used to conditionally delete or
            replace a tag (see "WRITING EXAMPLES" for examples).  "^=" is used to write an empty
            string instead of deleting the tag when no VALUE is given, but otherwise it is
            equivalent to "=".

            TAG may contain one or more leading family 0, 1 or 2 group names, prefixed by
            optional family numbers, and separated colons.  If no group name is specified, the
            tag is created in the preferred group, and updated in any other location where a
            same-named tag already exists.  The preferred group is the first group in the
            following list where TAG is valid: 1) EXIF, 2) IPTC, 3) XMP.

            The wildcards "*" and "?" may be used in tag names to assign the same value to
            multiple tags.  When specified with wildcards, "unsafe" tags are not written.  A tag
            name of "All" is equivalent to "*" (except that it doesn't require quoting, while
            arguments with wildcards do on systems with shell globbing), and is often used when
            deleting all metadata (ie. "-All=") or an entire group (eg. "-XMP-dc:All=", see note
            4 below).  Note that not all groups are deletable, and that the JPEG APP14 "Adobe"
            group is not removed by default with "-All=" because it may affect the appearance of
            the image.  However, color space information is removed, so the colors may be
            affected (but this may be avoided by copying back the tags defined by the
            ColorSpaceTags shortcut).  Use the -listd option for a complete list of deletable
            groups, and see note 5 below regarding the "APP" groups.  Also, within an image some
            groups may be contained within others, and these groups are removed if the containing
            group is deleted:

              JPEG Image:
              - Deleting EXIF or IFD0 also deletes ExifIFD, GlobParamIFD,
                GPS, IFD1, InteropIFD, MakerNotes, PrintIM and SubIFD.
              - Deleting ExifIFD also deletes InteropIFD and MakerNotes.
              - Deleting Photoshop also deletes IPTC.

              TIFF Image:
              - Deleting EXIF only removes ExifIFD which also deletes
                InteropIFD and MakerNotes.

            Notes:

            1) Many tag values may be assigned in a single command.  If two assignments affect
            the same tag, the latter takes precedence (except for list-type tags, for which both
            values are written).

            2) In general, MakerNotes tags are considered "Permanent", and may be edited but not
            created or deleted individually.  This avoids many potential problems, including the
            inevitable compatibility problems with OEM software which may be very inflexible
            about the information it expects to find in the maker notes.

            3) Changes to PDF files by ExifTool are reversible (by deleting the update with
            "-PDF-update:all=") because the original information is never actually deleted from
            the file.  So ExifTool alone may not be used to securely edit metadata in PDF files.

            4) Specifying "-GROUP:all=" deletes the entire group as a block only if a single
            family 0 or 1 group is specified.  Otherwise all deletable tags in the specified
            group(s) are removed individually, and in this case is it possible to exclude
            individual tags from a mass delete.  For example, "-time:all --Exif:Time:All" removes
            all deletable Time tags except those in the EXIF.  This difference also applies if
            family 2 is specified when deleting all groups. For example, "-2all:all=" deletes
            tags individually, while "-all:all=" deletes entire blocks.

            5) The "APP" group names ("APP0" through "APP15") are used to delete JPEG application
            segments which are not associated with another deletable group.  For example,
            specifying "-APP14:All=" will NOT delete the APP14 "Adobe" segment because this is
            accomplished with "-Adobe:All".

            6) When shifting a value, the shift is applied to the original value of the tag,
            overriding any other values previously assigned to the tag on the same command line.
            To shift a date/time value and copy it to another tag in the same operation, use the
            -globalTimeShift option.

            Special feature:  Integer values may be specified in hexadecimal with a leading "0x",
            and simple rational values may be specified as fractions.

       -TAG<=DATFILE or -TAG<=FMT
            Set the value of a tag from the contents of file DATFILE.  The file name may also be
            given by a FMT string where %d, %f and %e represent the directory, file name and
            extension of the original FILE (see the -w option for more details).  Note that
            quotes are required around this argument to prevent shell redirection since it
            contains a "<" symbol.  If DATFILE/FMT is not provided, the effect is the same as
            "-TAG=", and the tag is simply deleted.  "+<=" or "-<=" may also be used to add or
            delete specific list entries, or to shift date/time values.

       -tagsFromFile SRCFILE or FMT
            Copy tag values from SRCFILE to FILE.  Tag names on the command line after this
            option specify the tags to be copied, or excluded from the copy.  Wildcards are
            permitted in these tag names.  If no tags are specified, then all possible tags (see
            note 1 below) from the source file are copied to same-named tags in the preferred
            location of the output file (the same as specifying "-all").  More than one
            -tagsFromFile option may be used to copy tags from multiple files.

            By default, this option will update any existing and writable same-named tags in the
            output FILE, but will create new tags only in their preferred groups.  This allows
            some information to be automatically transferred to the appropriate group when
            copying between images of different formats. However, if a group name is specified
            for a tag then the information is written only to this group (unless redirected to
            another group, see below).  If "All" is used as a group name, then the specified
            tag(s) are written to the same family 1 group they had in the source file (ie. the
            same specific location, like ExifIFD or XMP-dc).  For example, the common operation
            of copying all writable tags to the same specific locations in the output FILE is
            achieved by adding "-all:all".  A different family may be specified by adding a
            leading family number to the group name (eg. "-0all:all" preserves the same general
            location, like EXIF or XMP).

            SRCFILE may be the same as FILE to move information around within a single file.  In
            this case, "@" may be used to represent the source file (ie. "-tagsFromFile @"),
            permitting this feature to be used for batch processing multiple files.  Specified
            tags are then copied from each file in turn as it is rewritten.  For advanced batch
            use, the source file name may also be specified using a FMT string in which %d, %f
            and %e represent the directory, file name and extension of FILE.  (eg. the current
            FILE would be represented by "%d%f.%e", with the same effect as "@").  See the -w
            option for FMT string examples.

            A powerful redirection feature allows a destination tag to be specified for each
            copied tag.  With this feature, information may be written to a tag with a different
            name or group.  This is done using "'-DSTTAG<SRCTAG'" or "'-SRCTAG>DSTTAG'" on the
            command line after -tagsFromFile, and causes the value of SRCTAG to be copied from
            SRCFILE and written to DSTTAG in FILE.  Has no effect unless SRCTAG exists in
            SRCFILE.  Note that this argument must be quoted to prevent shell redirection, and
            there is no "=" sign as when assigning new values.  Source and/or destination tags
            may be prefixed by a group name and/or suffixed by "#".  Wildcards are allowed in
            both the source and destination tag names.  A destination group and/or tag name of
            "All" or "*" writes to the same family 1 group and/or tag name as the source.  If no
            destination group is specified, the information is written to the preferred group.
            Whitespace around the ">" or "<" is ignored. As a convenience, "-tagsFromFile @" is
            assumed for any redirected tags which are specified without a prior -tagsFromFile
            option.  Copied tags may also be added or deleted from a list with arguments of the
            form "'-SRCTAG+<DSTTAG'" or "'-SRCTAG-<DSTTAG'" (but see Note 5 below).

            An extension of the redirection feature allows strings involving tag names to be used
            on the right hand side of the "<" symbol with the syntax "'-DSTTAG<STR'", where tag
            names in STR are prefixed with a "$" symbol.  See the -p option and the "Advanced
            formatting feature" section for more details about this syntax.  Strings starting
            with a "=" sign must insert a single space after the "<" to avoid confusion with the
            "<=" operator which sets the tag value from the contents of a file.  A single space
            at the start of the string is removed if it exists, but all other whitespace in the
            string is preserved.  See note 8 below about using the redirection feature with list-
            type stags, shortcuts or when using wildcards in tag names.

            See "COPYING EXAMPLES" for examples using -tagsFromFile.

            Notes:

            1) Some tags (generally tags which may affect the appearance of the image) are
            considered "unsafe" to write, and are only copied if specified explicitly (ie. no
            wildcards).  See the tag name documentation for more details about "unsafe" tags.

            2) Be aware of the difference between excluding a tag from being copied (--TAG), and
            deleting a tag (-TAG=).  Excluding a tag prevents it from being copied to the
            destination image, but deleting will remove a pre-existing tag from the image.

            3) The maker note information is copied as a block, so it isn't affected like other
            information by subsequent tag assignments on the command line, and individual
            makernote tags may not be excluded from a block copy.  Also, since the PreviewImage
            referenced from the maker notes may be rather large, it is not copied, and must be
            transferred separately if desired.

            4) The order of operations is to copy all specified tags at the point of the
            -tagsFromFile option in the command line.  Any tag assignment to the right of the
            -tagsFromFile option is made after all tags are copied.  For example, new tag values
            are set in the order One, Two, Three then Four with this command:

                exiftool -One=1 -tagsFromFile s.jpg -Two -Four=4 -Three d.jpg

            This is significant in the case where an overlap exists between the copied and
            assigned tags because later operations may override earlier ones.

            5) The normal behaviour of copied tags differs from that of assigned tags for list-
            type tags and conditional replacements because each copy operation on a tag overrides
            any previous operations.  While this avoids duplicate list items when copying groups
            of tags from a file containing redundant information, it also prevents values of
            different tags from being copied into the same list when this is the intent.  So a
            -addTagsFromFile option is provided which allows copying of multiple tags into the
            same list.  eg)

                exiftool -addtagsfromfile @ '-subject<make' '-subject<model' ...

            Similarly, -addTagsFromFile must be used when conditionally replacing a tag to
            prevent overriding earlier conditions.

            Other than these differences, the -tagsFromFile and -addTagsFromFile options are
            equivalent.

            6) The -a option (allow duplicate tags) is always in effect when copying tags from
            SRCFILE.

            7) Structured tags are copied by default when copying tags.  See the -struct option
            for details.

            8) With the redirection feature, copying a tag directly (ie.  "'-DSTTAG<SRCTAG'") is
            not the same as interpolating its value inside a string (ie. "'-DSTTAG<$SRCTAG'") for
            list-type tags, shortcut tags, tag names containing wildcards, or UserParam
            variables.  When copying directly, the values of each matching source tag are copied
            individually to the destination tag (as if they were separate assignments).  However,
            when interpolated inside a string, list items and the values of shortcut tags are
            concatenated (with a separator set by the -sep option), and wildcards are not
            allowed.  Also, UserParam variables are available only when interpolated in a string.

       -x TAG (-exclude)
            Exclude the specified tag.  There may be multiple -x options.  This has the same
            effect as --TAG on the command line.  See the --TAG documentation above for a
            complete description.

       Input-output text formatting

       Note that trailing spaces are removed from extracted values for most output text formats.
       The exceptions are "-b", "-csv", "-j" and "-X".

       -args (-argFormat)
            Output information in the form of exiftool arguments, suitable for use with the -@
            option when writing.  May be combined with the -G option to include group names.
            This feature may be used to effectively copy tags between images, but allows the
            metadata to be altered by editing the intermediate file ("out.args" in this example):

                exiftool -args -G1 --filename --directory src.jpg > out.args
                exiftool -@ out.args -sep ", " dst.jpg

            Note:  Be careful when copying information with this technique since it is easy to
            write tags which are normally considered "unsafe".  For instance, the FileName and
            Directory tags are excluded in the example above to avoid renaming and moving the
            destination file.  Also note that the second command above will produce warning
            messages for any tags which are not writable.

            As well, the -sep option should be used as in the second command above to maintain
            separate list items when writing metadata back to image files, and the -struct option
            may be used when extracting to preserve structured XMP information.

       -b (-binary)
            Output requested metadata in binary format without tag names or descriptions.  This
            option is mainly used for extracting embedded images or other binary data, but it may
            also be useful for some text strings since control characters (such as newlines) are
            not replaced by '.' as they are in the default output.  By default, list items are
            separated by a newline when extracted with the -b option, but this may be changed
            (see the -sep option for details).  May be combined with "-j", "-php" or "-X" to
            extract binary data in JSON, PHP or XML format, but note that "unsafe" tags must be
            specified explicitly to be extracted as binary in these formats.

       -c FMT (-coordFormat)
            Set the print format for GPS coordinates.  FMT uses the same syntax as a "printf"
            format string.  The specifiers correspond to degrees, minutes and seconds in that
            order, but minutes and seconds are optional.  For example, the following table gives
            the output for the same coordinate using various formats:

                        FMT                  Output
                -------------------    ------------------
                "%d deg %d' %.2f"\"    54 deg 59' 22.80"  (default for reading)
                "%d %d %.8f"           54 59 22.80000000  (default for copying)
                "%d deg %.4f min"      54 deg 59.3800 min
                "%.6f degrees"         54.989667 degrees

            Notes:

            1) To avoid loss of precision, the default coordinate format is different when
            copying tags using the -tagsFromFile option.

            2) If the hemisphere is known, a reference direction (N, S, E or W) is appended to
            each printed coordinate, but adding a "+" to the format specifier (eg. "%+.6f")
            prints a signed coordinate instead.

            3) This print formatting may be disabled with the -n option to extract coordinates as
            signed decimal degrees.

       -charset [[TYPE=]CHARSET]
            If TYPE is "ExifTool" or not specified, this option sets the ExifTool character
            encoding for output tag values when reading and input values when writing, with a
            default of "UTF8".  If no CHARSET is given, a list of available character sets is
            returned.  Valid CHARSET values are:

                CHARSET     Alias(es)        Description
                ----------  ---------------  ----------------------------------
                UTF8        cp65001, UTF-8   UTF-8 characters (default)
                Latin       cp1252, Latin1   Windows Latin1 (West European)
                Latin2      cp1250           Windows Latin2 (Central European)
                Cyrillic    cp1251, Russian  Windows Cyrillic
                Greek       cp1253           Windows Greek
                Turkish     cp1254           Windows Turkish
                Hebrew      cp1255           Windows Hebrew
                Arabic      cp1256           Windows Arabic
                Baltic      cp1257           Windows Baltic
                Vietnam     cp1258           Windows Vietnamese
                Thai        cp874            Windows Thai
                DOSLatinUS  cp437            DOS Latin US
                DOSLatin1   cp850            DOS Latin1
                MacRoman    cp10000, Roman   Macintosh Roman
                MacLatin2   cp10029          Macintosh Latin2 (Central Europe)
                MacCyrillic cp10007          Macintosh Cyrillic
                MacGreek    cp10006          Macintosh Greek
                MacTurkish  cp10081          Macintosh Turkish
                MacRomanian cp10010          Macintosh Romanian
                MacIceland  cp10079          Macintosh Icelandic
                MacCroatian cp10082          Macintosh Croatian

            TYPE may be "FileName" to specify the encoding of file names on the command line (ie.
            FILE arguments).  In Windows, this triggers use of wide-character i/o routines, thus
            providing support for Unicode file names.  See the "WINDOWS UNICODE FILE NAMES"
            section below for details.

            Other values of TYPE listed below are used to specify the internal encoding of
            various meta information formats.

                TYPE       Description                                  Default
                ---------  -------------------------------------------  -------
                EXIF       Internal encoding of EXIF "ASCII" strings    (none)
                ID3        Internal encoding of ID3v1 information       Latin
                IPTC       Internal IPTC encoding to assume when        Latin
                            IPTC:CodedCharacterSet is not defined
                Photoshop  Internal encoding of Photoshop IRB strings   Latin
                QuickTime  Internal encoding of QuickTime strings       MacRoman
                RIFF       Internal encoding of RIFF strings            0

            See <http://owl.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool/faq.html#Q10> for more information
            about coded character sets, and the Image::ExifTool Options for more details about
            the -charset settings.

       -csv[[+]=CSVFILE]
            Export information in CSV format, or import information if CSVFILE is specified.
            When importing, the CSV file must be in exactly the same format as the exported file.
            The first row of the CSVFILE must be the ExifTool tag names (with optional group
            names) for each column of the file, and values must be separated by commas.  A
            special "SourceFile" column specifies the files associated with each row of
            information (and a SourceFile of "*" may be used to define default tags to be
            imported for all files which are combined with any tags specified for the specific
            SourceFile processed).  The following examples demonstrate basic use of this option:

                # generate CSV file with common tags from all images in a directory
                exiftool -common -csv dir > out.csv

                # update metadata for all images in a directory from CSV file
                exiftool -csv=a.csv dir

            Empty values are ignored when importing (unless the -f option is used and the API
            MissingTagValue is set to an empty string, in which case the tag is deleted).  Also,
            FileName and Directory columns are ignored if they exist (ie. ExifTool will not
            attempt to write these tags with a CSV import).  To force a tag to be deleted, use
            the -f option and set the value to "-" in the CSV file (or to the MissingTagValue if
            this API option was used).  Multiple databases may be imported in a single command.

            When exporting a CSV file, the -g or -G option adds group names to the tag headings.
            If the -a option is used to allow duplicate tag names, the duplicate tags are only
            included in the CSV output if the column headings are unique.  Adding the -G4 option
            ensures a unique column heading for each tag.  The -b option may be added to output
            binary data, encoded in base64 if necessary (indicated by ASCII "base64:" as the
            first 7 bytes of the value).  Values may also be encoded in base64 if the -charset
            option is used and the value contains invalid characters.

            When exporting specific tags, the CSV columns are arranged in the same order as the
            specified tags provided the column headings exactly match the specified tag names,
            otherwise the columns are sorted in alphabetical order.

            When importing from a CSV file, only files specified on the command line are
            processed.  Any extra entries in the CSV file are ignored.

            List-type tags are stored as simple strings in a CSV file, but the -sep option may be
            used to split them back into separate items when importing.

            Special feature:  -csv+=CSVFILE may be used to add items to existing lists.  This
            affects only list-type tags.  Also applies to the -j option.

            Note that this option is fundamentally different than all other output format options
            because it requires information from all input files to be buffered in memory before
            the output is written.  This may result in excessive memory usage when processing a
            very large number of files with a single command.  Also, it makes this option
            incompatible with the -w option.  When processing a large number of files, it is
            recommended to either use the JSON (-j) or XML (-X) output format, or use -p to
            generate a fixed-column CSV file instead of using the -csv option.

       -d FMT (-dateFormat)
            Set the format for date/time tag values.  The FMT string may contain formatting codes
            beginning with a percent character ("%") to represent the various components of a
            date/time value.  The specifics of the FMT syntax are system dependent -- consult the
            "strftime" man page on your system for details.  The default format is equivalent to
            "%Y:%m:%d %H:%M:%S".  This option has no effect on date-only or time-only tags and
            ignores timezone information if present.  Only one -d option may be used per command.
            Requires POSIX::strptime or Time::Piece for the inversion conversion when writing.

       -D (-decimal)
            Show tag ID number in decimal when extracting information.

       -E, -ex (-escapeHTML, -escapeXML)
            Escape characters in output values for HTML (-E) or XML (-ex).  For HTML, all
            characters with Unicode code points above U+007F are escaped as well as the following
            5 characters: & (&amp;) ' (&#39;) " (&quot;) > (&gt;) and < (&lt;).  For XML, only
            these 5 characters are escaped.  The -E option is implied with -h, and -ex is implied
            with -X.  The inverse conversion is applied when writing tags.

       -f (-forcePrint)
            Force printing of tags even if their values are not found.  This option only applies
            when specific tags are requested on the command line (ie. not with wildcards or by
            "-all").  With this option, a dash ("-") is printed for the value of any missing tag,
            but the dash may be changed via the API MissingTagValue option.  May also be used to
            add a 'flags' attribute to the -listx output, or to allow tags to be deleted when
            writing with the -csv=CSVFILE feature.

       -g[NUM][:NUM...] (-groupHeadings)
            Organize output by tag group.  NUM specifies a group family number, and may be 0
            (general location), 1 (specific location), 2 (category), 3 (document number), 4
            (instance number), 5 (metadata path) or 6 (EXIF/TIFF format).  -g0 is assumed if a
            family number is not specified, and family numbers may be added wherever -g is
            mentioned in the documentation.  Multiple families may be specified by separating
            them with colons.  By default the resulting group name is simplified by removing any
            leading "Main:" and collapsing adjacent identical group names, but this can be
            avoided by placing a colon before the first family number (eg. -g:3:1).  Use the
            -listg option to list group names for a specified family.  The SavePath and
            SaveFormat API options are automatically enabled if the respective family 5 or 6
            group names are requested.  See the API GetGroup documentation for more information.

       -G[NUM][:NUM...] (-groupNames)
            Same as -g but print group name for each tag.  -G0 is assumed if NUM is not
            specified.  May be combined with a number of other options to add group names to the
            output.  Note that NUM may be added wherever -G is mentioned in the documentation.
            See the -g option above for details.

       -h (-htmlFormat)
            Use HTML table formatting for output.  Implies the -E option.  The formatting options
            -D, -H, -g, -G, -l and -s may be used in combination with -h to influence the HTML
            format.

       -H (-hex)
            Show tag ID number in hexadecimal when extracting information.

       -htmlDump[OFFSET]
            Generate a dynamic web page containing a hex dump of the EXIF information.  This can
            be a very powerful tool for low-level analysis of EXIF information.  The -htmlDump
            option is also invoked if the -v and -h options are used together.  The verbose level
            controls the maximum length of the blocks dumped.  An OFFSET may be given to specify
            the base for displayed offsets.  If not provided, the EXIF/TIFF base offset is used.
            Use -htmlDump0 for absolute offsets.  Currently only EXIF/TIFF and JPEG information
            is dumped, but the -u option can be used to give a raw hex dump of other file
            formats.

       -j[[+]=JSONFILE] (-json)
            Use JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) formatting for console output, or import JSON
            file if JSONFILE is specified.  This option may be combined with -g to organize the
            output into objects by group, or -G to add group names to each tag.  List-type tags
            with multiple items are output as JSON arrays unless -sep is used.  By default XMP
            structures are flattened into individual tags in the JSON output, but the original
            structure may be preserved with the -struct option (this also causes all list-type
            XMP tags to be output as JSON arrays, otherwise single-item lists would be output as
            simple strings).  The -a option is implied if the -g or -G options are used,
            otherwise it is ignored and tags with identical JSON names are suppressed. (-g4 may
            be used to ensure that all tags have unique JSON names.)  Adding the -D or -H option
            changes tag values to JSON objects with "val" and "id" fields, and adding -l adds a
            "desc" field, and a "num" field if the numerical value is different from the
            converted "val".  The -b option may be added to output binary data, encoded in base64
            if necessary (indicated by ASCII "base64:" as the first 7 bytes of the value), and -t
            may be added to include tag table information (see -t for details).  The JSON output
            is UTF-8 regardless of any -L or -charset option setting, but the UTF-8 validation is
            disabled if a character set other than UTF-8 is specified.

            If JSONFILE is specified, the file is imported and the tag definitions from the file
            are used to set tag values on a per-file basis.  The special "SourceFile" entry in
            each JSON object associates the information with a specific target file.  An object
            with a missing SourceFile or a SourceFile of "*" defines default tags for all target
            files which are combined with any tags specified for the specific SourceFile
            processed.  The imported JSON file must have the same format as the exported JSON
            files with the exception that the -g option is not compatible with the import file
            format (use -G instead).  Additionally, tag names in the input JSON file may be
            suffixed with a "#" to disable print conversion.

            Unlike CSV import, empty values are not ignored, and will cause an empty value to be
            written if supported by the specific metadata type.  Tags are deleted by using the -f
            option and setting the tag value to "-" (or to the MissingTagValue setting if this
            API option was used).  Importing with -j+=JSONFILE causes new values to be added to
            existing lists.

       -l (-long)
            Use long 2-line Canon-style output format.  Adds a description and unconverted value
            (if it is different from the converted value) to the XML, JSON or PHP output when -X,
            -j or -php is used.  May also be combined with -listf, -listr or -listwf to add
            descriptions of the file types.

       -L (-latin)
            Use Windows Latin1 encoding (cp1252) for output tag values instead of the default
            UTF-8.  When writing, -L specifies that input text values are Latin1 instead of
            UTF-8.  Equivalent to "-charset latin".

       -lang [LANG]
            Set current language for tag descriptions and converted values.  LANG is "de", "fr",
            "ja", etc.  Use -lang with no other arguments to get a list of available languages.
            The default language is "en" if -lang is not specified.  Note that tag/group names
            are always English, independent of the -lang setting, and translation of
            warning/error messages has not yet been implemented.  May also be combined with
            -listx to output descriptions in one language only.

            By default, ExifTool uses UTF-8 encoding for special characters, but the the -L or
            -charset option may be used to invoke other encodings.  Note that ExifTool uses
            Unicode::LineBreak if available to help preserve the column alignment of the plain
            text output for languages with a variable-width character set.

            Currently, the language support is not complete, but users are welcome to help
            improve this by submitting their own translations.  To submit a translation, follow
            these steps (you must have Perl installed for this):

            1. Download and unpack the latest Image-ExifTool full distribution.

            2. 'cd' into the Image-ExifTool directory.

            3. Run this command to make an XML file of the desired tags (eg. EXIF):

               ./exiftool -listx -exif:all > out.xml

            4. Copy this text into a file called 'import.pl' in the exiftool directory:

                push @INC, 'lib';
                require Image::ExifTool::TagInfoXML;
                my $file = shift or die "Expected XML file name\n";
                $Image::ExifTool::TagInfoXML::makeMissing = shift;
                Image::ExifTool::TagInfoXML::BuildLangModules($file,8);

            5. Run the 'import.pl' script to Import the XML file, generating the 'MISSING'
            entries for your language (eg. Russian):

               perl import.pl out.xml ru

            6. Edit the generated language module lib/Image/ExifTool/Lang/ru.pm, and search and
            replace all 'MISSING' strings in the file with your translations.

            7. Email the module ('ru.pm' in this example) to phil at owl.phy.queensu.ca

            8. Thank you!!

       -listItem INDEX
            For list-type tags, this causes only the item with the specified index to be
            extracted.  INDEX is 0 for the first item in the list.  Negative indices may also be
            used to reference items from the end of the list.  Has no effect on single-valued
            tags.  Also applies to tag values when copying from a tag, and in -if conditions.

       -n (--printConv)
            Disable print conversion for all tags.  By default, extracted values are converted to
            a more human-readable format, but the -n option disables this conversion, revealing
            the machine-readable values.  For example:

                > exiftool -Orientation -S a.jpg
                Orientation: Rotate 90 CW
                > exiftool -Orientation -S -n a.jpg
                Orientation: 6

            The print conversion may also be disabled on a per-tag basis by suffixing the tag
            name with a "#" character:

                > exiftool -Orientation# -Orientation -S a.jpg
                Orientation: 6
                Orientation: Rotate 90 CW

            These techniques may also be used to disable the inverse print conversion when
            writing.  For example, the following commands all have the same effect:

                > exiftool -Orientation='Rotate 90 CW' a.jpg
                > exiftool -Orientation=6 -n a.jpg
                > exiftool -Orientation#=6 a.jpg

       -p FMTFILE or STR (-printFormat)
            Print output in the format specified by the given file or string.  The argument is
            interpreted as a string unless a file of that name exists, in which case the string
            is loaded from the contents of the file.  Tag names in the format file or string
            begin with a "$" symbol and may contain a leading group names and/or a trailing "#".
            Case is not significant.  Braces "{}" may be used around the tag name to separate it
            from subsequent text.  Use $$ to represent a "$" symbol, and $/ for a newline.

            Multiple -p options may be used, each contributing a line (or more) of text to the
            output.  Lines beginning with "#[HEAD]" and "#[TAIL]" are output before the first
            processed file and after the last processed file respectively.  Lines beginning with
            "#[SECT]" and "#[ENDS]" are output around each section of files.  A section is
            defined as a group of consecutive files with the same section header (eg. files are
            grouped by directory if "#[SECT]" contains $directory).  Lines beginning with
            "#[BODY]" and lines not beginning with "#" are output for each processed file.  Lines
            beginning with "#[IF]" are not output, but all BODY lines are skipped if any tag on
            an IF line doesn't exist.  Other lines beginning with "#" are ignored.  For example,
            this format file:

                # this is a comment line
                #[HEAD]-- Generated by ExifTool $exifToolVersion --
                File: $FileName - $DateTimeOriginal
                (f/$Aperture, ${ShutterSpeed}s, ISO $EXIF:ISO)
                #[TAIL]-- end --

            with this command:

                exiftool -p test.fmt a.jpg b.jpg

            produces output like this:

                -- Generated by ExifTool 11.65 --
                File: a.jpg - 2003:10:31 15:44:19
                (f/5.6, 1/60s, ISO 100)
                File: b.jpg - 2006:05:23 11:57:38
                (f/8.0, 1/13s, ISO 100)
                -- end --

            The values of List-type tags with multiple items and Shortcut tags representing
            multiple tags are joined according the the -sep option setting when interpolated in
            the string.

            When -ee (-extractEmbedded) is combined with -p, embedded documents are effectively
            processed as separate input files.

            If a specified tag does not exist, a minor warning is issued and the line with the
            missing tag is not printed.  However, the -f option may be used to set the value of
            missing tags to '-' (but this may be configured via the MissingTagValue API option),
            or the -m option may be used to ignore minor warnings and leave the missing values
            empty.  Alternatively, -q -q may be used to simply suppress the warning messages.

            The "Advanced formatting feature" may be used to modify the values of individual tags
            with the -p option.

       -php Format output as a PHP Array.  The -g, -G, -D, -H, -l, -sep and -struct options
            combine with -php, and duplicate tags are handled in the same way as with the -json
            option.  As well, the -b option may be added to output binary data, and -t may be
            added to include tag table information (see -t for details).  Here is a simple
            example showing how this could be used in a PHP script:

                <?php
                eval('$array=' . `exiftool -php -q image.jpg`);
                print_r($array);
                ?>

       -s[NUM] (-short)
            Short output format.  Prints tag names instead of descriptions.  Add NUM or up to 3
            -s options for even shorter formats:

                -s1 or -s        - print tag names instead of descriptions
                -s2 or -s -s     - no extra spaces to column-align values
                -s3 or -s -s -s  - print values only (no tag names)

            Also effective when combined with -t, -h, -X or -listx options.

       -S (-veryShort)
            Very short format.  The same as -s2 or two -s options.  Tag names are printed instead
            of descriptions, and no extra spaces are added to column-align values.

       -sep STR (-separator)
            Specify separator string for items in list-type tags.  When reading, the default is
            to join list items with ", ".  When writing, this option causes values assigned to
            list-type tags to be split into individual items at each substring matching STR
            (otherwise they are not split by default).  Space characters in STR match zero or
            more whitespace characters in the value.

            Note that an empty separator ("") is allowed, and will join items with no separator
            when reading, or split the value into individual characters when writing.

            For pure binary output (-b used without -j, -php or -X), the first -sep option
            specifies a list-item separator, and a second -sep option specifies a terminator for
            the end of the list (or after each value if not a list).  In these strings, "\n",
            "\r" and "\t" may be used to represent a newline, carriage return and tab
            respectively.  By default, binary list items are separated by a newline, and no
            terminator is added.

       -sort, --sort
            Sort output by tag description, or by tag name if the -s option is used.  When
            sorting by description, the sort order will depend on the -lang option setting.
            Without the -sort option, tags appear in the order they were specified on the command
            line, or if not specified, the order they were extracted from the file.  By default,
            tags are organized by groups when combined with the -g or -G option, but this
            grouping may be disabled with --sort.

       -struct, --struct
            Output structured XMP information instead of flattening to individual tags.  This
            option works well when combined with the XML (-X) and JSON (-j) output formats.  For
            other output formats, XMP structures and lists are serialized into the same format as
            when writing structured information (see
            <http://owl.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool/struct.html> for details).  When copying,
            structured tags are copied by default unless --struct is used to disable this feature
            (although flattened tags may still be copied by specifying them individually unless
            -struct is used).  These options have no effect when assigning new values since both
            flattened and structured tags may always be used when writing.

       -t (-tab)
            Output a tab-delimited list of description/values (useful for database import).  May
            be combined with -s to print tag names instead of descriptions, or -S to print tag
            values only, tab-delimited on a single line.  The -t option may be combined with -j,
            -php or -X to add tag table information ("table", tag "id", and "index" for cases
            where multiple conditional tags exist with the same ID).

       -T (-table)
            Output tag values in table form.  Equivalent to -t -S -q -f.

       -v[NUM] (-verbose)
            Print verbose messages.  NUM specifies the level of verbosity in the range 0-5, with
            higher numbers being more verbose.  If NUM is not given, then each -v option
            increases the level of verbosity by 1.  With any level greater than 0, most other
            options are ignored and normal console output is suppressed unless specific tags are
            extracted.  Using -v0 causes the console output buffer to be flushed after each line
            (which may be useful to avoid delays when piping exiftool output), and prints the
            name of each processed file when writing.  Also see the -progress option.

       -w[+|!] EXT or FMT (-textOut)
            Write console output to files with names ending in EXT, one for each source file.
            The output file name is obtained by replacing the source file extension (including
            the '.') with the specified extension (and a '.' is added to the start of EXT if it
            doesn't already contain one).  Alternatively, a FMT string may be used to give more
            control over the output file name and directory.  In the format string, %d, %f and %e
            represent the directory, filename and extension of the source file, and %c represents
            a copy number which is automatically incremented if the file already exists.  %d
            includes the trailing '/' if necessary, but %e does not include the leading '.'.  For
            example:

                -w %d%f.txt       # same effect as "-w txt"
                -w dir/%f_%e.out  # write files to "dir" as "FILE_EXT.out"
                -w dir2/%d%f.txt  # write to "dir2", keeping dir structure
                -w a%c.txt        # write to "a.txt" or "a1.txt" or "a2.txt"...

            Existing files will not be changed unless an exclamation point is added to the option
            name (ie. -w! or -textOut!) to overwrite the file, or a plus sign (ie. -w+ or
            -textOut+) to append to the existing file.  Both may be used (ie. -w+! or -textOut+!)
            to overwrite output files that didn't exist before the command was run, and append
            the output from multiple source files.  For example, to write one output file for all
            source files in each directory:

                exiftool -filename -createdate -T -w+! %d/out.txt -r DIR

            Capitalized format codes %D, %F, %E and %C provide slightly different alternatives to
            the lower case versions.  %D does not include the trailing '/', %F is the full
            filename including extension, %E includes the leading '.', and %C increments the
            count for each processed file (see below).

            Notes:

            1) In a Windows BAT file the "%" character is represented by "%%", so an argument
            like "%d%f.txt" is written as "%%d%%f.txt".

            2) If the argument for -w does not contain a valid format code (eg. %f), then it is
            interpreted as a file extension.  It is not possible to specify a simple filename as
            an argument -- creating a single output file from multiple source files is typically
            done by shell redirection, ie)

                exiftool FILE1 FILE2 ... > out.txt

            But if necessary, an empty format code may be used to force the argument to be
            interpreted as a format string, and the same result may be obtained without the use
            of shell redirection:

                exiftool -w+! %0fout.txt FILE1 FILE2 ...

            Advanced features:

            A substring of the original file name, directory or extension may be taken by
            specifying a field width immediately following the '%' character.  If the width is
            negative, the substring is taken from the end.  The substring position (characters to
            ignore at the start or end of the string) may be given by a second optional value
            after a decimal point.  For example:

                Input File Name     Format Specifier    Output File Name
                ----------------    ----------------    ----------------
                Picture-123.jpg     %7f.txt             Picture.txt
                Picture-123.jpg     %-.4f.out           Picture.out
                Picture-123.jpg     %7f.%-3f            Picture.123
                Picture-123a.jpg    Meta%-3.1f.txt      Meta123.txt

            (Note that special characters may have a width of greater than one.)

            For %d and %D, the field width/position specifiers may be applied to the directory
            levels instead of substring position by using a colon instead of a decimal point in
            the format specifier.  For example:

                Source Dir     Format   Result       Notes
                ------------   ------   ----------   ------------------
                pics/2012/02   %2:d     pics/2012/   take top 2 levels
                pics/2012/02   %-:1d    pics/2012/   up one directory level
                pics/2012/02   %:1d     2012/02/     ignore top level
                pics/2012/02   %1:1d    2012/        take 1 level after top
                pics/2012/02   %-1:D    02           bottom level folder name
                /Users/phil    %:2d     phil/        ignore top 2 levels

            (Note that the root directory counts as one level when an absolute path is used as in
            the last example above.)

            For %c, these modifiers have a different effects.  If a field width is given, the
            copy number is padded with zeros to the specified width.  A leading '-' adds a dash
            before the copy number, and a '+' adds an underline.  By default, the copy number is
            omitted from the first file of a given name, but this can be changed by adding a
            decimal point to the modifier.  For example:

                -w A%-cZ.txt      # AZ.txt, A-1Z.txt, A-2Z.txt ...
                -w B%5c.txt       # B.txt, B00001.txt, B00002.txt ...
                -w C%.c.txt       # C0.txt, C1.txt, C2.txt ...
                -w D%-.c.txt      # D-0.txt, D-1.txt, D-2.txt ...
                -w E%-.4c.txt     # E-0000.txt, E-0001.txt, E-0002.txt ...
                -w F%-.4nc.txt    # F-0001.txt, F-0002.txt, F-0003.txt ...
                -w G%+c.txt       # G.txt, G_1.txt G_2.txt ...
                -w H%-lc.txt      # H.txt, H-b.txt, H-c.txt ...
                -w I.%.3uc.txt    # I.AAA.txt, I.AAB.txt, I.AAC.txt ...

            A special feature allows the copy number to be incremented for each processed file by
            using %C (upper case) instead of %c.  This allows a sequential number to be added to
            output file names, even if the names are different.  For %C, a copy number of zero is
            not omitted as it is with %c.  A leading '-' causes the number to be reset at the
            start of each new directory, and '+' has no effect.  The number before the decimal
            place gives the starting index, the number after the decimal place gives the field
            width.  The following examples show the output filenames when used with the command
            "exiftool rose.jpg star.jpg jet.jpg ...":

                -w %C%f.txt       # 0rose.txt, 1star.txt, 2jet.txt
                -w %f-%10C.txt    # rose-10.txt, star-11.txt, jet-12.txt
                -w %.3C-%f.txt    # 000-rose.txt, 001-star.txt, 002-jet.txt
                -w %57.4C%f.txt   # 0057rose.txt, 0058star.txt, 0059jet.txt

            All format codes may be modified by 'l' or 'u' to specify lower or upper case
            respectively (ie. %le for a lower case file extension).  When used to modify %c or
            %C, the numbers are changed to an alphabetical base (see example H above).  Also, %c
            and %C may be modified by 'n' to count using natural numbers starting from 1, instead
            of 0 (see example F above).

            This same FMT syntax is used with the -o and -tagsFromFile options, although %c and
            %C are only valid for output file names.

       -W[+|!] FMT (-tagOut)
            This enhanced version of the -w option allows a separate output file to be created
            for each extracted tag.  See the -w option documentation above for details of the
            basic functionality.  Listed here are the differences between -W and -w:

            1) With -W, a new output file is created for each extracted tag.

            2) -W supports three additional format codes:  %t, %g and %s represent the tag name,
            group name, and suggested extension for the output file (based on the format of the
            data).  The %g code may be followed by a single digit to specify the group family
            number (eg. %g1), otherwise family 0 is assumed.  The substring width/position/case
            specifiers may be used with these format codes in exactly the same way as with %f and
            %e.

            3) The argument for -W is interpreted as a file name if it contains no format codes.
            (For -w, this would be a file extension.)  This change allows a simple file name to
            be specified, which, when combined with the append feature, provides a method to
            write metadata from multiple source files to a single output file without the need
            for shell redirection.  For example, the following pairs of commands give the same
            result:

                # overwriting existing text file
                exiftool test.jpg > out.txt     # shell redirection
                exiftool test.jpg -W+! out.txt  # equivalent -W option

                # append to existing text file
                exiftool test.jpg >> out.txt    # shell redirection
                exiftool test.jpg -W+ out.txt   # equivalent -W option

            4) Adding the -v option to -W sends a list of the tags and output file names to the
            console instead of giving a verbose dump of the entire file.  (Unless appending all
            output to one file for each source file by using -W+ with an output file FMT that
            does not contain %t, $g or %s.)

            5) Individual list items are stored in separate files when -W is combined with -b,
            but note that for separate files to be created %c or %C must be used in FMT to give
            the files unique names.

       -Wext EXT, --Wext EXT (-tagOutExt)
            This option is used to specify the type of output file(s) written by the -W option.
            An output file is written only if the suggested extension matches EXT.  Multiple
            -Wext options may be used to write more than one type of file.  Use --Wext to write
            all but the specified type(s).

       -X (-xmlFormat)
            Use ExifTool-specific RDF/XML formatting for console output.  Implies the -a option,
            so duplicate tags are extracted.  The formatting options -b, -D, -H, -l, -s, -sep,
            -struct and -t may be used in combination with -X to affect the output, but note that
            the tag ID (-D, -H and -t), binary data (-b) and structured output (-struct) options
            are not effective for the short output (-s). Another restriction of -s is that only
            one tag with a given group and name may appear in the output.  Note that the tag ID
            options (-D, -H and -t) will produce non-standard RDF/XML unless the -l option is
            also used.

            By default, -X outputs flattened tags, so -struct should be added if required to
            preserve XMP structures.  List-type tags with multiple values are formatted as an RDF
            Bag, but they are combined into a single string when -s or -sep is used.  Using -L
            changes the XML encoding from "UTF-8" to "windows-1252".  Other -charset settings
            change the encoding only if there is a corresponding standard XML character set.  The
            -b option causes binary data values to be written, encoded in base64 if necessary.
            The -t option adds tag table information to the output (see -t for details).

            Note:  This output is NOT the same as XMP because it uses dynamically-generated
            property names corresponding to the ExifTool tag names, and not the standard XMP
            properties.  To write XMP instead, use the -o option with an XMP extension for the
            output file.

       Processing control

       -a, --a (-duplicates, --duplicates)
            Allow (-a) or suppress (--a) duplicate tag names to be extracted.  By default,
            duplicate tags are suppressed when reading unless the -ee or -X options are used or
            the Duplicates option is enabled in the configuration file. This option has an affect
            when writing only to allow duplicate Warning messages to be shown.  Duplicate tags
            are always extracted when copying.

       -e (--composite)
            Extract existing tags only -- don't calculate composite tags.

       -ee (-extractEmbedded)
            Extract information from embedded documents in EPS files, embedded EPS information
            and JPEG and Jpeg2000 images in PDF files, embedded MPF images in JPEG and MPO files,
            streaming metadata in AVCHD videos, and the resource fork of Mac OS files.  Implies
            the -a option.  Use -g3 or -G3 to identify the originating document for extracted
            information.  Embedded documents containing sub-documents are indicated with dashes
            in the family 3 group name.  (eg. "Doc2-3" is the 3rd sub-document of the 2nd
            embedded document.) Note that this option may increase processing time substantially,
            especially for PDF files with many embedded images or videos with streaming metadata.

            When used with -ee, the -p option is evaluated for each embedded document as if it
            were a separate input file.  This allows, for example, generation of GPS track logs
            from timed metadata in videos.  See
            <http://owl.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool/geotag.html#Inverse> for examples.

       -ext[+] EXT, --ext EXT (-extension)
            Process only files with (-ext) or without (--ext) a specified extension.  There may
            be multiple -ext and --ext options.  A plus sign may be added (ie. -ext+) to add the
            specified extension to the normally processed files.  EXT may begin with a leading
            '.', which is ignored.  Case is not significant.  "*" may be used to process files
            with any extension (or none at all), as in the last three examples:

                exiftool -ext JPG DIR             # process only JPG files
                exiftool --ext cr2 --ext dng DIR  # supported files but CR2/DNG
                exiftool -ext+ txt DIR            # supported files plus TXT
                exiftool -ext "*" DIR             # process all files
                exiftool -ext "*" --ext xml DIR   # process all but XML files
                exiftool -ext "*" --ext . DIR     # all but those with no ext

            Using this option has two main advantages over specifying "*.EXT" on the command
            line:  1) It applies to files in subdirectories when combined with the -r option.  2)
            The -ext option is case-insensitive, which is useful when processing files on case-
            sensitive filesystems.

            Note that all files specified on the command line will be processed regardless of
            extension unless the -ext option is used.

       -F[OFFSET] (-fixBase)
            Fix the base for maker notes offsets.  A common problem with some image editors is
            that offsets in the maker notes are not adjusted properly when the file is modified.
            This may cause the wrong values to be extracted for some maker note entries when
            reading the edited file.  This option allows an integer OFFSET to be specified for
            adjusting the maker notes base offset.  If no OFFSET is given, ExifTool takes its
            best guess at the correct base.  Note that exiftool will automatically fix the
            offsets for images which store original offset information (eg. newer Canon models).
            Offsets are fixed permanently if -F is used when writing EXIF to an image. eg)

                exiftool -F -exif:resolutionunit=inches image.jpg

       -fast[NUM]
            Increase speed of extracting information.  With this option, ExifTool will not scan
            to the end of a JPEG image to check for an AFCP or PreviewImage trailer, or past the
            first comment in GIF images or the audio/video data in WAV/AVI files to search for
            additional metadata.  These speed benefits are small when reading images directly
            from disk, but can be substantial if piping images through a network connection.  For
            more substantial speed benefits, -fast2 also causes exiftool to avoid extracting any
            EXIF MakerNote information.  -fast3 avoids extracting metadata from the file, and
            returns only pseudo System tags, but still reads the file header to obtain an
            educated guess at FileType.  -fast4 doesn't even read the file header, and determines
            FileType based only on the file extension.  Has no effect when writing.

       -fileOrder [-]TAG
            Set file processing order according to the sorted value of the specified TAG.  For
            example, to process files in order of date:

                exiftool -fileOrder DateTimeOriginal DIR

            Additional -fileOrder options may be added for secondary sort keys.  Numbers are
            sorted numerically, and all other values are sorted alphabetically.  The sort order
            may be reversed by prefixing the tag name with a "-" (eg. "-fileOrder -createdate").
            Print conversion of the sorted values is disabled with the -n option, or a "#"
            appended to the tag name.  Other formatting options (eg. -d) have no effect on the
            sorted values.  Note that the -fileOrder option has a large performance impact since
            it involves an additional processing pass of each file.

       -i DIR (-ignore)
            Ignore specified directory name.  DIR may be either an individual folder name, or a
            full path.  If a full path is specified, it must match the Directory tag exactly to
            be ignored.  Use multiple -i options to ignore more than one directory name.  A
            special DIR value of "SYMLINKS" (case sensitive) may be specified to ignore symbolic
            links when the -r option is used.

       -if[NUM] EXPR
            Specify a condition to be evaluated before processing each FILE.  EXPR is a Perl-like
            logic expression containing tag names prefixed by "$" symbols.  It is evaluated with
            the tags from each FILE in turn, and the file is processed only if the expression
            returns true.  Unlike Perl variable names, tag names are not case sensitive and may
            contain a hyphen.  As well, tag names may have a leading group names separated by
            colons, and/or a trailing "#" character to disable print conversion.  The expression
            $GROUP:all evaluates to 1 if any tag exists in the specified "GROUP", or 0 otherwise
            (see note 2 below).  When multiple -if options are used, all conditions must be
            satisfied to process the file.  Returns an exit status of 2 if all files fail the
            condition.  Below are a few examples:

                # extract shutterspeed from all Canon images in a directory
                exiftool -shutterspeed -if '$make eq "Canon"' dir

                # add one hour to all images created on or after Apr. 2, 2006
                exiftool -alldates+=1 -if '$CreateDate ge "2006:04:02"' dir

                # set EXIF ISO value if possible, unless it is set already
                exiftool '-exif:iso<iso' -if 'not $exif:iso' dir

                # find images containing a specific keyword (case insensitive)
                exiftool -if '$keywords =~ /harvey/i' -filename dir

            Adding NUM to the -if option causes a separate processing pass to be executed for
            evaluating EXPR at a -fast level given by NUM (see the -fast option documentation for
            details).  Without NUM, only one processing pass is done at the level specified by
            the -fast option.  For example, using -if4 is possible if EXPR uses only pseudo
            System tags, and may significantly speed processing if enough files fail the
            condition.

            Notes:

            1) The -n and -b options also apply to tags used in EXPR.

            2) Some binary data blocks are not extracted unless specified explicitly.  These tags
            are not available for use in the -if condition unless they are also specified on the
            command line.  The alternative is to use the $GROUP:all syntax. (eg. Use $exif:all
            instead of $exif in EXPR to test for the existence of EXIF tags.)

            3) Tags in the string are interpolated the same way as with -p before the expression
            is evaluated.  In this interpolation, $/ is converted to a newline and $$ represents
            a single "$" symbol (so Perl variables, if used, require a double "$").

            4) The condition may only test tags from the file being processed.  To process one
            file based on tags from another, two steps are required.  For example, to process XMP
            sidecar files in directory "DIR" based on tags from the associated NEF:

                exiftool -if EXPR -p '$directory/$filename' -ext nef DIR > nef.txt
                exiftool -@ nef.txt -srcfile %d%f.xmp ...

            5) The -a option has no effect on the evaluation of the expression, and the values of
            duplicate tags are accessible only by specifying a group name (such as a family 4
            instance number, eg. $Copy1:TAG, $Copy2:TAG, etc).

            6) A special "OK" UserParam is available to test the success of the previous command
            when -execute was used, and may be used like any other tag in the condition (ie.
            "$OK").

       -m (-ignoreMinorErrors)
            Ignore minor errors and warnings.  This enables writing to files with minor errors
            and disables some validation checks which could result in minor warnings.  Generally,
            minor errors/warnings indicate a problem which usually won't result in loss of
            metadata if ignored.  However, there are exceptions, so ExifTool leaves it up to you
            to make the final decision.  Minor errors and warnings are indicated by "[minor]" at
            the start of the message.  Warnings which affect processing when ignored are
            indicated by "[Minor]" (with a capital "M").  Note that this causes missing values in
            -tagsFromFile, -p and -if strings to be set to an empty string rather than an
            undefined value.

       -o OUTFILE or FMT (-out)
            Set the output file or directory name when writing information.  Without this option,
            when any "real" tags are written the original file is renamed to "FILE_original" and
            output is written to FILE.  When writing only FileName and/or Directory "pseudo"
            tags, -o causes the file to be copied instead of moved, but directories specified for
            either of these tags take precedence over that specified by the -o option.

            OUTFILE may be "-" to write to stdout.  The output file name may also be specified
            using a FMT string in which %d, %f and %e represent the directory, file name and
            extension of FILE.  Also, %c may be used to add a copy number. See the -w option for
            FMT string examples.

            The output file is taken to be a directory name if it already exists as a directory
            or if the name ends with '/'.  Output directories are created if necessary.  Existing
            files will not be overwritten.  Combining the -overwrite_original option with -o
            causes the original source file to be erased after the output file is successfully
            written.

            A special feature of this option allows the creation of certain types of files from
            scratch, or with the metadata from another type of file.  The following file types
            may be created using this technique:

                XMP, EXIF, EXV, MIE, ICC/ICM, VRD, DR4

            The output file type is determined by the extension of OUTFILE (specified as "-.EXT"
            when writing to stdout).  The output file is then created from a combination of
            information in FILE (as if the -tagsFromFile option was used), and tag values
            assigned on the command line.  If no FILE is specified, the output file may be
            created from scratch using only tags assigned on the command line.

       -overwrite_original
            Overwrite the original FILE (instead of preserving it by adding "_original" to the
            file name) when writing information to an image.  Caution: This option should only be
            used if you already have separate backup copies of your image files.  The overwrite
            is implemented by renaming a temporary file to replace the original.  This deletes
            the original file and replaces it with the edited version in a single operation.
            When combined with -o, this option causes the original file to be deleted if the
            output file was successfully written (ie. the file is moved instead of copied).

       -overwrite_original_in_place
            Similar to -overwrite_original except that an extra step is added to allow the
            original file attributes to be preserved.  For example, on a Mac this causes the
            original file creation date, type, creator, label color, icon, Finder tags, other
            extended attributes and hard links to the file to be preserved (but note that the Mac
            OS resource fork is always preserved unless specifically deleted with "-rsrc:all=").
            This is implemented by opening the original file in update mode and replacing its
            data with a copy of a temporary file before deleting the temporary.  The extra step
            results in slower performance, so the -overwrite_original option should be used
            instead unless necessary.

       -P (-preserve)
            Preserve the filesystem modification date/time ("FileModifyDate") of the original
            file when writing.  Note that some filesystems store a creation date (Windows
            "FileCreateDate" or Mac "MDItemFSCreationDate") which is not affected by this option.
            The creation date is preserved on Windows systems where Win32API::File and Win32::API
            are available regardless of this setting.  For other systems, the
            -overwrite_original_in_place option may be used if necessary to preserve the creation
            date.  This option is superseded by any value written to the FileModifyDate tag.

       -password PASSWD
            Specify password to allow processing of password-protected PDF documents.  If a
            password is required but not given, a warning is issued and the document is not
            processed.  This option is ignored if a password is not required.

       -progress[:[TITLE]]
            Show the progress when processing files.  Without a colon, the -progress option adds
            a progress count in brackets after the name of each processed file, giving the
            current file number and the total number of files to be processed.  Implies the -v0
            option, causing the names of processed files to also be printed when writing.  When
            combined with the -if option, the total count includes all files before the condition
            is applied, but files that fail the condition will not have their names printed.

            If followed by a colon (ie. -progress:), the console window title is set according to
            the specified TITLE string.  If no TITLE is given, a default TITLE string of
            "ExifTool %p%%" is assumed.  In the string, %f represents the file name, %p is the
            progress as a percent, %r is the progress as a ratio, %##b is a progress bar of width
            "##" (20 characters if "##" is omitted), and %% is a % character.  May be combined
            with the normal -progress option to also show the progress count in console messages.
            (Note: For this feature to function correctly on Mac/Linux, stderr must go to the
            console.)

       -q (-quiet)
            Quiet processing.  One -q suppresses normal informational messages, and a second -q
            suppresses warnings as well.  Error messages can not be suppressed, although minor
            errors may be downgraded to warnings with the -m option, which may then be suppressed
            with "-q -q".

       -r[.] (-recurse)
            Recursively process files in subdirectories.  Only meaningful if FILE is a directory
            name.  Subdirectories with names beginning with "." are not processed unless "." is
            added to the option name (ie. -r. or -recurse.).  By default, exiftool will also
            follow symbolic links to directories if supported by the system, but this may be
            disabled with "-i SYMLINKS" (see the -i option for details).  Combine this with -ext
            options to control the types of files processed.

       -scanForXMP
            Scan all files (even unsupported formats) for XMP information unless found already.
            When combined with the -fast option, only unsupported file types are scanned.
            Warning: It can be time consuming to scan large files.

       -u (-unknown)
            Extract values of unknown tags.  Add another -u to also extract unknown information
            from binary data blocks.  This option applies to tags with numerical tag ID's, and
            causes tag names like "Exif_0xc5d9" to be generated for unknown information.  It has
            no effect on information types which have human-readable tag ID's (such as XMP),
            since unknown tags are extracted automatically from these formats.

       -U (-unknown2)
            Extract values of unknown tags as well as unknown information from some binary data
            blocks.  This is the same as two -u options.

       -wm MODE (-writeMode)
            Set mode for writing/creating tags.  MODE is a string of one or more characters from
            the list below.  The default write mode is "wcg".

                w - Write existing tags
                c - Create new tags
                g - create new Groups as necessary

            For example, use "-wm cg" to only create new tags (and avoid editing existing ones).

            The level of the group is the SubDirectory level in the metadata structure.  For XMP
            or IPTC this is the full XMP/IPTC block (the family 0 group), but for EXIF this is
            the individual IFD (the family 1 group).

       -z (-zip)
            When reading, causes information to be extracted from .gz and .bz2 compressed images
            (only one image per archive; requires gzip and bzip2 to be available).  When writing,
            causes compressed information to be written if supported by the metadata format (eg.
            compressed textual metadata in PNG), disables the recommended padding in embedded XMP
            (saving 2424 bytes when writing XMP in a file), and writes XMP in shorthand format --
            the equivalent of setting the API Compress and Compact="Padding,Shorthand".

       Other options

       -@ ARGFILE
            Read command-line arguments from the specified file.  The file contains one argument
            per line (NOT one option per line -- some options require additional arguments, and
            all arguments must be placed on separate lines).  Blank lines and lines beginning
            with "#" are ignored (unless they start with "#[CSTR]", in which case the rest of the
            line is treated as a C string, allowing standard C escape sequences such as "\n" for
            a newline).  White space at the start of a line is removed.  Normal shell processing
            of arguments is not performed, which among other things means that arguments should
            not be quoted and spaces are treated as any other character.  ARGFILE may exist
            relative to either the current directory or the exiftool directory unless an absolute
            pathname is given.

            For example, the following ARGFILE will set the value of Copyright to "Copyright
            YYYY, Phil Harvey", where "YYYY" is the year of CreateDate:

                -d
                %Y
                -copyright<Copyright $createdate, Phil Harvey

            Arguments in ARGFILE behave exactly the same as if they were entered at the location
            of the -@ option on the command line, with the exception that the -config and
            -common_args options may not be used in an ARGFILE.

       -k (-pause)
            Pause with the message "-- press any key --" or "-- press RETURN --" (depending on
            your system) before terminating.  This option is used to prevent the command window
            from closing when run as a Windows drag and drop application.

       -list, -listw, -listf, -listr, -listwf, -listg[NUM], -listd, -listx
            Print a list of all valid tag names (-list), all writable tag names (-listw), all
            supported file extensions (-listf), all recognized file extensions (-listr), all
            writable file extensions (-listwf), all tag groups [in a specified family]
            (-listg[NUM]), all deletable tag groups (-listd), or an XML database of tag details
            including language translations (-listx).  The -list, -listw and -listx options may
            be followed by an additional argument of the form "-GROUP:All" to list only tags in a
            specific group, where "GROUP" is one or more family 0-2 group names (excepting EXIF
            IFD groups) separated by colons.  With -listg, NUM may be given to specify the group
            family, otherwise family 0 is assumed.  The -l option may be combined with -listf,
            -listr or -listwf to add file descriptions to the list.  The -lang option may be
            combined with -listx to output descriptions in a single language.  Here are some
            examples:

                -list               # list all tag names
                -list -EXIF:All     # list all EXIF tags
                -list -xmp:time:all # list all XMP tags relating to time
                -listw -XMP-dc:All  # list all writable XMP-dc tags
                -listf              # list all supported file extensions
                -listr              # list all recognized file extensions
                -listwf             # list all writable file extensions
                -listg1             # list all groups in family 1
                -listd              # list all deletable groups
                -listx -EXIF:All    # list database of EXIF tags in XML format
                -listx -XMP:All -s  # list short XML database of XMP tags

            When combined with -listx, the -s option shortens the output by omitting the
            descriptions and values (as in the last example above), and -f adds a 'flags'
            attribute if applicable.  The flags are formatted as a comma-separated list of the
            following possible values:  Avoid, Binary, List, Mandatory, Permanent, Protected,
            Unknown and Unsafe (see the Tag Name documentation).  For XMP List tags, the list
            type (Alt, Bag or Seq) is added to the flags, and flattened structure tags are
            indicated by a Flattened flag.

            Note that none of the -list options require an input FILE.

       -ver Print exiftool version number.  The -v option may be added to print addition system
            information (see the README file of the full distribution for more details about
            optional libraries), or -v2 to also list the Perl include directories.

       Special features

       -geotag TRKFILE
            Geotag images from the specified GPS track log file.  Using the -geotag option is
            equivalent to writing a value to the "Geotag" tag.  The GPS position is interpolated
            from the track at a time specified by the value written to the "Geotime" tag.  If
            "Geotime" is not specified, the value is copied from "DateTimeOriginal#" (the "#" is
            added to copy the unformatted value, avoiding potential conflicts with the -d
            option).  For example, the following two commands are equivalent:

                exiftool -geotag trk.log image.jpg
                exiftool -geotag trk.log "-Geotime<DateTimeOriginal#" image.jpg

            When the "Geotime" value is converted to UTC, the local system timezone is assumed
            unless the date/time value contains a timezone.  Writing "Geotime" causes the
            following tags to be written (provided they can be calculated from the track log, and
            they are supported by the destination metadata format):  GPSLatitude, GPSLatitudeRef,
            GPSLongitude, GPSLongitudeRef, GPSAltitude, GPSAltitudeRef, GPSDateStamp,
            GPSTimeStamp, GPSDateTime, GPSTrack, GPSTrackRef, GPSSpeed, GPSSpeedRef,
            GPSImgDirection, GPSImgDirectionRef, GPSPitch, GPSRoll and AmbientTemperature.  By
            default, tags are created in EXIF, and updated in XMP only if they already exist.
            However, "EXIF:Geotime" or "XMP:Geotime" may be specified to write only EXIF or XMP
            tags respectively.  Note that GPSPitch and GPSRoll are non-standard, and require
            user-defined tags in order to be written.

            The "Geosync" tag may be used to specify a time correction which is applied to each
            "Geotime" value for synchronization with GPS time.  For example, the following
            command compensates for image times which are 1 minute and 20 seconds behind GPS:

                exiftool -geosync=+1:20 -geotag a.log DIR

            Advanced "Geosync" features allow a linear time drift correction and synchronization
            from previously geotagged images.  See "geotag.html" in the full ExifTool
            distribution for more information.

            Multiple -geotag options may be used to concatenate GPS track log data.  Also, a
            single -geotag option may be used to load multiple track log files by using wildcards
            in the TRKFILE name, but note that in this case TRKFILE must be quoted on most
            systems (with the notable exception of Windows) to prevent filename expansion.  For
            example:

                exiftool -geotag "TRACKDIR/*.log" IMAGEDIR

            Currently supported track file formats are GPX, NMEA RMC/GGA/GLL, KML, IGC, Garmin
            XML and TCX, Magellan PMGNTRK, Honeywell PTNTHPR, Bramor gEO, Winplus Beacon TXT, and
            GPS/IMU CSV files.  See "GEOTAGGING EXAMPLES" for examples. Also see "geotag.html" in
            the full ExifTool distribution and the Image::ExifTool Options for more details and
            for information about geotag configuration options.

       -globalTimeShift SHIFT
            Shift all formatted date/time values by the specified amount when reading.  Does not
            apply to unformatted (-n) output.  SHIFT takes the same form as the date/time shift
            when writing (see Image::ExifTool::Shift.pl for details), with a negative shift being
            indicated with a minus sign ("-") at the start of the SHIFT string.  For example:

                # return all date/times, shifted back by 1 hour
                exiftool -globalTimeShift -1 -time:all a.jpg

                # set the file name from the shifted CreateDate (-1 day) for
                # all images in a directory
                exiftool "-filename<createdate" -globaltimeshift "-0:0:1 0:0:0" \
                    -d %Y%m%d-%H%M%S.%%e dir

       -use MODULE
            Add features from specified plug-in MODULE.  Currently, the MWG module is the only
            plug-in module distributed with exiftool.  This module adds read/write support for
            tags as recommended by the Metadata Working Group.  To save typing, "-use MWG" is
            assumed if the "MWG" group is specified for any tag on the command line.  See the MWG
            Tags documentation for more details.  Note that this option is not reversible, and
            remains in effect until the application terminates, even across the "-execute"
            option.

       Utilities

       -restore_original
       -delete_original[!]
            These utility options automate the maintenance of the "_original" files created by
            exiftool.  They have no effect on files without an "_original" copy.  The
            -restore_original option restores the specified files from their original copies by
            renaming the "_original" files to replace the edited versions.  For example, the
            following command restores the originals of all JPG images in directory "DIR":

                exiftool -restore_original -ext jpg DIR

            The -delete_original option deletes the "_original" copies of all files specified on
            the command line.  Without a trailing "!" this option prompts for confirmation before
            continuing.  For example, the following command deletes "a.jpg_original" if it
            exists, after asking "Are you sure?":

                exiftool -delete_original a.jpg

            These options may not be used with other options to read or write tag values in the
            same command, but may be combined with options such -ext, -if, -r, -q and -v.

       Advanced options

       Among other things, the advanced options allow complex processing to be performed from a
       single command without the need for additional scripting.  This may be particularly useful
       for implementations such as Windows drag-and-drop applications.  These options may also be
       used to improve performance in multi-pass processing by reducing the overhead required to
       load exiftool for each invocation.

       -api OPT[[^]=[VAL]]
            Set ExifTool API option.  OPT is an API option name.  The option value is set to 1 if
            =VAL is omitted.  If VAL is omitted, the option value is set to undef if "=" is used,
            or an empty string with "^=".  See Image::ExifTool Options for a list of available
            API options.  This overrides API options set via the config file.

       -common_args
            Specifies that all arguments following this option are common to all executed
            commands when -execute is used.  This and the -config option are the only options
            that may not be used inside a -@ ARGFILE.  Note that by definition this option and
            its arguments MUST come after all other options on the command line.

       -config CFGFILE
            Load specified configuration file instead of the default ".ExifTool_config".  If
            used, this option must come before all other arguments on the command line and
            applies to all -execute'd commands.  The CFGFILE must exist relative to the current
            working directory or the exiftool application directory unless an absolute path is
            specified.  Loading of the default config file may be disabled by setting CFGFILE to
            an empty string (ie.  "").  See
            <http://owl.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool/config.html> and
            config_files/example.config in the full ExifTool distribution for details about the
            configuration file syntax.

       -echo[NUM] TEXT
            Echo TEXT to stdout (-echo or -echo1) or stderr (-echo2).  Text is output as the
            command line is parsed, before the processing of any input files.  NUM may also be 3
            or 4 to output text (to stdout or stderr respectively) after processing is complete.

       -execute[NUM]
            Execute command for all arguments up to this point on the command line (plus any
            arguments specified by -common_args).  The result is as if the commands were executed
            as separate command lines (with the exception of the -config and -use options which
            remain in effect for subsequent commands).  Allows multiple commands to be executed
            from a single command line.  NUM is an optional number that is echoed in the
            "{ready}" message when using the -stay_open feature.

       -srcfile FMT
            Specify a different source file to be processed based on the name of the original
            FILE.  This may be useful in some special situations for processing related preview
            images or sidecar files.  See the -w option for a description of the FMT syntax.
            Note that file name FMT strings for all options are based on the original FILE
            specified from the command line, not the name of the source file specified by
            -srcfile.

            For example, to copy metadata from NEF files to the corresponding JPG previews in a
            directory where other JPG images may exist:

                exiftool -ext nef -tagsfromfile @ -srcfile %d%f.jpg dir

            If more than one -srcfile option is specified, the files are tested in order and the
            first existing source file is processed.  If none of the source files already exist,
            then exiftool uses the first -srcfile specified.

            A FMT of "@" may be used to represent the original FILE, which may be useful when
            specifying multiple -srcfile options (eg. to fall back to processing the original
            FILE if no sidecar exists).

       -stay_open FLAG
            If FLAG is 1 or "True", causes exiftool keep reading from the -@ ARGFILE even after
            reaching the end of file.  This feature allows calling applications to pre-load
            exiftool, thus avoiding the overhead of loading exiftool for each command.  The
            procedure is as follows:

            1) Execute "exiftool -stay_open True -@ ARGFILE", where ARGFILE is the name of an
            existing (possibly empty) argument file or "-" to pipe arguments from the standard
            input.

            2) Write exiftool command-line arguments to ARGFILE, one argument per line (see the
            -@ option for details).

            3) Write "-execute\n" to ARGFILE, where "\n" represents a newline sequence.  (Note:
            You may need to flush your write buffers here if using buffered output.)  Exiftool
            will then execute the command with the arguments received up to this point, send a
            "{ready}" message to stdout when done (unless the -q or -T option is used), and
            continue trying to read arguments for the next command from ARGFILE.  To aid in
            command/response synchronization, any number appended to the "-execute" option is
            echoed in the "{ready}" message.  For example, "-execute613" results in "{ready613}".

            4) Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each command.

            5) Write "-stay_open\nFalse\n" to ARGFILE when done.  This will cause exiftool to
            process any remaining command-line arguments then exit normally.

            The input ARGFILE may be changed at any time before step 5 above by writing the
            following lines to the currently open ARGFILE:

                -stay_open
                True
                -@
                NEWARGFILE

            This causes ARGFILE to be closed, and NEWARGFILE to be kept open.  (Without the
            -stay_open here, exiftool would have returned to reading arguments from ARGFILE after
            reaching the end of NEWARGFILE.)

            Note:  When writing arguments to a disk file there is a delay of up to 0.01 seconds
            after writing "-execute\n" before exiftool starts processing the command.  This delay
            may be avoided by sending a CONT signal to the exiftool process immediately after
            writing "-execute\n".  (There is no associated delay when writing arguments via a
            pipe with "-@ -", so the signal is not necessary when using this technique.)

       -userParam PARAM[[^]=[VAL]]
            Set user parameter.  PARAM is an arbitrary user parameter name.  This is an interface
            to the API UserParam option (see the Image::ExifTool Options documentation), and
            provides a method to access user-defined parameters from inside tag name expressions
            (as if it were any other tag, see example below), and from PrintConv/ValueConv logic
            (via the ExifTool Options function).  Similar to the -api option, the parameter value
            is set to 1 if =VAL is omitted, undef if just VAL is omitted with "=", or an empty
            string if VAL is omitted with "^=".

                exiftool -p '$test from $filename' -userparam test=Hello FILE

       Advanced formatting feature

       An advanced formatting feature allows modification of the value of any tag interpolated
       within a -if or -p option argument, or a -tagsFromFile redirection string.  Tag names
       within these strings are prefixed by a "$" symbol, and an arbitrary Perl expression may be
       applied to the tag value by placing braces around the tag name and inserting the
       expression after the name, separated by a semicolon (ie. "${TAG;EXPR}").  The expression
       acts on the value of the tag through the default input variable ($_), and has access to
       the full ExifTool API through the current ExifTool object ($self) and the tag key ($tag).
       It may contain any valid Perl code, including translation ("tr///") and substitution
       ("s///") operations, but note that braces within the expression must be balanced.  The
       example below prints the camera Make with spaces translated to underlines, and multiple
       consecutive underlines replaced by a single underline:

           exiftool -p '${make;tr/ /_/;s/__+/_/g}' image.jpg

       An "@" may be added after the tag name to make the expression act on individual list items
       for list-type tags, simplifying list processing.  Set $_ to undef to remove an item from
       the list.  As an example, the following command returns all subjects not containing the
       string "xxx":

           exiftool -p '${subject@;$_=undef if /xxx/}' image.jpg

       A default expression of "tr(/\\?*:|"<>\0)()d" is assumed if the expression is empty (ie.
       "${TAG;}").  This removes the characters / \ ? * : | < > and null from the printed value.
       (These characters are illegal in Windows file names, so this feature is useful if tag
       values are used in file names.)

       Helper functions

       "DateFmt"

       Simplifies reformatting of individual date/time values.  This function acts on a standard
       EXIF-formatted date/time value in $_ and formats it according to the specified format
       string (see the -d option).  To avoid trying to reformat an already-formatted date/time
       value, a "#" must be added to the tag name (as in the example below) if the -d option is
       also used.  For example:

           exiftool -p '${createdate#;DateFmt("%Y-%m-%d_%H%M%S")}' a.jpg

       "ShiftTime"

       Shifts EXIF-formatted date/time string by a specified amount.  Start with a leading minus
       sign to shift backwards in time.  See Image::ExifTool::Shift.pl for details about shift
       syntax.  For example, to shift a date/time value back by one year:

           exiftool -p '${createdate;ShiftTime("-1:0:0 0")}' a.jpg

       "NoDups"

       Removes duplicate items from a list with a separator specified by the -sep option.  This
       function is most useful when copying list-type tags.  For example, the following command
       may be used to remove duplicate Keywords:

           exiftool -sep '##' '-keywords<${keywords;NoDups}' a.jpg

       The -sep option is necessary to split the string back into individual list items when
       writing to a list-type tag.

       An optional flag argument may be set to 1 to cause "NoDups" to return undef if no
       duplicates existed, thus preventing the file from being rewritten unnecessarily:

           exiftool -sep '##' '-keywords<${keywords;NoDups(1)}' a.jpg

       Note that function names are case sensitive.

WINDOWS UNICODE FILE NAMES

       In Windows, command-line arguments are specified using the current code page and are
       recoded automatically to the system code page.  This recoding is not done for arguments in
       ExifTool arg files, so by default filenames in arg files use the system code page.
       Unfortunately, these code pages are not complete character sets, so not all file names may
       be represented.

       ExifTool 9.79 and later allow the file name encoding to be specified with "-charset
       filename=CHARSET", where "CHARSET" is the name of a valid ExifTool character set,
       preferably "UTF8" (see the -charset option for a complete list).  Setting this triggers
       the use of Windows wide-character i/o routines, thus providing support for most Unicode
       file names (see note 4).  But note that it is not trivial to pass properly encoded file
       names on the Windows command line (see
       <http://owl.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool/faq.html#Q18> for details), so placing them in a
       UTF-8 encoded -@ argfile and using "-charset filename=utf8" is recommended if possible.

       A warning is issued if a specified filename contains special characters and the filename
       character set was not provided.  However, the warning may be disabled by setting "-charset
       filename=""", and ExifTool may still function correctly if the system code page matches
       the character set used for the file names.

       When a directory name is provided, the file name encoding need not be specified (unless
       the directory name contains special characters), and ExifTool will automatically use wide-
       character routines to scan the directory.

       The filename character set applies to the FILE arguments as well as filename arguments of
       -@, -geotag, -o, -p, -srcfile, -tagsFromFile, -csv=, -j= and -TAG<=.  However, it does not
       apply to the -config filename, which always uses the system character set.  The "-charset
       filename=" option must come before the -@ option to be effective, but the order doesn't
       matter with respect to other options.

       Notes:

       1) FileName and Directory tag values still use the same encoding as other tag values, and
       are converted to/from the filename character set when writing/reading if specified.

       2) Unicode support is not yet implemented for other Windows-based systems like Cygwin.

       3) See "WRITING READ-ONLY FILES" below for a note about editing read-only files with
       Unicode names.

       4) Unicode file names with surrogate pairs (code points over U+FFFF) still cause problems.

WRITING READ-ONLY FILES

       In general, ExifTool may be used to write metadata to read-only files provided that the
       user has write permission in the directory.  However, there are three cases where file
       write permission is also required:

       1) When using the -overwrite_original_in_place option.

       2) When writing only pseudo System tags (eg. FileModifyDate).

       3) On Windows if the file has Unicode characters in its name, and a) the
       -overwrite_original option is used, or b) the "_original" backup already exists.

READING EXAMPLES

       Note: Beware when cutting and pasting these examples into your terminal!  Some characters
       such as single and double quotes and hyphens may have been changed into similar-looking
       yet functionally-different characters by the text formatter used to display this
       documentation.  Also note that Windows users must use double quotes instead of single
       quotes as below around arguments containing special characters.

       exiftool -a -u -g1 a.jpg
            Print all meta information in an image, including duplicate and unknown tags, sorted
            by group (for family 1).  For performance reasons, this command may not extract all
            available metadata.  (Metadata in embedded documents, metadata extracted by external
            utilities, and metadata requiring excessive processing time may not be extracted).
            Add "-ee" and "-api RequestAll=3" to the command to extract absolutely everything
            available.

       exiftool -common dir
            Print common meta information for all images in "dir".  "-common" is a shortcut tag
            representing common EXIF meta information.

       exiftool -T -createdate -aperture -shutterspeed -iso dir > out.txt
            List specified meta information in tab-delimited column form for all images in "dir"
            to an output text file named "out.txt".

       exiftool -s -ImageSize -ExposureTime b.jpg
            Print ImageSize and ExposureTime tag names and values.

       exiftool -l -canon c.jpg d.jpg
            Print standard Canon information from two image files.

       exiftool -r -w .txt -common pictures
            Recursively extract common meta information from files in "pictures" directory,
            writing text output to ".txt" files with the same names.

       exiftool -b -ThumbnailImage image.jpg > thumbnail.jpg
            Save thumbnail image from "image.jpg" to a file called "thumbnail.jpg".

       exiftool -b -JpgFromRaw -w _JFR.JPG -ext NEF -r .
            Recursively extract JPG image from all Nikon NEF files in the current directory,
            adding "_JFR.JPG" for the name of the output JPG files.

       exiftool -a -b -W %d%f_%t%-c.%s -preview:all dir
            Extract all types of preview images (ThumbnailImage, PreviewImage, JpgFromRaw, etc.)
            from files in directory "dir", adding the tag name to the output preview image file
            names.

       exiftool -d '%r %a, %B %e, %Y' -DateTimeOriginal -S -s -ext jpg .
            Print formatted date/time for all JPG files in the current directory.

       exiftool -IFD1:XResolution -IFD1:YResolution image.jpg
            Extract image resolution from EXIF IFD1 information (thumbnail image IFD).

       exiftool '-*resolution*' image.jpg
            Extract all tags with names containing the word "Resolution" from an image.

       exiftool -xmp:author:all -a image.jpg
            Extract all author-related XMP information from an image.

       exiftool -xmp -b a.jpg > out.xmp
            Extract complete XMP data record intact from "a.jpg" and write it to "out.xmp" using
            the special "XMP" tag (see the Extra tags in Image::ExifTool::TagNames).

       exiftool -p '$filename has date $dateTimeOriginal' -q -f dir
            Print one line of output containing the file name and DateTimeOriginal for each image
            in directory "dir".

       exiftool -ee -p '$gpslatitude, $gpslongitude, $gpstimestamp' a.m2ts
            Extract all GPS positions from an AVCHD video.

       exiftool -icc_profile -b -w icc image.jpg
            Save complete ICC_Profile from an image to an output file with the same name and an
            extension of ".icc".

       exiftool -htmldump -w tmp/%f_%e.html t/images
            Generate HTML pages from a hex dump of EXIF information in all images from the
            "t/images" directory.  The output HTML files are written to the "tmp" directory
            (which is created if it didn't exist), with names of the form 'FILENAME_EXT.html'.

       exiftool -a -b -ee -embeddedimage -W Image_%.3g3.%s file.pdf
            Extract embedded JPG and JP2 images from a PDF file.  The output images will have
            file names like "Image_#.jpg" or "Image_#.jp2", where "#" is the ExifTool family 3
            embedded document number for the image.

WRITING EXAMPLES

       Note that quotes are necessary around arguments which contain certain special characters
       such as ">", "<" or any white space.  These quoting techniques are shell dependent, but
       the examples below will work for most Unix shells.  With the Windows cmd shell however,
       double quotes should be used (eg. -Comment="This is a new comment").

       exiftool -Comment='This is a new comment' dst.jpg
            Write new comment to a JPG image (replaces any existing comment).

       exiftool -comment= -o newdir -ext jpg .
            Remove comment from all JPG images in the current directory, writing the modified
            images to a new directory.

       exiftool -keywords=EXIF -keywords=editor dst.jpg
            Replace existing keyword list with two new keywords ("EXIF" and "editor").

       exiftool -Keywords+=word -o newfile.jpg src.jpg
            Copy a source image to a new file, and add a keyword ("word") to the current list of
            keywords.

       exiftool -exposurecompensation+=-0.5 a.jpg
            Decrement the value of ExposureCompensation by 0.5 EV.  Note that += with a negative
            value is used for decrementing because the -= operator is used for conditional
            deletion (see next example).

       exiftool -credit-=xxx dir
            Delete Credit information from all files in a directory where the Credit value was
            "xxx".

       exiftool -xmp:description-de='k&uuml;hl' -E dst.jpg
            Write alternate language for XMP:Description, using HTML character escaping to input
            special characters.

       exiftool -all= dst.jpg
            Delete all meta information from an image.  Note: You should NOT do this to RAW
            images (except DNG) since proprietary RAW image formats often contain information in
            the makernotes that is necessary for converting the image.

       exiftool -all= -comment='lonely' dst.jpg
            Delete all meta information from an image and add a comment back in.  (Note that the
            order is important: "-comment='lonely' -all=" would also delete the new comment.)

       exiftool -all= --jfif:all dst.jpg
            Delete all meta information except JFIF group from an image.

       exiftool -Photoshop:All= dst.jpg
            Delete Photoshop meta information from an image (note that the Photoshop information
            also includes IPTC).

       exiftool -r -XMP-crss:all= DIR
            Recursively delete all XMP-crss information from images in a directory.

       exiftool '-ThumbnailImage<=thumb.jpg' dst.jpg
            Set the thumbnail image from specified file (Note: The quotes are necessary to
            prevent shell redirection).

       exiftool '-JpgFromRaw<=%d%f_JFR.JPG' -ext NEF -r .
            Recursively write JPEG images with filenames ending in "_JFR.JPG" to the JpgFromRaw
            tag of like-named files with extension ".NEF" in the current directory.  (This is the
            inverse of the "-JpgFromRaw" command of the "READING EXAMPLES" section above.)

       exiftool -DateTimeOriginal-='0:0:0 1:30:0' dir
            Adjust original date/time of all images in directory "dir" by subtracting one hour
            and 30 minutes.  (This is equivalent to "-DateTimeOriginal-=1.5".  See
            Image::ExifTool::Shift.pl for details.)

       exiftool -createdate+=3 -modifydate+=3 a.jpg b.jpg
            Add 3 hours to the CreateDate and ModifyDate timestamps of two images.

       exiftool -AllDates+=1:30 -if '$make eq "Canon"' dir
            Shift the values of DateTimeOriginal, CreateDate and ModifyDate forward by 1 hour and
            30 minutes for all Canon images in a directory.  (The AllDates tag is provided as a
            shortcut for these three tags, allowing them to be accessed via a single tag.)

       exiftool -xmp:city=Kingston image1.jpg image2.nef
            Write a tag to the XMP group of two images.  (Without the "xmp:" this tag would get
            written to the IPTC group since "City" exists in both, and IPTC is preferred by
            default.)

       exiftool -LightSource-='Unknown (0)' dst.tiff
            Delete "LightSource" tag only if it is unknown with a value of 0.

       exiftool -whitebalance-=auto -WhiteBalance=tung dst.jpg
            Set "WhiteBalance" to "Tungsten" only if it was previously "Auto".

       exiftool -comment-= -comment='new comment' a.jpg
            Write a new comment only if the image doesn't have one already.

       exiftool -o %d%f.xmp dir
            Create XMP meta information data files for all images in "dir".

       exiftool -o test.xmp -owner=Phil -title='XMP File'
            Create an XMP data file only from tags defined on the command line.

       exiftool '-ICC_Profile<=%d%f.icc' image.jpg
            Write ICC_Profile to an image from a ".icc" file of the same name.

       exiftool -hierarchicalkeywords='{keyword=one,children={keyword=B}}'
            Write structured XMP information.  See
            <http://owl.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool/struct.html> for more details.

       exiftool -trailer:all= image.jpg
            Delete any trailer found after the end of image (EOI) in a JPEG file.  A number of
            digital cameras store a large PreviewImage after the JPEG EOI, and the file size may
            be reduced significantly by deleting this trailer.  See the JPEG Tags documentation
            for a list of recognized JPEG trailers.

COPYING EXAMPLES

       These examples demonstrate the ability to copy tag values between files.

       exiftool -tagsFromFile src.cr2 dst.jpg
            Copy the values of all writable tags from "src.cr2" to "dst.jpg", writing the
            information to same-named tags in the preferred groups.

       exiftool -TagsFromFile src.jpg -all:all dst.jpg
            Copy the values of all writable tags from "src.jpg" to "dst.jpg", preserving the
            original tag groups.

       exiftool -all= -tagsfromfile src.jpg -exif:all dst.jpg
            Erase all meta information from "dst.jpg" image, then copy EXIF tags from "src.jpg".

       exiftool -exif:all= -tagsfromfile @ -all:all -unsafe bad.jpg
            Rebuild all EXIF meta information from scratch in an image.  This technique can be
            used in JPEG images to repair corrupted EXIF information which otherwise could not be
            written due to errors.  The "Unsafe" tag is a shortcut for unsafe EXIF tags in JPEG
            images which are not normally copied.  See the tag name documentation for more
            details about unsafe tags.

       exiftool -Tagsfromfile a.jpg out.xmp
            Copy meta information from "a.jpg" to an XMP data file.  If the XMP data file
            "out.xmp" already exists, it will be updated with the new information.  Otherwise the
            XMP data file will be created.  Only metadata-only files may be created like this
            (files containing images may be edited but not created).  See "WRITING EXAMPLES"
            above for another technique to generate XMP files.

       exiftool -tagsFromFile a.jpg -XMP:All= -ThumbnailImage= -m b.jpg
            Copy all meta information from "a.jpg" to "b.jpg", deleting all XMP information and
            the thumbnail image from the destination.

       exiftool -TagsFromFile src.jpg -title -author=Phil dst.jpg
            Copy title from one image to another and set a new author name.

       exiftool -TagsFromFile a.jpg -ISO -TagsFromFile b.jpg -comment dst.jpg
            Copy ISO from one image and Comment from another image to a destination image.

       exiftool -tagsfromfile src.jpg -exif:all --subifd:all dst.jpg
            Copy only the EXIF information from one image to another, excluding SubIFD tags.

       exiftool '-FileModifyDate<DateTimeOriginal' dir
            Use the original date from the meta information to set the same file's filesystem
            modification date for all images in a directory.  (Note that "-TagsFromFile @" is
            assumed if no other -TagsFromFile is specified when redirecting information as in
            this example.)

       exiftool -TagsFromFile src.jpg '-xmp:all<all' dst.jpg
            Copy all possible information from "src.jpg" and write in XMP format to "dst.jpg".

       exiftool '-Description<${FileName;s/\.[^.]*$//}' dir
            Set the image Description from the file name after removing the extension.  This
            example uses the "Advanced formatting feature" to perform a substitution operation to
            remove the last dot and subsequent characters from the file name.

       exiftool -@ iptc2xmp.args -iptc:all= a.jpg
            Translate IPTC information to XMP with appropriate tag name conversions, and delete
            the original IPTC information from an image.  This example uses iptc2xmp.args, which
            is a file included with the ExifTool distribution that contains the required
            arguments to convert IPTC information to XMP format.  Also included with the
            distribution are xmp2iptc.args (which performs the inverse conversion) and a few more
            .args files for other conversions between EXIF, IPTC and XMP.

       exiftool -tagsfromfile %d%f.CR2 -r -ext JPG dir
            Recursively rewrite all "JPG" images in "dir" with information copied from the
            corresponding "CR2" images in the same directories.

       exiftool '-keywords+<make' image.jpg
            Add camera make to list of keywords.

       exiftool '-comment<ISO=$exif:iso Exposure=${shutterspeed}' dir
            Set the Comment tag of all images in "dir" from the values of the EXIF:ISO and
            ShutterSpeed tags.  The resulting comment will be in the form "ISO=100
            Exposure=1/60".

       exiftool -TagsFromFile src.jpg -icc_profile dst.jpg
            Copy ICC_Profile from one image to another.

       exiftool -TagsFromFile src.jpg -all:all dst.mie
            Copy all meta information in its original form from a JPEG image to a MIE file.  The
            MIE file will be created if it doesn't exist.  This technique can be used to store
            the metadata of an image so it can be inserted back into the image (with the inverse
            command) later in a workflow.

       exiftool -o dst.mie -all:all src.jpg
            This command performs exactly the same task as the command above, except that the -o
            option will not write to an output file that already exists.

       exiftool -b -jpgfromraw -w %d%f_%ue.jpg -execute -b -previewimage -w %d%f_%ue.jpg -execute
       -tagsfromfile @ -srcfile %d%f_%ue.jpg -overwrite_original -common_args --ext jpg DIR
            [Advanced] Extract JpgFromRaw or PreviewImage from all but JPG files in DIR, saving
            them with file names like "image_EXT.jpg", then add all meta information from the
            original files to the extracted images.  Here, the command line is broken into three
            sections (separated by -execute options), and each is executed as if it were a
            separate command.  The -common_args option causes the "--ext jpg DIR" arguments to be
            applied to all three commands, and the -srcfile option allows the extracted JPG image
            to be the source file for the third command (whereas the RAW files are the source
            files for the other two commands).

RENAMING EXAMPLES

       By writing the "FileName" and "Directory" tags, files are renamed and/or moved to new
       directories.  This can be particularly useful and powerful for organizing files by date
       when combined with the -d option.  New directories are created as necessary, but existing
       files will not be overwritten.  The format codes %d, %f and %e may be used in the new file
       name to represent the directory, name and extension of the original file, and %c may be
       used to add a copy number if the file already exists (see the -w option for details).
       Note that if used within a date format string, an extra '%' must be added to pass these
       codes through the date/time parser.  (And further note that in a Windows batch file, all
       '%' characters must also be escaped, so in this extreme case '%%%%f' is necessary to pass
       a simple '%f' through the two levels of parsing.)  See
       <http://owl.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool/filename.html> for additional documentation and
       examples.

       exiftool -filename=new.jpg dir/old.jpg
            Rename "old.jpg" to "new.jpg" in directory "dir".

       exiftool -directory=%e dir
            Move all files from directory "dir" into directories named by the original file
            extensions.

       exiftool '-Directory<DateTimeOriginal' -d %Y/%m/%d dir
            Move all files in "dir" into a directory hierarchy based on year, month and day of
            "DateTimeOriginal".  eg) This command would move the file "dir/image.jpg" with a
            "DateTimeOriginal" of "2005:10:12 16:05:56" to "2005/10/12/image.jpg".

       exiftool -o . '-Directory<DateTimeOriginal' -d %Y/%m/%d dir
            Same effect as above except files are copied instead of moved.

       exiftool '-filename<%f_${model;}.%e' dir
            Rename all files in "dir" by adding the camera model name to the file name.  The
            semicolon after the tag name inside the braces causes characters which are invalid in
            Windows file names to be deleted from the tag value (see the "Advanced formatting
            feature" for an explanation).

       exiftool '-FileName<CreateDate' -d %Y%m%d_%H%M%S%%-c.%%e dir
            Rename all images in "dir" according to the "CreateDate" date and time, adding a copy
            number with leading '-' if the file already exists ("%-c"), and preserving the
            original file extension (%e).  Note the extra '%' necessary to escape the filename
            codes (%c and %e) in the date format string.

       exiftool -r '-FileName<CreateDate' -d %Y-%m-%d/%H%M_%%f.%%e dir
            Both the directory and the filename may be changed together via the "FileName" tag if
            the new "FileName" contains a '/'.  The example above recursively renames all images
            in a directory by adding a "CreateDate" timestamp to the start of the filename, then
            moves them into new directories named by date.

       exiftool '-FileName<${CreateDate}_$filenumber.jpg' -d %Y%m%d -ext jpg .
            Set the filename of all JPG images in the current directory from the CreateDate and
            FileNumber tags, in the form "20060507_118-1861.jpg".

GEOTAGGING EXAMPLES

       ExifTool implements geotagging via 3 special tags: Geotag (which for convenience is also
       implemented as an exiftool option), Geosync and Geotime.  The examples below highlight
       some geotagging features.  See <http://owl.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool/geotag.html> for
       additional documentation.

       exiftool -geotag track.log a.jpg
            Geotag an image ("a.jpg") from position information in a GPS track log ("track.log").
            Since the "Geotime" tag is not specified, the value of DateTimeOriginal is used for
            geotagging.  Local system time is assumed unless DateTimeOriginal contains a
            timezone.

       exiftool -geotag t.log -geotime='2009:04:02 13:41:12-05:00' a.jpg
            Geotag an image with the GPS position for a specific time.

       exiftool -geotag log.gpx '-xmp:geotime<createdate' dir
            Geotag all images in directory "dir" with XMP tags instead of EXIF tags, based on the
            image CreateDate.

       exiftool -geotag a.log -geosync=-20 dir
            Geotag images in directory "dir", accounting for image timestamps which were 20
            seconds ahead of GPS.

       exiftool -geotag a.log -geosync=1.jpg -geosync=2.jpg dir
            Geotag images using time synchronization from two previously geotagged images (1.jpg
            and 2.jpg), synchronizing the image and GPS times using a linear time drift
            correction.

       exiftool -geotag a.log '-geotime<${createdate}+01:00' dir
            Geotag images in "dir" using CreateDate with the specified timezone.  If CreateDate
            already contained a timezone, then the timezone specified on the command line is
            ignored.

       exiftool -geotag= a.jpg
            Delete GPS tags which may have been added by the geotag feature.  Note that this does
            not remove all GPS tags -- to do this instead use "-gps:all=".

       exiftool -xmp:geotag= a.jpg
            Delete XMP GPS tags which were added by the geotag feature.

       exiftool -xmp:geotag=track.log a.jpg
            Geotag an image with XMP tags, using the time from DateTimeOriginal.

       exiftool -geotag a.log -geotag b.log -r dir
            Combine multiple track logs and geotag an entire directory tree of images.

       exiftool -geotag 'tracks/*.log' -r dir
            Read all track logs from the "tracks" directory.

       exiftool -p gpx.fmt -d %Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%SZ dir > out.gpx
            Generate a GPX track log from all images in directory "dir".  This example uses the
            "gpx.fmt" file included in the full ExifTool distribution package and assumes that
            the images in "dir" have all been previously geotagged.

PIPING EXAMPLES

       cat a.jpg | exiftool -
            Extract information from stdin.

       exiftool image.jpg -thumbnailimage -b | exiftool -
            Extract information from an embedded thumbnail image.

       cat a.jpg | exiftool -iptc:keywords+=fantastic - > b.jpg
            Add an IPTC keyword in a pipeline, saving output to a new file.

       curl -s http://a.domain.com/bigfile.jpg | exiftool -fast -
            Extract information from an image over the internet using the cURL utility.  The
            -fast option prevents exiftool from scanning for trailer information, so only the
            meta information header is transferred.

       exiftool a.jpg -thumbnailimage -b | exiftool -comment=wow - | exiftool a.jpg
       -thumbnailimage'<=-'
            Add a comment to an embedded thumbnail image.  (Why anyone would want to do this I
            don't know, but I've included this as an example to illustrate the flexibility of
            ExifTool.)

EXIT STATUS

       The exiftool application exits with a status of 0 on success, or 1 if an error occurred,
       or 2 if all files failed the -if condition (for any of the commands if -execute was used).

AUTHOR

       Copyright 2003-2019, Phil Harvey

       This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as
       Perl itself.

SEE ALSO

       Image::ExifTool(3pm), Image::ExifTool::TagNames(3pm), Image::ExifTool::Shortcuts(3pm),
       Image::ExifTool::Shift.pl