Provided by: pari-gp_2.11.2-2_amd64 bug


       gp - The PARI calculator


       gp  [-s  stacksize]  [-p  primelimit]  [--emacs]  [-f|--fast]  [-q|--quiet]  [-D|--default
       key=val] [--help] [--test] [--texmacs] [--version] [--version-short] [ file1 file2 ...]


       Invokes the PARI-GP calculator gp; gp is an advanced programmable calculator, specializing
       in  number  theory,  which  computes  symbolically  as long as possible, numerically where
       needed, and contains a wealth of arithmetic functions:  factorizations,  elliptic  curves,
       Galois  theory,  class  field  theory,  modular  forms,  etc.  Commands, written in the GP
       scripting language, are input interactively or loaded from files.

       If present at the end of the command line, files 'file1',  'file2',  ...   are  loaded  on
       startup; they must be written in the GP language.


       Command  line  options  are  available  in  both  short form (-f) and POSIX-like (--fast).
       Numeric arguments can be followed by a modifier k , M or G at the user's  convenience;  in
       that case the argument is multiplied by 10^3, 10^6, or 10^9 respectively.

       -f, --fast
              Fast start (or factory settings). Do not read .gprc (see below) upon startup.

       -p limit
              [DEPRECATED]  Upon  startup,  gp  computes  a table of small primes used in number-
              theoretic applications. If primelimit is set, the table include primes up  to  that
              bound  instead  of  the default (= 500000). It is now mostly useless to change this

       -q, --quiet
              Quiet mode. Do not print headers or history numbers and do not say goodbye.

       -D, --default key=val
              performs default(key, val); on startup, overriding values from the gprc preferences
              file.  'val' must be a constant value and is not allowed to involve any computation
              (e.g. 1+1 is forbidden). Any number of such default-setting statements  may  appear
              on  the  command  line.  A  key  may be set multiple times, the last setting taking

       -s limit
              Size of gp internal stack allocated on startup. When  gp  runs  out  of  space,  it
              interrupts  the  current computation and raises a stack overflow exception. If this
              occurs frequently, start with a bigger stack. The stack size can also be  increased
              from  within  gp,  using  default(parisize,limit);  it  may  be  convenient  to set
              stacksize from your .gprc.  Note that computations with a smaller stack may be more
              efficient  due  to  better  data  locality. Most computations should need less than

              gp can be run in an Emacs shell (see GP User's manual for details).  This  flag  is
              then  required  for  smooth interaction with the PariEmacs package (pari.el). It is
              set automatically by the pari.el package, and will produce display oddities if  you
              set it outside of an Emacs session.

       --help print a summary of available command-line options.

       --test run  gp  in  test  mode:  suppress printing of history numbers and wrap long output
              lines (to get readable diff output). For benches only.

              gp can be run from a TeXmacs frontend. This flag  is  set  by  TeXmacs,  to  enable
              special purpose communication channels. Do not set it yourself.

              output version info (banner) then exit.

              output version number then exit.


       ?      to get online help.

       ??     to  get  extended  online  help (more precisely, to call the external help program,
              gphelp by default)

       quit   (or \q), or EOF (Ctrl-D) to quit gp.

       The following works only when gp was linked with GNU readline library:

       arrow keys
              for editing and viewing the input history.

               for automatic completion


       The following material is included in the standard distribution (originally in TeX format)
       and can also be downloaded at

       The User's Guide to PARI/GP

       The User's Guide to the PARI library

       The Developer's Guide to the PARI library

       PARI/GP, a tutorial

       PARI/GP reference cards


       gp     main executable

              (or  $GPRC  if set) user preference file, read at beginning of execution by each gp
              shell. A default gprc gprc.dft is provided with  the  distribution.  If  this  file
              cannot be found, /etc/gprc is checked instead.

              a  file used to log in all commands and results; default: pari.log (you need to set
              the log default in your gprc or interactively)

              a file used to dump PostScript drawings; default:

              a file where gp will keep a history of all input commands  (you  need  to  set  the
              histfile default in the gprc file)

       gphelp default external help program (as above)

       *.gp   GP programs


       $GPRC  place to look for the user's preference file (gprc); if the file does not exist, we
              then check in $HOME/.gprc, /etc/gprc, and finally for a file named 'gprc' in PARI's

              directory  containing  data  installed by optional PARI packages.  For example, the
              Galois resolvents files in directory galdata/ needed by the polgalois function,  in
              degrees  8 to 11; or the modular polynomials in seadata/ used by the ellap function
              for large base  fields.  This  environment  variable  overrides  PARI's  'datadir',
              defined at Configure time.

              an application able to display PostScript files, used by the plotps graphic engine.
              This engine is a fallback used to output  hi-res  plots  even  when  no  compatible
              graphical  library  was  available  on  your platform at Configure time. (Dumps the
              graph to a temporary file, then open the file.)

              an application able to display SGV  images  files,  used  by  the  plotsvg  graphic
              engine.  This  engine  is  a  fallback  used  to  output  hi-res plots even when no
              compatible graphical library was available on  your  platform  at  Configure  time.
              (Dumps the graph to a temporary file, then open the file.)

              name of the external help program invoked by ?? and ??? shortcuts.

              name of the directory where temporary files will be generated.


       PARI's home page resides at


       There  are  a  number  of  mailing lists devoted to the PARI/GP package, and most feedback
       should be directed to those. See
       for details. The most important ones are:

       - pari-announce (moderated): for us to announce major version changes.

       - pari-dev: for everything related to the  development  of  PARI,  including  suggestions,
       technical questions, bug reports or patch submissions.

       - pari-users: for discuss about everything else, in particular ask for help.

       To  subscribe,  send  empty  messages  with  a  Subject:  containing  the word "subscribe"
       respectively to


       Bugs should be submitted online to our Bug Tracking System,  available  from  PARI's  home
       page, or directly from the URL
       Further instructions can be found on that page.


       Despite  the  leading  G,  GP has nothing to do with GNU. The first version was originally
       called GPC, for Great Programmable  Calculator.  For  some  reason,  the  trailing  C  was
       eventually dropped.

       PARI  has  nothing  to  do  with the French capital. The name is a pun about the project's
       early stages when the authors started to implement a library for  "Pascal  ARIthmetic"  in
       the PASCAL programming language. They quickly switched to C.

       For  the  benefit  of  non-native French speakers, here's a slightly expanded explanation:
       Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) was a famous French mathematician and philosopher who was one of
       the  founders  of  probability and devised one of the first "arithmetic machines". He once
       proposed the following "proof" of the existence of God for  the  unbelievers:  whether  He
       exists  or  not  I lose nothing by believing in Him, whereas if He does and I misbehave...
       This is the so-called "pari de Pascal" (Pascal's Wager).

       Note that PARI also means "fairy" in Persian.


       PARI was originally written by Christian  Batut,  Dominique  Bernardi,  Henri  Cohen,  and
       Michel  Olivier  in Laboratoire A2X (Universite Bordeaux I, France), and was maintained by
       Henri Cohen up to version 1.39.15 (1995), and by Karim Belabas since then.

       A great number of people have contributed to the successive improvements which  eventually
       resulted in the present version. See the AUTHORS file in the distribution.


       gap(1), gphelp(1), perl(1), readline(3), sage(1), tex(1), texmacs(1),


       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of
       the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation.

       This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY  WARRANTY;
       without  even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
       See the GNU General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program;
       if  not,  write  to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139,

                                        11 September 2017                                   GP(1)