Provided by: grass-core_7.6.1-3_amd64 bug

GRASS startup program

SYNOPSIS

       grass76   [-h   |   -help   |   --help]   [-v   |   --version]  [-c  |  -c  geofile  |  -c
       EPSG:code[:datum_trans]] [--text | --gtext | --gui] [[[<GISDBASE>/]<LOCATION>/] <MAPSET>]

   Flags:
       -h | -help | --help
           Prints a brief usage message and exits

       -v | --verbose
           Prints the version of GRASS and exits

       -c
           Creates new GRASS unprojected location in specified GISDBASE

       -c geofile
           Creates new GRASS projected location in specified GISDBASE based on georeferenced file

       -c EPSG:code
           Creates new GRASS projected location in specified GISDBASE with given EPSG code

       -c EPSG:code:datum_trans
           Creates new GRASS projected location in specified GISDBASE with given  EPSG  code  and
           datum transform parameters

       -e
           Exit after creation of location or mapset. Only with -c flag

       -f
           Forces removal of .gislock if exists (use with care!). Only with --text flag

       --text
           Indicates that Text-based User Interface should be used (skip welcome screen)

       --gtext
           Indicates that Text-based User Interface should be used (show welcome screen)

       --gui
           Indicates that Graphical User Interface (wxGUI) should be used

       --config
           Prints GRASS configuration parameters (options: arch, build, compiler, path, revision)

       --exec EXECUTABLE
           Execute  GRASS  module  or script. The provided executable will be executed in a GRASS
           GIS non-interactive session.

       --tmp-location
           Run using a temporary  location  which  is  created  based  on  the  given  coordinate
           reference  system  and deleted at the end of the execution (use the --exec flag).  The
           active mapset will be PERMANENT.

   Parameters:
       GISDBASE
           Initial  database  directory  which  should  be  a   fully   qualified   path   (e.g.,
           /usr/local/share/grassdata)

       LOCATION
           Initial location directory which is a subdirectory of GISDBASE

       MAPSET
           Initial  mapset  directory  which is a subdirectory of LOCATION Note: These parameters
           must be specified in one of the following ways:
               MAPSET
               LOCATION/MAPSET
               GISDBASE/LOCATION/MAPSET

DESCRIPTION

       This command is used to launch GRASS GIS. It will parse the  command  line  arguments  and
       then  initialize  GRASS  for the user. Since GRASS modules require a specific environment,
       this program must be called before any other  GRASS  module  can  run.  The  command  line
       arguments  are  optional  and  provide the user with a method to indicate the desired user
       interface, as well as the desired mapset to work on.

       The startup program will remember both the desired user interface and  mapset.  Thus,  the
       next  time the user runs GRASS, typing grass76 (without any options) will start GRASS with
       the previous settings for the user interface and mapset selected.

       If you specify a graphical user interface (--gui) the grass76 program will try  to  verify
       that  the  system  you specified exists and that you can access it successfully. If any of
       these checks fail then grass76 will automatically switch back to the text  user  interface
       mode.

SAMPLE DATA

       The  GRASS  GIS  project  provides several free sample geospatial datasets as ready-to-use
       locations.        They        are         available         to         download         at
       https://grass.osgeo.org/download/sample-data/.   The "North Carolina data set" is a modern
       package of geospatial data from North Carolina (USA),  and  it  includes  raster,  vector,
       LiDAR  and satellite data. This is the most extensively used data set in the documentation
       and the examples throughout the user manual pages are based upon it.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       A number of environment variables are available at GRASS startup to assist with automation
       and customization. Most users will not need to bother with these.

       In  addition  to  these  shell  environment  variables  GRASS  maintains  a  number of GIS
       environment variables in the $HOME/.grass7/rc file. User changes to this file will be read
       during  the  next startup of GRASS. If this file becomes corrupted the user may edit it by
       hand or remove it to start afresh.  See the list of implemented GRASS variables  for  more
       information.  The rest of this help page will only consider shell environment variables.

       Note  that  you will need to set these variables using the appropriate method required for
       the UNIX shell that you use (e.g. in a Bash shell you must export the variables  for  them
       to propagate).

   User Interface Environment Variable
       The  grass76  program  will  check  for  the  existence  of an environment variable called
       GRASS_GUI which indicates the type of user interface for GRASS to use. If this variable is
       not   set  when  grass76  is  run,  then  it  will  be  created  and  then  saved  in  the
       $HOME/.grass7/rc file for the next time GRASS is run. It can be set to text, gtext or gui.

       There is an order of precedence in the way grass76 determines the user interface  to  use.
       The following is the hierarchy from highest precedence to lowest.

       1      Command line argument

       2      Environment variable GRASS_GUI

       3      Value set in $HOME/.grass7/rc (GUI)

       4      Default value - gui

   Python Environment Variables
       If  you  choose  to use wxGUI interface, then the GRASS_PYTHON environment variable can be
       used to override your system default python command.

       Suppose for example your system has Python  2.6  installed  and  you  install  a  personal
       version  of  the  Python  2.7 binaries under $HOME/bin. You can use the above variables to
       have GRASS use the Python 2.7 binaries instead.
          GRASS_PYTHON=python2.7

   Addon Path to Extra User Scripts
       This environment variable allows the user to extend the  GRASS  program  search  paths  to
       include locally developed/installed GRASS modules or user scripts.
          GRASS_ADDON_PATH=/usr/mytools
          GRASS_ADDON_PATH=/usr/mytools:/usr/local/othertools

       In this example above path(s) would be added to the standard GRASS path environment.

   Addon Base for Extra Local GRASS Addon Modules
       This  environment  variable  allows  the  user to extend the GRASS program search paths to
       include locally installed (see g.extension for details) GRASS Addon modules which are  not
       distributed with the standard GRASS release.
          GRASS_ADDON_BASE=/usr/grass-addons

       In this example above path would be added to the standard GRASS path environment.

       If   not   defined   by   user,   this  variable  is  set  by  GRASS  startup  program  to
       $HOME/.grass7/addons on GNU/Linux and $APPDATA\GRASS7\addons on MS Windows.

   HTML Browser Variable
       The GRASS_HTML_BROWSER environment variable allows the user to set the HTML web browser to
       use for displaying help pages.

   Location Environment Variables
       The  Synopsis  section  above  describes  options that can be used to set the location and
       mapset that GRASS will use. These values can  also  be  set  with  environment  variables.
       However,  specifying  the  location and mapset variables on the command line will override
       these environment variables. The available variables are as follows:

       LOCATION
           A       fully        qualified        path        to        a        mapset        (eg
           /usr/local/share/grassdata/spearfish70/PERMANENT). This environment variable overrides
           the GISDBASE, LOCATION_NAME, and MAPSET variables.

       GISDBASE
           Initial  database  directory  which   should   be   a   fully   qualified   path   (eg
           /usr/local/share/grassdata)

       LOCATION_NAME
           Initial location directory which is a subdirectory of GISDBASE

       MAPSET
           Initial mapset directory which is a subdirectory of LOCATION_NAME

   Running non-interactive batch jobs
       If  the  GRASS_BATCH_JOB  environment  variable  is set to the full path and filename of a
       shell script then GRASS will be launched in a non-interactive way and the script  will  be
       run.  The  script  itself can be interactive if that is what the user requires. When it is
       finished GRASS will automatically exit using the exit-success code given  by  the  script.
       The script file must have its executable bit set.

EXAMPLES

       The following are some examples of how you could start GRASS

       grass76
           Start  GRASS using the default user interface. The user will be prompted to choose the
           appropriate location and mapset.

       grass76 --gui
           Start GRASS using the graphical user interface. The user will be  prompted  to  choose
           the appropriate location and mapset.

       grass76 --text
           Start  GRASS using the text-based user interface. Appropriate location and mapset must
           be set by environmental variables (see examples below) otherwise taken from  the  last
           GRASS session.

       grass76 --gtext
           Start  GRASS  using the text-based user interface. The user will be prompted to choose
           the appropriate location and mapset.

       grass76 $HOME/grassdata/spearfish70/user1
           Start GRASS using the default user interface and automatically launch into  the  given
           mapset, bypassing the mapset selection menu.

       grass76 --gui -
           Start  GRASS  using  the  graphical  user interface and try to obtain the location and
           mapset from environment variables.

       grass76 -c EPSG:4326 $HOME/grassdata/mylocation
           Creates a new GRASS location with EPSG code 4326 (latitude-longitude,  WGS84)  in  the
           specified GISDBASE

       grass76 -c EPSG:5514:3 $HOME/grassdata/mylocation
           Creates  a new GRASS location with EPSG code 5514 (S-JTSK / Krovak East North - SJTSK)
           with datum transformation parameters used in Czech Republic in the specified GISDBASE

       grass76 -c  XY  $HOME/grassdata/gnomonic  --exec  g.proj  -c  proj4=’+proj=gnom  +lat_0=90
       +lon_0=-50’
           Creates  a  new  GRASS  location  from  PROJ definition string (here: gnomonic) in the
           specified GISDBASE

       grass76 -c myvector.shp $HOME/grassdata/mylocation
           Creates a new GRASS location based on georeferenced Shapefile

       grass76 -c myraster.tif $HOME/grassdata/mylocation
           Creates a new GRASS location based on georeferenced GeoTIFF file

   Batch jobs with the exec interface
       Creating a new  Location  based  on  a  geodata  file’s  projection  (-c)  and  exit  (-e)
       immediately:
       grass76 -c elevation.tiff -e /path/to/grassdata/test1/
       Linking external raster data to PERMANENT Mapset:
       grass76 /path/to/grassdata/test1/PERMANENT/ --exec r.external input=basins.tiff output=basins
       grass76 /path/to/grassdata/test1/PERMANENT/ --exec r.external input=elevation.tiff output=elevation
       Get statistics for one raster map:
       grass76 /path/to/grassdata/test1/PERMANENT/ --exec r.univar map=elevation
       Compare the rasters visually:
       grass76 /path/to/grassdata/test1/PERMANENT/ --exec g.gui.mapswipe first=elevation second=basins

   Execution of shell and Python scripts instead of single commands
       A sequence of commands can be bundled in a script and executed using the exec interface.

       Shell script example: the command to execute a shell script might be:
       grass76 /path/to/grassdata/test1/PERMANENT/ --exec sh test.sh
       A very simple bash script ("test.sh") may look like this:
       #!/bin/bash
       g.region -p
       g.list type=raster
       r.info elevation

       Python script example: the command to execute a Python script might be:
       grass76 /path/to/grassdata/test1/PERMANENT/ --exec python test.py
       A very simple Python script ("test.py") may look like this:
       #!/usr/bin/env python
       # import GRASS Python bindings (see also pygrass)
       import grass.script as gscript
       import grass.script.setup as gsetup
       gscript.message(’Current GRASS GIS 7 environment:’)
       print(gscript.gisenv())
       gscript.message(’Available raster maps:’)
       for raster in gscript.list_strings(type=’raster’):
           print(raster)
       gscript.message(’Available vector maps:’)
       for vector in gscript.list_strings(type=’vector’):
           print(vector)

   Using temporary location
       Creating  a  new  temporary location based on a georeferenced file’s projection coordinate
       reference system (CRS) and simultaneously starting computation in a shell script:
       grass76 --tmp-location elevation.tiff --exec test.sh
       The same, but using an EPSG code and a Python script:
       grass76 --tmp-location EPSG:3358 --exec test.py
       Finally, for special cases, we can create an XY location without any CRS:
       grass76 --tmp-location XY --exec test.py
       Temporary location is automatically deleted after computation, so the script  is  expected
       to export, link or otherwise preserve the output data before ending.

       A  single  command  can  be  also  executed,  e.g.  to examine properties of the temporary
       location:
       grass76 --tmp-location EPSG:3358 --exec g.proj -p
       A temporary XY location with single command is useful, e.g. to show help text of a module:
       grass76 --tmp-location XY --exec r.neighbors --help

   Troubleshooting
       Importantly, to avoid an "[Errno 8] Exec format error" there must be a shebang line at the
       top of the script (like #!/bin/sh, #!/bin/bash, or #!/usr/bin/env python) indicating which
       interpreter to be used for the script. The script file must have its executable bit set.

CAVEAT

       If you start GRASS using the wxGUI interface you must have a python command in your  $PATH
       variable.  That  is,  the  command  must be named python and not something like python2.6.
       Rarely some Python installations do not create a python command. In these  cases  you  can
       override python by GRASS_PYTHON environmental variable.

       Furthermore,  if  you  have  more than one version of Python installed, make sure that the
       version you want to use with GRASS is set by GRASS_PYTHON environmental variable.

SEE ALSO

       List of GRASS environment variables

       GRASS GIS Web site
       GRASS GIS User Wiki
       GRASS GIS Bug Tracker
       GRASS GIS 7 Programmer’s Manual

AUTHORS (of this page)

       Justin Hickey
       Markus Neteler
       Hamish Bowman
       Martin Landa, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic

       Last changed: $Date: 2018-11-30 12:44:28 +0100 (Fri, 30 Nov 2018) $

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