Provided by: hledger_1.10-3_amd64 bug

NAME

       hledger - a command-line accounting tool

SYNOPSIS

       hledger [-f FILE] COMMAND [OPTIONS] [ARGS]
       hledger [-f FILE] ADDONCMD -- [OPTIONS] [ARGS]
       hledger

DESCRIPTION

       hledger  is  a  cross-platform  program  for tracking money, time, or any other commodity,
       using double-entry accounting and a simple, editable file format.  hledger is inspired  by
       and largely compatible with ledger(1).
       Tested on unix, mac, windows, hledger aims to be a reliable, practical tool for daily use.

       This  is hledger's command-line interface (there are also curses and web interfaces).  Its
       basic function is to  read  a  plain  text  file  describing  financial  transactions  (in
       accounting  terms,  a  general  journal)  and  print useful reports on standard output, or
       export them as CSV.  hledger can also read some other file  formats  such  as  CSV  files,
       translating   them  to  journal  format.   Additionally,  hledger  lists  other  hledger-*
       executables found in the user's $PATH and can invoke them as subcommands.

       hledger reads data from one or more files in hledger journal, timeclock, timedot,  or  CSV
       format  specified with -f, or $LEDGER_FILE, or $HOME/.hledger.journal (on windows, perhaps
       C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal).   If  using  $LEDGER_FILE,  note  this  must  be  a  real
       environment variable, not a shell variable.  You can specify standard input with -f-.

       Transactions  are  dated  movements of money between two (or more) named accounts, and are
       recorded with journal entries like this:

              2015/10/16 bought food
               expenses:food          $10
               assets:cash

       For more about this format, see hledger_journal(5).

       Most users use a text editor to edit the journal, usually with  an  editor  mode  such  as
       ledger-mode  for  added  convenience.  hledger's interactive add command is another way to
       record new transactions.  hledger never changes existing transactions.

       To get started, you can either save some entries like the above in ~/.hledger.journal,  or
       run  hledger add  and  follow  the  prompts.  Then try some commands like hledger print or
       hledger balance.  Run hledger with no arguments for a list of commands.

EXAMPLES

       Two simple transactions in hledger journal format:

              2015/9/30 gift received
                assets:cash   $20
                income:gifts

              2015/10/16 farmers market
                expenses:food    $10
                assets:cash

       Some basic reports:

              $ hledger print
              2015/09/30 gift received
                  assets:cash            $20
                  income:gifts          $-20

              2015/10/16 farmers market
                  expenses:food           $10
                  assets:cash            $-10

              $ hledger accounts --tree
              assets
                cash
              expenses
                food
              income
                gifts

              $ hledger balance
                               $10  assets:cash
                               $10  expenses:food
                              $-20  income:gifts
              --------------------
                                 0

              $ hledger register cash
              2015/09/30 gift received   assets:cash               $20           $20
              2015/10/16 farmers market  assets:cash              $-10           $10

       More commands:

              $ hledger                                 # show available commands
              $ hledger add                             # add more transactions to the journal file
              $ hledger balance                         # all accounts with aggregated balances
              $ hledger balance --help                  # show detailed help for balance command
              $ hledger balance --depth 1               # only top-level accounts
              $ hledger register                        # show account postings, with running total
              $ hledger reg income                      # show postings to/from income accounts
              $ hledger reg 'assets:some bank:checking' # show postings to/from this checking account
              $ hledger print desc:shop                 # show transactions with shop in the description
              $ hledger activity -W                     # show transaction counts per week as a bar chart

OPTIONS

   General options
       To see general usage help, including general options which are supported by  most  hledger
       commands, run hledger -h.

       General help options:

       -h --help
              show general usage (or after COMMAND, command usage)

       --version
              show version

       --debug[=N]
              show debug output (levels 1-9, default: 1)

       General input options:

       -f FILE --file=FILE
              use   a  different  input  file.   For  stdin,  use  -  (default:  $LEDGER_FILE  or
              $HOME/.hledger.journal)

       --rules-file=RULESFILE
              Conversion rules file to use when reading CSV (default: FILE.rules)

       --alias=OLD=NEW
              rename accounts named OLD to NEW

       --anon anonymize accounts and payees

       --pivot FIELDNAME
              use some other field or tag for the account name

       -I --ignore-assertions
              ignore any failing balance assertions

       General reporting options:

       -b --begin=DATE
              include postings/txns on or after this date

       -e --end=DATE
              include postings/txns before this date

       -D --daily
              multiperiod/multicolumn report by day

       -W --weekly
              multiperiod/multicolumn report by week

       -M --monthly
              multiperiod/multicolumn report by month

       -Q --quarterly
              multiperiod/multicolumn report by quarter

       -Y --yearly
              multiperiod/multicolumn report by year

       -p --period=PERIODEXP
              set start date, end date, and/or  reporting  interval  all  at  once  using  period
              expressions syntax (overrides the flags above)

       --date2
              match the secondary date instead (see command help for other effects)

       -U --unmarked
              include only unmarked postings/txns (can combine with -P or -C)

       -P --pending
              include only pending postings/txns

       -C --cleared
              include only cleared postings/txns

       -R --real
              include only non-virtual postings

       -NUM --depth=NUM
              hide/aggregate accounts or postings more than NUM levels deep

       -E --empty
              show    items    with   zero   amount,   normally   hidden   (and   vice-versa   in
              hledger-ui/hledger-web)

       -B --cost
              convert amounts to their cost at transaction time (using the transaction price,  if
              any)

       -V --value
              convert amounts to their market value on the report end date (using the most recent
              applicable market price, if any)

       --auto apply automated posting rules to modify transactions.

       --forecast
              apply periodic transaction rules to generate future transactions, to 6 months  from
              now or report end date.

       When  a  reporting  option  appears more than once in the command line, the last one takes
       precedence.

       Some reporting options can also be written as query arguments.

   Command options
       To see  options  for  a  particular  command,  including  command-specific  options,  run:
       hledger COMMAND -h.

       Command-specific options must be written after the command name, eg: hledger print -x.

       Additionally,  if  the  command  is  an  addon,  you  may  need to put its options after a
       double-hyphen, eg: hledger ui -- --watch.  Or, you can run the addon executable  directly:
       hledger-ui --watch.

   Command arguments
       Most  hledger  commands  accept arguments after the command name, which are often a query,
       filtering the data in some way.

   Argument files
       You can save a set of command line options/arguments in a file, one  per  line,  and  then
       reuse  them  by  writing  @FILENAME  in  a  command  line.   To  prevent this expansion of
       @-arguments, precede them with a -- argument.  For more, see Save frequently used options.

   Special characters
       Option and argument values which contain problematic characters  should  be  escaped  with
       double quotes, backslashes, or (best) single quotes.  Problematic characters means spaces,
       and  also  characters  which  are   significant   to   your   command   shell,   such   as
       less-than/greater-than.                                                                Eg:
       hledger register -p 'last year' "accounts receivable (receivable|payable)" amt:\>100.

       Characters which are significant both to the shell and in  regular  expressions  sometimes
       need  to  be  double-escaped.   These  include parentheses, the pipe symbol and the dollar
       sign.  Eg, to match the dollar symbol, bash users should do:  hledger balance cur:'\$'  or
       hledger balance cur:\\$.

       When  hledger is invoking an addon executable (like hledger-ui), options and arguments get
       de-escaped once more, so you might  need  triple-escaping.   Eg:  hledger ui cur:'\\$'  or
       hledger ui cur:\\\\$  in  bash.   (The  number  of backslashes in fish shell is left as an
       exercise for the reader.)

       Inside a file used for argument expansion, one less level of escaping is enough.  (And  in
       this case, backslashes seem to work better than quotes.  Eg: cur:\$).

       If in doubt, keep things simple:

       · run add-on executables directly

       · write options after the command

       · enclose problematic args in single quotes

       · if needed, also add a backslash to escape regexp metacharacters

       If you're really stumped, add --debug=2 to troubleshoot.

   Input files
       hledger  reads  transactions  from  a  data  file  (and the add command writes to it).  By
       default  this  file   is   $HOME/.hledger.journal   (or   on   Windows,   something   like
       C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal).   You can override this with the $LEDGER_FILE environment
       variable:

              $ setenv LEDGER_FILE ~/finance/2016.journal
              $ hledger stats

       or with the -f/--file option:

              $ hledger -f /some/file stats

       The file name - (hyphen) means standard input:


              $ cat some.journal | hledger -f-
       Usually the data file is in hledger's journal format, but it can also be  one  of  several
       other  formats,  listed below.  hledger detects the format automatically based on the file
       extension, or if that is not recognised, by trying each built-in “reader” in turn:

       Reader:      Reads:                               Used for file extensions:
       ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       journal      hledger's  journal  format,  also    .journal    .j    .hledger
                    some Ledger journals                 .ledger
       timeclock    timeclock  files  (precise   time    .timeclock
                    logging)
       timedot      timedot  files  (approximate time    .timedot
                    logging)
       csv          comma-separated   values    (data    .csv
                    interchange)

       If needed (eg to ensure correct error messages when a file has the “wrong” extension), you
       can force a specific reader/format by prepending  it  to  the  file  path  with  a  colon.
       Examples:

              $ hledger -f csv:/some/csv-file.dat stats
              $ echo 'i 2009/13/1 08:00:00' | hledger print -ftimeclock:-

       You  can  also  specify  multiple  -f  options, to read multiple files as one big journal.
       There are some limitations with this:

       · directives in one file will not affect the other files

       · balance assertions will not see any account balances from previous files

       If you need those, either use  the  include  directive,  or  concatenate  the  files,  eg:
       cat a.journal b.journal | hledger -f- CMD.

   Smart dates
       hledger's  user  interfaces  accept  a  flexible  “smart date” syntax (unlike dates in the
       journal file).  Smart dates allow some english words, can be relative to today's date, and
       can have less-significant date parts omitted (defaulting to 1).

       Examples:

       2004/10/1, 2004-01-01, 2004.9.1              exact  date,  several separators
                                                    allowed.   Year  is  4+  digits,
                                                    month is 1-12, day is 1-31
       2004                                         start of year
       2004/10                                      start of month
       10/1                                         month and day in current year
       21                                           day in current month
       october, oct                                 start of month in current year
       yesterday, today, tomorrow                   -1, 0, 1 days from today
       last/this/next day/week/month/quarter/year   -1,  0,  1  periods   from   the
                                                    current period
       20181201                                     8 digit YYYYMMDD with valid year
                                                    month and day
       201812                                       6 digit YYYYMM with  valid  year
                                                    and month

       Counterexamples - malformed digit sequences might give surprising results:

       201813      6  digits  with an invalid month
                   is parsed as  start  of  6-digit
                   year

       20181301    8  digits  with an invalid month
                   is parsed as  start  of  8-digit
                   year
       20181232    8  digits  with  an  invalid day
                   gives an error
       201801012   9+ digits beginning with a valid
                   YYYYMMDD gives an error

   Report start & end date
       Most  hledger  reports  show  the  full  span  of time represented by the journal data, by
       default.  So, the effective report start and end dates will be  the  earliest  and  latest
       transaction or posting dates found in the journal.

       Often  you  will  want  to  see  a  shorter time span, such as the current month.  You can
       specify a start and/or end date using -b/--begin, -e/--end, -p/--period or a  date:  query
       (described  below).  All of these accept the smart date syntax.  One important thing to be
       aware of when specifying end dates: as in Ledger, end dates are exclusive, so you need  to
       write the date after the last day you want to include.

       Examples:

       -b 2016/3/17      begin on St. Patrick's day 2016
       -e 12/1           end at the start of december 1st
                         of the current year (11/30  will
                         be the last date included)
       -b thismonth      all transactions on or after the
                         1st of the current month
       -p thismonth      all transactions in the  current
                         month
       date:2016/3/17-   the  above  written  as  queries
                         instead
       date:-12/1
       date:thismonth-
       date:thismonth

   Report intervals
       A report interval can be specified so that commands like register,  balance  and  activity
       will  divide  their reports into multiple subperiods.  The basic intervals can be selected
       with one of -D/--daily, -W/--weekly, -M/--monthly, -Q/--quarterly, or  -Y/--yearly.   More
       complex  intervals may be specified with a period expression.  Report intervals can not be
       specified with a query, currently.

   Period expressions
       The -p/--period option accepts period expressions, a shorthand way of expressing  a  start
       date, end date, and/or report interval all at once.

       Here's  a  basic  period  expression  specifying the first quarter of 2009.  Note, hledger
       always treats start dates as inclusive and end dates as exclusive:

       -p "from 2009/1/1 to 2009/4/1"

       Keywords like “from” and “to” are optional, and so are the spaces, as long  as  you  don't
       run  two  dates  together.   “to” can also be written as “-”.  These are equivalent to the
       above:

       -p "2009/1/1 2009/4/1"
       -p2009/1/1to2009/4/1
       -p2009/1/1-2009/4/1

       Dates are smart dates, so if the current year is 2009, the above can also be written as:

       -p "1/1 4/1"
       -p "january-apr"
       -p "this year to 4/1"

       If you specify only one date, the missing start or end date will be the earliest or latest
       transaction in your journal:

       -p "from 2009/1/1"   everything after january 1, 2009
       -p "from 2009/1"     the same
       -p "from 2009"       the same
       -p "to 2009"         everything   before  january  1,
                            2009

       A single date with no “from” or “to” defines both the start and end date like so:

       -p "2009"       the  year  2009;  equivalent  to
                       “2009/1/1 to 2010/1/1”
       -p "2009/1"     the  month of jan; equivalent to
                       “2009/1/1 to 2009/2/1”
       -p "2009/1/1"   just  that  day;  equivalent  to
                       “2009/1/1 to 2009/1/2”

       The  argument  of  -p can also begin with, or be, a report interval expression.  The basic
       report intervals are daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, or yearly,  which  have  the  same
       effect  as  the -D,-W,-M,-Q, or -Y flags.  Between report interval and start/end dates (if
       any), the word in is optional.  Examples:

       -p "weekly from 2009/1/1 to 2009/4/1"
       -p "monthly in 2008"
       -p "quarterly"

       Note that weekly, monthly, quarterly and yearly intervals will always start on  the  first
       day  on  week,  month,  quarter  or year accordingly, and will end on the last day of same
       period, even if associated period expression specifies different explicit  start  and  end
       date.

       For example:

       -p "weekly from 2009/1/1 to 2009/4/1"  –  starts
       on 2008/12/29, closest preceeding Monday
       -p "monthly in 2008/11/25"    –    starts     on
       2018/11/01
       -p "quarterly from 2009-05-05 to 2009-06-01"   -
       starts on 2009/04/01, ends on 2009/06/30,  which
       are first and last days of Q2 2009
       -p "yearly from 2009-12-29"    -    starts    on
       2009/01/01, first day of 2009

       The following more complex report  intervals  are  also  supported:  biweekly,  bimonthly,
       every day|week|month|quarter|year, every N days|weeks|months|quarters|years.

       All  of these will start on the first day of the requested period and end on the last one,
       as described above.

       Examples:

       -p "bimonthly from 2008"  –  periods  will  have
       boundaries on 2008/01/01, 2008/03/01, ...
       -p "every 2 weeks"    –    starts   on   closest
       preceeding Monday
       -p "every 5 month from 2009/03" –  periods  will
       have boundaries on 2009/03/01, 2009/08/01, ...

       If  you want intervals that start on arbitrary day of your choosing and span a week, month
       or year, you need to use any of the following:

       every Nth day of week,             every <weekday>,              every Nth day [of month],
       every Nth weekday [of month],        every MM/DD [of year],       every Nth MMM [of year],
       every MMM Nth [of year].

       Examples:

       -p "every 2nd day of week"  –  periods  will  go
       from Tue to Tue

       -p "every Tue" – same
       -p "every 15th day"  – period boundaries will be
       on 15th of each month
       -p "every 2nd Monday" – period  boundaries  will
       be on second Monday of each month
       -p "every 11/05"    –    yearly   periods   with
       boundaries on 5th of Nov
       -p "every 5th Nov" – same
       -p "every Nov 5th" – same

       Show historical balances at end of 15th each month (N is exclusive end date):

       hledger balance -H -p "every 16th day"

       Group postings from start of wednesday to end  of  next  tuesday  (N  is  start  date  and
       exclusive end date):

       hledger register checking -p "every 3rd day of week"

   Depth limiting
       With  the  --depth N  option (short form: -N), commands like account, balance and register
       will show only the uppermost accounts in the account tree, down to level N.  Use this when
       you  want  a  summary  with  less detail.  This flag has the same effect as a depth: query
       argument (so -2, --depth=2 or depth:2 are basically equivalent).

   Pivoting
       Normally hledger sums amounts, and organizes them in a hierarchy, based on  account  name.
       The  --pivot FIELD  option  causes  it to sum and organize hierarchy based on the value of
       some other field instead.  FIELD can be: code, description, payee, note, or the full  name
       (case   insensitive)   of   any   tag.    As   with   account   names,  values  containing
       colon:separated:parts will be displayed hierarchically in reports.

       --pivot is a general option affecting all reports; you can think of  hledger  transforming
       the  journal  before any other processing, replacing every posting's account name with the
       value of the specified field on that posting, inheriting it from the transaction or  using
       a blank value if it's not present.

       An example:

              2016/02/16 Member Fee Payment
                  assets:bank account                    2 EUR
                  income:member fees                    -2 EUR  ; member: John Doe

       Normal balance report showing account names:

              $ hledger balance
                             2 EUR  assets:bank account
                            -2 EUR  income:member fees
              --------------------
                                 0

       Pivoted balance report, using member: tag values instead:

              $ hledger balance --pivot member
                             2 EUR
                            -2 EUR  John Doe
              --------------------
                                 0

       One way to show only amounts with a member: value (using a query, described below):

              $ hledger balance --pivot member tag:member=.
                            -2 EUR  John Doe
              --------------------
                            -2 EUR

       Another way (the acct: query matches against the pivoted “account name”):

              $ hledger balance --pivot member acct:.
                            -2 EUR  John Doe
              --------------------
                            -2 EUR

   Cost
       The  -B/--cost  flag  converts  amounts  to their cost at transaction time, if they have a
       transaction price specified.

   Market value
       The -V/--value flag converts reported amounts to their current market value.
       Specifically, when there is a market price (P directive) for the amount's commodity, dated
       on  or  before  today's  date  (or  the  report end date if specified), the amount will be
       converted to the price's commodity.

       When there are multiple applicable P directives, -V chooses the most  recent  one,  or  in
       case of equal dates, the last-parsed one.

       For example:

              # one euro is worth this many dollars from nov 1
              P 2016/11/01 € $1.10

              # purchase some euros on nov 3
              2016/11/3
                  assets:euros        €100
                  assets:checking

              # the euro is worth fewer dollars by dec 21
              P 2016/12/21 € $1.03

       How many euros do I have ?

              $ hledger -f t.j bal -N euros
                              €100  assets:euros

       What are they worth at end of nov 3 ?

              $ hledger -f t.j bal -N euros -V -e 2016/11/4
                           $110.00  assets:euros

       What are they worth after 2016/12/21 ?  (no report end date specified, defaults to today)

              $ hledger -f t.j bal -N euros -V
                           $103.00  assets:euros

       Currently,  hledger's  -V  only  uses  market  prices  recorded  with  P  directives,  not
       transaction prices (unlike Ledger).

       Currently, -V has a limitation in multicolumn balance reports: it uses the  market  prices
       on  the  report  end  date  for  all columns.  (Instead of the prices on each column's end
       date.)

   Combining -B and -V
       Using -B/–cost and -V/–value together is currently allowed, but the results  are  probably
       not meaningful.  Let us know if you find a use for this.

   Output destination
       Some  commands  (print, register, stats, the balance commands) can write their output to a
       destination other than the console.  This is controlled by the -o/--output-file option.

              $ hledger balance -o -     # write to stdout (the default)
              $ hledger balance -o FILE  # write to FILE

   Output format
       Some commands can write their output in other formats.  Eg print and register  can  output
       CSV,  and  the  balance  commands  can  output  CSV  or  HTML.   This is controlled by the
       -O/--output-format  option,  or  by  specifying  a  .csv  or  .html  file  extension  with
       -o/--output-file.

              $ hledger balance -O csv       # write CSV to stdout
              $ hledger balance -o FILE.csv  # write CSV to FILE.csv

   Regular expressions
       hledger uses regular expressions in a number of places:

       · query  terms, on the command line and in the hledger-web search form: REGEX, desc:REGEX,
         cur:REGEX, tag:...=REGEX

       · CSV rules conditional blocks: if REGEX ...

       · account     alias     directives     and      options:      alias /REGEX/ = REPLACEMENT,
         --alias /REGEX/=REPLACEMENT

       hledger's regular expressions come from the regex-tdfa library.  In general they:

       · are case insensitive

       · are infix matching (do not need to match the entire thing being matched)

       · are POSIX extended regular expressions

       · also support GNU word boundaries (\<, \>, \b, \B)

       · and parenthesised capturing groups and numeric backreferences in replacement strings

       · do not support mode modifiers like (?s)

       Some things to note:

       · In  the  alias  directive  and  --alias  option, regular expressions must be enclosed in
         forward slashes (/REGEX/).  Elsewhere in hledger, these are not required.

       · In queries, to match a regular expression metacharacter like $ as a  literal  character,
         prepend  a  backslash.   Eg  to  search for amounts with the dollar sign in hledger-web,
         write cur:\$.

       · On the command line, some metacharacters like $ have a special meaning to the shell  and
         so must be escaped at least once more.  See Special characters.

QUERIES

       One  of  hledger's  strengths  is  being able to quickly report on precise subsets of your
       data.  Most commands accept an optional query expression, written as arguments  after  the
       command  name,  to filter the data by date, account name or other criteria.  The syntax is
       similar to a web search: one or more  space-separated  search  terms,  quotes  to  enclose
       whitespace, prefixes to match specific fields, a not: prefix to negate the match.

       We  do  not  yet  support  arbitrary  boolean  combinations  of search terms; instead most
       commands show transactions/postings/accounts which match (or negatively match):

       · any of the description terms AND

       · any of the account terms AND

       · any of the status terms AND

       · all the other terms.

       The print command instead shows transactions which:

       · match any of the description terms AND

       · have any postings matching any of the positive account terms AND

       · have no postings matching any of the negative account terms AND

       · match all the other terms.

       The following kinds of search terms can be used.  Remember these can also be prefixed with
       not:, eg to exclude a particular subaccount.

       REGEX, acct:REGEX
              match  account  names  by  this  regular  expression.   (With  no  prefix, acct: is
              assumed.)
       same as above

       amt:N, amt:<N, amt:<=N, amt:>N, amt:>=N
              match postings with a single-commodity amount that  is  equal  to,  less  than,  or
              greater  than  N.  (Multi-commodity amounts are not tested, and will always match.)
              The comparison has two modes: if N is preceded by a + or - sign (or is 0), the  two
              signed  numbers  are  compared.   Otherwise,  the absolute magnitudes are compared,
              ignoring sign.

       code:REGEX
              match by transaction code (eg check number)

       cur:REGEX
              match postings or  transactions  including  any  amounts  whose  currency/commodity
              symbol  is fully matched by REGEX.  (For a partial match, use .*REGEX.*).  Note, to
              match characters which are regex-significant, like the dollar sign ($), you need to
              prepend  \.   And  when  using  the  command line you need to add one more level of
              quoting  to  hide  it  from  the  shell,  so  eg  do:   hledger print cur:'\$'   or
              hledger print cur:\\$.

       desc:REGEX
              match transaction descriptions.

       date:PERIODEXPR
              match  dates  within the specified period.  PERIODEXPR is a period expression (with
              no report  interval).   Examples:  date:2016,  date:thismonth,  date:2000/2/1-2/15,
              date:lastweek-.   If  the  --date2  command  line  flag  is  present,  this matches
              secondary dates instead.

       date2:PERIODEXPR
              match secondary dates within the specified period.

       depth:N
              match (or display, depending on command) accounts at or above this depth

       note:REGEX
              match transaction notes (part of description right of |, or whole description  when
              there's no |)

       payee:REGEX
              match  transaction  payee/payer  names  (part  of  description  left of |, or whole
              description when there's no |)

       real:, real:0
              match real or virtual postings respectively

       status:, status:!, status:*
              match unmarked, pending, or cleared transactions respectively

       tag:REGEX[=REGEX]
              match by tag name, and optionally  also  by  tag  value.   Note  a  tag:  query  is
              considered to match a transaction if it matches any of the postings.  Also remember
              that postings inherit the tags of their parent transaction.

       The following special search term is used automatically in hledger-web, only:

       inacct:ACCTNAME
              tells hledger-web to show the  transaction  register  for  this  account.   Can  be
              filtered further with acct etc.

       Some  of  these can also be expressed as command-line options (eg depth:2 is equivalent to
       --depth 2).  Generally you can mix options and query arguments, and  the  resulting  query
       will be their intersection (perhaps excluding the -p/--period option).

COMMANDS

       hledger provides a number of subcommands; hledger with no arguments shows a list.

       If  you  install  additional  hledger-*  packages, or if you put programs or scripts named
       hledger-NAME in your PATH, these will also be listed as subcommands.

       Run a subcommand by writing its name as first argument (eg hledger incomestatement).   You
       can  also  write one of the standard short aliases displayed in parentheses in the command
       list (hledger b), or any any unambiguous prefix of a command name (hledger inc).

       Here are all the builtin commands in alphabetical order.  See  also  hledger  for  a  more
       organised command list, and hledger CMD -h for detailed command help.

   accounts
       Show account names.  Alias: a.

       --declared
              show account names declared with account directives

       --used show account names posted to by transactions

       --tree show short account names and their parents, as a tree

       --flat show full account names, as a list (default)

       --drop=N
              in flat mode: omit N leading account name parts

       This  command  lists  account  names, either declared with account directives (–declared),
       posted to (–used), or both (default).  With query arguments, only  matched  account  names
       and  account  names  referenced  by  matched  postings are shown.  It shows a flat list by
       default.  With --tree, it uses indentation to show the account hierarchy.   In  flat  mode
       you  can add --drop N to omit the first few account name components.  Account names can be
       depth-clipped with --depth N or depth:N.

       Examples:

              $ hledger accounts --tree
              assets
                bank
                  checking
                  saving
                cash
              expenses
                food
                supplies
              income
                gifts
                salary
              liabilities
                debts

              $ hledger accounts --drop 1
              bank:checking
              bank:saving
              cash
              food
              supplies
              gifts
              salary
              debts

              $ hledger accounts
              assets:bank:checking
              assets:bank:saving
              assets:cash
              expenses:food
              expenses:supplies
              income:gifts
              income:salary
              liabilities:debts

   activity
       Show an ascii barchart of posting counts per interval.

       The activity command displays an ascii histogram showing transaction counts by day,  week,
       month  or  other  reporting  interval  (by  day is the default).  With query arguments, it
       counts only matched transactions.

              $ hledger activity --quarterly
              2008-01-01 **
              2008-04-01 *******
              2008-07-01
              2008-10-01 **

   add
       Prompt for transactions and add them to the journal.

       --no-new-accounts
              don't allow creating new accounts; helps prevent typos when entering account names

       Many hledger users edit their journals directly with a text editor, or generate them  from
       CSV.   For  more  interactive  data  entry,  there  is  the  add  command,  which  prompts
       interactively on the console for new transactions, and appends them to  the  journal  file
       (if there are multiple -f FILE options, the first file is used.) Existing transactions are
       not changed.  This is the only hledger command that writes to the journal file.

       To use it, just run hledger add and follow the prompts.  You can add as many  transactions
       as you like; when you are finished, enter . or press control-d or control-c to exit.

       Features:

       · add  tries  to  provide  useful  defaults, using the most similar recent transaction (by
         description) as a template.

       · You can also set the initial defaults with command line arguments.

       · Readline-style edit keys can be used during data entry.

       · The tab key  will  auto-complete  whenever  possible  -  accounts,  descriptions,  dates
         (yesterday,  today,  tomorrow).   If the input area is empty, it will insert the default
         value.

       · If the journal defines a default commodity,  it  will  be  added  to  any  bare  numbers
         entered.

       · A parenthesised transaction code may be entered following a date.

       · Comments and tags may be entered following a description or amount.

       · If you make a mistake, enter < at any prompt to restart the transaction.

       · Input prompts are displayed in a different colour when the terminal supports it.

       Example (see the tutorial for a detailed explanation):

              $ hledger add
              Adding transactions to journal file /src/hledger/examples/sample.journal
              Any command line arguments will be used as defaults.
              Use tab key to complete, readline keys to edit, enter to accept defaults.
              An optional (CODE) may follow transaction dates.
              An optional ; COMMENT may follow descriptions or amounts.
              If you make a mistake, enter < at any prompt to restart the transaction.
              To end a transaction, enter . when prompted.
              To quit, enter . at a date prompt or press control-d or control-c.
              Date [2015/05/22]:
              Description: supermarket
              Account 1: expenses:food
              Amount  1: $10
              Account 2: assets:checking
              Amount  2 [$-10.0]:
              Account 3 (or . or enter to finish this transaction): .
              2015/05/22 supermarket
                  expenses:food             $10
                  assets:checking        $-10.0

              Save this transaction to the journal ? [y]:
              Saved.
              Starting the next transaction (. or ctrl-D/ctrl-C to quit)
              Date [2015/05/22]: <CTRL-D> $

   balance
       Show accounts and their balances.  Aliases: b, bal.

       --change
              show balance change in each period (default)

       --cumulative
              show balance change accumulated across periods (in multicolumn reports)

       -H --historical
              show  historical  ending  balance  in  each period (includes postings before report
              start date)

       --tree show accounts as a tree; amounts include subaccounts (default in simple reports)

       --flat show accounts as a  list;  amounts  exclude  subaccounts  except  when  account  is
              depth-clipped (default in multicolumn reports)

       -A --average
              show a row average column (in multicolumn mode)

       -T --row-total
              show a row total column (in multicolumn mode)

       -N --no-total
              don't show the final total row

       --drop=N
              omit N leading account name parts (in flat mode)

       --no-elide
              don't squash boring parent accounts (in tree mode)

       --format=LINEFORMAT
              in single-column balance reports: use this custom line format

       -O FMT --output-format=FMT
              select the output format.  Supported formats: txt, csv, html.

       -o FILE --output-file=FILE
              write  output  to FILE.  A file extension matching one of the above formats selects
              that format.

       --pretty-tables
              use unicode to display prettier tables.

       --sort-amount
              sort by amount instead of account code/name (in flat mode).  With multiple columns,
              sorts by the row total, or by row average if that is displayed.

       --invert
              display all amounts with reversed sign

       --budget
              show performance compared to budget goals defined by periodic transactions

       --show-unbudgeted
              with –budget, show unbudgeted accounts also

       The  balance  command  is hledger's most versatile command.  Note, despite the name, it is
       not always used  for  showing  real-world  account  balances;  the  more  accounting-aware
       balancesheet and incomestatement may be more convenient for that.

       By  default,  it  displays  all  accounts, and each account's change in balance during the
       entire period of the journal.  Balance changes are calculated by adding up the postings in
       each  account.   You  can  limit  the postings matched, by a query, to see fewer accounts,
       changes over a different time period, changes from only cleared transactions, etc.

       If you include an account's complete history of postings in the report, the balance change
       is  equivalent  to  the  account's  current  ending  balance.   For  a real-world account,
       typically you won't have  all  transactions  in  the  journal;  instead  you'll  have  all
       transactions  after  a  certain  date,  and  an “opening balances” transaction setting the
       correct starting balance on that date.  Then the  balance  command  will  show  real-world
       account  balances.   In  some  cases  the -H/–historical flag is used to ensure this (more
       below).

       The balance command can produce several styles of report:

   Classic balance report
       This is the original balance report, as found in Ledger.  It usually looks like this:

              $ hledger balance
                               $-1  assets
                                $1    bank:saving
                               $-2    cash
                                $2  expenses
                                $1    food
                                $1    supplies
                               $-2  income
                               $-1    gifts
                               $-1    salary
                                $1  liabilities:debts
              --------------------
                                 0

       By default, accounts are displayed hierarchically, with subaccounts indented  below  their
       parent.   At  each  level of the tree, accounts are sorted by account code if any, then by
       account name.  Or with -S/--sort-amount, by their balance amount.

       “Boring” accounts, which contain a single interesting subaccount and no balance  of  their
       own,  are  elided  into  the  following  line  for  more  compact  output.  (Eg above, the
       “liabilities” account.) Use --no-elide to prevent this.

       Account balances are “inclusive” - they include the balances of any subaccounts.

       Accounts which  have  zero  balance  (and  no  non-zero  subaccounts)  are  omitted.   Use
       -E/--empty to show them.

       A final total is displayed by default; use -N/--no-total to suppress it, eg:

              $ hledger balance -p 2008/6 expenses --no-total
                                $2  expenses
                                $1    food
                                $1    supplies

   Customising the classic balance report
       You can customise the layout of classic balance reports with --format FMT:

              $ hledger balance --format "%20(account) %12(total)"
                            assets          $-1
                       bank:saving           $1
                              cash          $-2
                          expenses           $2
                              food           $1
                          supplies           $1
                            income          $-2
                             gifts          $-1
                            salary          $-1
                 liabilities:debts           $1
              ---------------------------------
                                              0

       The  FMT  format  string  (plus  a  newline)  specifies  the  formatting  applied  to each
       account/balance pair.  It may contain any suitable text,  with  data  fields  interpolated
       like so:

       %[MIN][.MAX](FIELDNAME)

       · MIN pads with spaces to at least this width (optional)

       · MAX truncates at this width (optional)

       · FIELDNAME must be enclosed in parentheses, and can be one of:

         · depth_spacer  -  a  number  of  spaces  equal  to  the  account's  depth, or if MIN is
           specified, MIN * depth spaces.

         · account - the account's name

         · total - the account's balance/posted total, right justified

       Also, FMT can begin with an optional prefix to control  how  multi-commodity  amounts  are
       rendered:

       · %_ - render on multiple lines, bottom-aligned (the default)

       · %^ - render on multiple lines, top-aligned

       · %, - render on one line, comma-separated

       There  are  some  quirks.   Eg  in  one-line  mode, %(depth_spacer) has no effect, instead
       %(account) has indentation built in.
        Experimentation may be needed to get pleasing results.

       Some example formats:

       · %(total) - the account's total

       · %-20.20(account) - the account's name, left  justified,  padded  to  20  characters  and
         clipped at 20 characters

       · %,%-50(account)  %25(total)  -  account name padded to 50 characters, total padded to 20
         characters, with multiple commodities rendered on one line

       · %20(total)  %2(depth_spacer)%-(account) -  the  default  format  for  the  single-column
         balance report

   Colour support
       The balance command shows negative amounts in red, if:

       · the TERM environment variable is not set to dumb

       · the output is not being redirected or piped anywhere

   Flat mode
       To see a flat list instead of the default hierarchical display, use --flat.  In this mode,
       accounts (unless depth-clipped) show their full names and “exclusive”  balance,  excluding
       any  subaccount  balances.   In this mode, you can also use --drop N to omit the first few
       account name components.

              $ hledger balance -p 2008/6 expenses -N --flat --drop 1
                                $1  food
                                $1  supplies

   Depth limited balance reports
       With --depth N or depth:N or just -N, balance reports show accounts only to the  specified
       numeric  depth.   This  is  very  useful to summarise a complex set of accounts and get an
       overview.

              $ hledger balance -N -1
                               $-1  assets
                                $2  expenses
                               $-2  income
                                $1  liabilities

       Flat-mode balance reports, which normally show exclusive balances, show inclusive balances
       at the depth limit.

   Multicolumn balance report
       Multicolumn  or tabular balance reports are a very useful hledger feature, and usually the
       preferred style.  They share many of the above features, but they show  the  report  as  a
       table,  with  columns  representing  time  periods.  This mode is activated by providing a
       reporting interval.

       There are three types of multicolumn balance report, showing different information:

       1. By default: each column shows the sum of postings in  that  period,  ie  the  account's
          change of balance in that period.  This is useful eg for a monthly income statement:

                  $ hledger balance --quarterly income expenses -E
                  Balance changes in 2008:

                                     ||  2008q1  2008q2  2008q3  2008q4
                  ===================++=================================
                   expenses:food     ||       0      $1       0       0
                   expenses:supplies ||       0      $1       0       0
                   income:gifts      ||       0     $-1       0       0
                   income:salary     ||     $-1       0       0       0
                  -------------------++---------------------------------
                                     ||     $-1      $1       0       0

       2. With  --cumulative:  each column shows the ending balance for that period, accumulating
          the changes across periods, starting from 0 at the report start date:

                  $ hledger balance --quarterly income expenses -E --cumulative
                  Ending balances (cumulative) in 2008:

                                     ||  2008/03/31  2008/06/30  2008/09/30  2008/12/31
                  ===================++=================================================
                   expenses:food     ||           0          $1          $1          $1
                   expenses:supplies ||           0          $1          $1          $1
                   income:gifts      ||           0         $-1         $-1         $-1
                   income:salary     ||         $-1         $-1         $-1         $-1
                  -------------------++-------------------------------------------------
                                     ||         $-1           0           0           0

       3. With --historical/-H: each column shows the actual historical ending balance  for  that
          period,  accumulating  the  changes across periods, starting from the actual balance at
          the report start date.  This is useful eg for a multi-period balance  sheet,  and  when
          you are showing only the data after a certain start date:

                  $ hledger balance ^assets ^liabilities --quarterly --historical --begin 2008/4/1
                  Ending balances (historical) in 2008/04/01-2008/12/31:

                                        ||  2008/06/30  2008/09/30  2008/12/31
                  ======================++=====================================
                   assets:bank:checking ||          $1          $1           0
                   assets:bank:saving   ||          $1          $1          $1
                   assets:cash          ||         $-2         $-2         $-2
                   liabilities:debts    ||           0           0          $1
                  ----------------------++-------------------------------------
                                        ||           0           0           0

       Multicolumn  balance  reports  display  accounts  in  flat  mode  by  default;  to see the
       hierarchy, use --tree.

       With a reporting interval (like --quarterly above), the report  start/end  dates  will  be
       adjusted  if  necessary  so  that they encompass the displayed report periods.  This is so
       that the first and last periods will be “full” and comparable to the others.

       The -E/--empty flag does two things in multicolumn balance reports: first, the report will
       show  all  columns  within  the  specified report period (without -E, leading and trailing
       columns with all zeroes are not shown).  Second, all accounts which existed at the  report
       start  date  will  be considered, not just the ones with activity during the report period
       (use -E to include low-activity accounts which would otherwise would be omitted).

       The -T/--row-total flag adds an additional column showing the total for each row.

       The -A/--average flag adds a column showing the average value in each row.

       Here's an example of all three:

              $ hledger balance -Q income expenses --tree -ETA
              Balance changes in 2008:

                          ||  2008q1  2008q2  2008q3  2008q4    Total  Average
              ============++===================================================
               expenses   ||       0      $2       0       0       $2       $1
                 food     ||       0      $1       0       0       $1        0
                 supplies ||       0      $1       0       0       $1        0
               income     ||     $-1     $-1       0       0      $-2      $-1
                 gifts    ||       0     $-1       0       0      $-1        0
                 salary   ||     $-1       0       0       0      $-1        0
              ------------++---------------------------------------------------
                          ||     $-1      $1       0       0        0        0

              # Average is rounded to the dollar here since all journal amounts are

       Limitations:

       In multicolumn reports the -V/--value flag uses the market price on the report  end  date,
       for all columns (not the price on each column's end date).

       Eliding  of  boring parent accounts in tree mode, as in the classic balance report, is not
       yet supported in multicolumn reports.

   Budget report
       With --budget, extra columns are displayed showing  budget  goals  for  each  account  and
       period,  if  any.  Budget goals are defined by periodic transactions.  This is very useful
       for comparing planned and actual income, expenses, time usage, etc.  –budget is most often
       combined with a report interval.

       For  example,  you  can  take average monthly expenses in the common expense categories to
       construct a minimal monthly budget:

              ;; Budget
              ~ monthly
                income  $2000
                expenses:food    $400
                expenses:bus     $50
                expenses:movies  $30
                assets:bank:checking

              ;; Two months worth of expenses
              2017-11-01
                income  $1950
                expenses:food    $396
                expenses:bus     $49
                expenses:movies  $30
                expenses:supplies  $20
                assets:bank:checking

              2017-12-01
                income  $2100
                expenses:food    $412
                expenses:bus     $53
                expenses:gifts   $100
                assets:bank:checking

       You can now see a monthly budget report:

              $ hledger balance -M --budget
              Budget performance in 2017/11/01-2017/12/31:

                                    ||                2017/11                  2017/12
              ======================++=================================================
               <unbudgeted>         ||                    $20                     $100
               assets:bank:checking || $-2445 [99% of $-2480]  $-2665 [107% of $-2480]
               expenses:bus         ||       $49 [98% of $50]        $53 [106% of $50]
               expenses:food        ||     $396 [99% of $400]      $412 [103% of $400]
               expenses:movies      ||      $30 [100% of $30]            0 [0% of $30]
               income               ||   $1950 [98% of $2000]    $2100 [105% of $2000]
              ----------------------++-------------------------------------------------
                                    ||                      0                        0

       By default,  only  accounts  with  budget  goals  during  the  report  period  are  shown.
       --show-unbudgeted  shows  unbudgeted  accounts as well.  Top-level accounts with no budget
       goals anywhere below them are grouped under <unbudgeted>.

       You can roll over unspent budgets to next period with --cumulative:

              $ hledger balance -M --budget --cumulative
              Budget performance in 2017/11/01-2017/12/31:

                                    ||             2017/11/30               2017/12/31
              ======================++=================================================
               <unbudgeted>         ||                    $20                     $120
               assets:bank:checking || $-2445 [99% of $-2480]  $-5110 [103% of $-4960]
               expenses:bus         ||       $49 [98% of $50]      $102 [102% of $100]
               expenses:food        ||     $396 [99% of $400]      $808 [101% of $800]
               expenses:movies      ||      $30 [100% of $30]         $30 [50% of $60]
               income               ||   $1950 [98% of $2000]    $4050 [101% of $4000]
              ----------------------++-------------------------------------------------
                                    ||                      0                        0

       Note, the -S/--sort-amount flag is not yet fully supported with --budget.

       For more examples, see Budgeting and Forecasting.

   Output format
       The balance command supports output destination and output format selection.

   balancesheet
       This command displays a simple balance sheet, showing historical ending balances of  asset
       and  liability  accounts (ignoring any report begin date).  It assumes that these accounts
       are under a top-level asset or liability account  (case  insensitive,  plural  forms  also
       allowed).   Note  this  report  shows all account balances with normal positive sign (like
       conventional financial statements, unlike balance/print/register) (experimental).  (bs)

       --change
              show balance change in each period, instead of historical ending balances

       --cumulative
              show balance change accumulated across periods (in multicolumn reports), instead of
              historical ending balances

       -H --historical
              show  historical  ending  balance  in  each period (includes postings before report
              start date) (default)

       --tree show accounts as a tree; amounts include subaccounts (default in simple reports)

       --flat show accounts as a  list;  amounts  exclude  subaccounts  except  when  account  is
              depth-clipped (default in multicolumn reports)

       -A --average
              show a row average column (in multicolumn mode)

       -T --row-total
              show a row total column (in multicolumn mode)

       -N --no-total
              don't show the final total row

       --drop=N
              omit N leading account name parts (in flat mode)

       --no-elide
              don't squash boring parent accounts (in tree mode)

       --format=LINEFORMAT
              in single-column balance reports: use this custom line format

       --sort-amount
              sort by amount instead of account code/name

       Example:

              $ hledger balancesheet
              Balance Sheet

              Assets:
                               $-1  assets
                                $1    bank:saving
                               $-2    cash
              --------------------
                               $-1

              Liabilities:
                                $1  liabilities:debts
              --------------------
                                $1

              Total:
              --------------------
                                 0

       With a reporting interval, multiple columns will be shown, one for each report period.  As
       with   multicolumn   balance   reports,   you   can   alter   the   report    mode    with
       --change/--cumulative/--historical.    Normally   balancesheet   shows  historical  ending
       balances, which is what you need for a balance sheet; note this means  it  ignores  report
       begin dates.

       This command also supports output destination and output format selection.

   balancesheetequity
       Just  like  balancesheet,  but  also reports Equity (which it assumes is under a top-level
       equity account).

       Example:

              $ hledger balancesheetequity
              Balance Sheet With Equity

              Assets:
                               $-2  assets
                                $1    bank:saving
                               $-3    cash
              --------------------
                               $-2

              Liabilities:
                                $1  liabilities:debts
              --------------------
                                $1

              Equity:
                        $1  equity:owner
              --------------------
                        $1

              Total:
              --------------------
                                 0

   cashflow
       This command displays a simple cashflow statement, showing changes in “cash” accounts.  It
       assumes  that these accounts are under a top-level asset account (case insensitive, plural
       forms also allowed) and do not contain receivable or A/R in their name.  Note this  report
       shows  all  account  balances  with  normal  positive  sign  (like  conventional financial
       statements, unlike balance/print/register) (experimental).  (cf)

       --change
              show balance change in each period (default)

       --cumulative
              show balance change accumulated across periods (in multicolumn reports), instead of
              changes during periods

       -H --historical
              show  historical  ending  balance  in  each period (includes postings before report
              start date), instead of changes during each period

       --tree show accounts as a tree; amounts include subaccounts (default in simple reports)

       --flat show accounts as a  list;  amounts  exclude  subaccounts  except  when  account  is
              depth-clipped (default in multicolumn reports)

       -A --average
              show a row average column (in multicolumn mode)

       -T --row-total
              show a row total column (in multicolumn mode)

       -N --no-total
              don't show the final total row (in simple reports)

       --drop=N
              omit N leading account name parts (in flat mode)

       --no-elide
              don't squash boring parent accounts (in tree mode)

       --format=LINEFORMAT
              in single-column balance reports: use this custom line format

       --sort-amount
              sort by amount instead of account code/name

       Example:

              $ hledger cashflow
              Cashflow Statement

              Cash flows:
                               $-1  assets
                                $1    bank:saving
                               $-2    cash
              --------------------
                               $-1

              Total:
              --------------------
                               $-1

       With  a  reporting  interval,  multiple columns will be shown, one for each report period.
       Normally cashflow shows changes in assets per period, though as with  multicolumn  balance
       reports you can alter the report mode with --change/--cumulative/--historical.

       This command also supports output destination and output format selection.

   check-dates
       Check  that  transactions  are  sorted  by  increasing  date.   With a query, only matched
       transactions' dates are checked.

   check-dupes
       Report  account  names  having  the  same  leaf  but  different  prefixes.   An   example:
       http://stefanorodighiero.net/software/hledger-dupes.html

   close
       Print  closing/opening  transactions  that  bring some or all account balances to zero and
       back.  Can be useful for bringing asset/liability balances across file boundaries, or  for
       closing  out  income/expenses  for  a  period.   This  was formerly called “equity”, as in
       Ledger, and that alias is also accepted.  See close –help for more.

   help
       Show any of the hledger manuals.

       The help command displays any of the main hledger manuals, in one of several ways.  Run it
       with  no  argument to list the manuals, or provide a full or partial manual name to select
       one.

       hledger manuals are available in several formats.  hledger help  will  use  the  first  of
       these   display  methods  that  it  finds:  info,  man,  $PAGER,  less,  stdout  (or  when
       non-interactive, just stdout).  You can force a particular viewer with the --info,  --man,
       --pager, --cat flags.

              $ hledger help
              Please choose a manual by typing "hledger help MANUAL" (a substring is ok).
              Manuals: hledger hledger-ui hledger-web hledger-api journal csv timeclock timedot

              $ hledger help h --man

              hledger(1)                    hledger User Manuals                    hledger(1)

              NAME
                     hledger - a command-line accounting tool

              SYNOPSIS
                     hledger [-f FILE] COMMAND [OPTIONS] [ARGS]
                     hledger [-f FILE] ADDONCMD -- [OPTIONS] [ARGS]
                     hledger

              DESCRIPTION
                     hledger  is  a  cross-platform  program  for tracking money, time, or any
              ...

   import
       Read  new transactions added to each FILE since last run, and add them to the main journal
       file.

       --dry-run
              just show the transactions to be imported

       The input files are specified as arguments - no need to write -f before each one.   So  eg
       to   add   new   transactions  from  all  CSV  files  to  the  main  journal,  it's  just:
       hledger import *.csv

       New transactions are detected in the same way as print –new: by assuming transactions  are
       always added to the input files in increasing date order, and by saving .latest.FILE state
       files.

       The –dry-run output is  in  journal  format,  so  you  can  filter  it,  eg  to  see  only
       uncategorised transactions:

              $ hledger import --dry ... | hledger -f- print unknown --ignore-assertions

   incomestatement
       This  command  displays  a simple income statement, showing revenues and expenses during a
       period.  It assumes that these accounts are under a top-level revenue or income or expense
       account (case insensitive, plural forms also allowed).  Note this report shows all account
       balances with  normal  positive  sign  (like  conventional  financial  statements,  unlike
       balance/print/register) (experimental).  (is)

       --change
              show balance change in each period (default)

       --cumulative
              show balance change accumulated across periods (in multicolumn reports), instead of
              changes during periods

       -H --historical
              show historical ending balance in each  period  (includes  postings  before  report
              start date), instead of changes during each period

       --tree show accounts as a tree; amounts include subaccounts (default in simple reports)

       --flat show  accounts  as  a  list;  amounts  exclude  subaccounts  except when account is
              depth-clipped (default in multicolumn reports)

       -A --average
              show a row average column (in multicolumn mode)

       -T --row-total
              show a row total column (in multicolumn mode)

       -N --no-total
              don't show the final total row

       --drop=N
              omit N leading account name parts (in flat mode)

       --no-elide
              don't squash boring parent accounts (in tree mode)

       --format=LINEFORMAT
              in single-column balance reports: use this custom line format

       --sort-amount
              sort by amount instead of account code/name

       This command displays a simple income statement.   It  currently  assumes  that  you  have
       top-level accounts named income (or revenue) and expense (plural forms also allowed.)

              $ hledger incomestatement
              Income Statement

              Revenues:
                               $-2  income
                               $-1    gifts
                               $-1    salary
              --------------------
                               $-2

              Expenses:
                                $2  expenses
                                $1    food
                                $1    supplies
              --------------------
                                $2

              Total:
              --------------------
                                 0

       With  a  reporting  interval,  multiple columns will be shown, one for each report period.
       Normally incomestatement shows revenues/expenses per period, though  as  with  multicolumn
       balance reports you can alter the report mode with --change/--cumulative/--historical.

       This command also supports output destination and output format selection.

   prices
       Print all market prices from the journal.

   print
       Show transactions from the journal.  Aliases: p, txns.

       -m STR --match=STR
              show the transaction whose description is most similar to STR, and is most recent

       --new  show only newer-dated transactions added in each file since last run

       -x     --explicit
              show all amounts explicitly

       -O FMT --output-format=FMT
              select the output format.  Supported formats: txt, csv.

       -o FILE --output-file=FILE
              write  output  to FILE.  A file extension matching one of the above formats selects
              that format.

              $ hledger print
              2008/01/01 income
                  assets:bank:checking            $1
                  income:salary                  $-1

              2008/06/01 gift
                  assets:bank:checking            $1
                  income:gifts                   $-1

              2008/06/02 save
                  assets:bank:saving              $1
                  assets:bank:checking           $-1

              2008/06/03 * eat & shop
                  expenses:food                $1
                  expenses:supplies            $1
                  assets:cash                 $-2

              2008/12/31 * pay off
                  liabilities:debts               $1
                  assets:bank:checking           $-1

       The print command displays full journal entries (transactions) from the  journal  file  in
       date  order,  tidily  formatted.   print's  output  is always a valid hledger journal.  It
       preserves  all  transaction  information,  but  it  does  not   preserve   directives   or
       inter-transaction comments

       Normally,  the journal entry's explicit or implicit amount style is preserved.  Ie when an
       amount is omitted in the journal, it will be omitted in  the  output.   You  can  use  the
       -x/--explicit  flag  to make all amounts explicit, which can be useful for troubleshooting
       or for making your journal more readable and robust against data entry errors.   Note,  -x
       will  cause postings with a multi-commodity amount (these can arise when a multi-commodity
       transaction has an implicit amount) will be split into multiple single-commodity postings,
       for valid journal output.

       With  -B/--cost,  amounts  with transaction prices are converted to cost using that price.
       This can be used for troubleshooting.

       With -m/--match and a STR argument, print will show at most one transaction: the  one  one
       whose description is most similar to STR, and is most recent.  STR should contain at least
       two characters.  If there is no similar-enough match, no transaction will be shown.

       With --new, for each FILE being read, hledger reads (and  writes)  a  special  state  file
       (.latest.FILE  in the same directory), containing the latest transaction date(s) that were
       seen last time FILE was read.  When this file is found, only transactions with newer dates
       (and  new  transactions  on  the  latest  date)  are printed.  This is useful for ignoring
       already-seen entries in import data, such as downloaded CSV files.  Eg:

              $ hledger -f bank1.csv print --new
              # shows transactions added since last print --new on this file

       This assumes that transactions added to FILE always have same  or  increasing  dates,  and
       that transactions on the same day do not get reordered.  See also the import command.

       This  command  also  supports  output  destination and output format selection.  Here's an
       example of print's CSV output:

              $ hledger print -Ocsv
              "txnidx","date","date2","status","code","description","comment","account","amount","commodity","credit","debit","posting-status","posting-comment"
              "1","2008/01/01","","","","income","","assets:bank:checking","1","$","","1","",""
              "1","2008/01/01","","","","income","","income:salary","-1","$","1","","",""
              "2","2008/06/01","","","","gift","","assets:bank:checking","1","$","","1","",""
              "2","2008/06/01","","","","gift","","income:gifts","-1","$","1","","",""
              "3","2008/06/02","","","","save","","assets:bank:saving","1","$","","1","",""
              "3","2008/06/02","","","","save","","assets:bank:checking","-1","$","1","","",""
              "4","2008/06/03","","*","","eat & shop","","expenses:food","1","$","","1","",""
              "4","2008/06/03","","*","","eat & shop","","expenses:supplies","1","$","","1","",""
              "4","2008/06/03","","*","","eat & shop","","assets:cash","-2","$","2","","",""
              "5","2008/12/31","","*","","pay off","","liabilities:debts","1","$","","1","",""
              "5","2008/12/31","","*","","pay off","","assets:bank:checking","-1","$","1","","",""

       · There is one CSV record per posting, with the parent transaction's fields repeated.

       · The “txnidx”  (transaction  index)  field  shows  which  postings  belong  to  the  same
         transaction.   (This  number might change if transactions are reordered within the file,
         files are parsed/included in a different order, etc.)

       · The amount is separated into “commodity” (the symbol) and  “amount”  (numeric  quantity)
         fields.

       · The  numeric  amount  is  repeated  in  either  the  “credit”  or  “debit”  column,  for
         convenience.  (Those names are not accurate  in  the  accounting  sense;  it  just  puts
         negative amounts under credit and zero or greater amounts under debit.)

   print-unique
       Print transactions which do not reuse an already-seen description.

   register
       Show postings and their running total.  Aliases: r, reg.

       --cumulative
              show running total from report start date (default)

       -H --historical
              show historical running total/balance (includes postings before report start date)

       -A --average
              show running average of posting amounts instead of total (implies –empty)

       -r --related
              show postings' siblings instead

       -w N --width=N
              set output width (default: terminal width or COLUMNS.  -wN,M sets description width
              as well)

       -O FMT --output-format=FMT
              select the output format.  Supported formats: txt, csv.

       -o FILE --output-file=FILE
              write output to FILE.  A file extension matching one of the above  formats  selects
              that format.

       The  register  command  displays postings, one per line, and their running total.  This is
       typically used with a  query  selecting  a  particular  account,  to  see  that  account's
       activity:

              $ hledger register checking
              2008/01/01 income               assets:bank:checking            $1            $1
              2008/06/01 gift                 assets:bank:checking            $1            $2
              2008/06/02 save                 assets:bank:checking           $-1            $1
              2008/12/31 pay off              assets:bank:checking           $-1             0

       The  --historical/-H  flag  adds  the  balance  from any undisplayed prior postings to the
       running total.  This is useful  when  you  want  to  see  only  recent  activity,  with  a
       historically accurate running balance:

              $ hledger register checking -b 2008/6 --historical
              2008/06/01 gift                 assets:bank:checking            $1            $2
              2008/06/02 save                 assets:bank:checking           $-1            $1
              2008/12/31 pay off              assets:bank:checking           $-1             0

       The --depth option limits the amount of sub-account detail displayed.

       The  --average/-A  flag  shows  the  running average posting amount instead of the running
       total (so, the final number displayed is the average for the whole report  period).   This
       flag  implies  --empty  (see  below).  It is affected by --historical.  It works best when
       showing just one account and one commodity.

       The --related/-r flag shows the other postings in the transactions of the  postings  which
       would normally be shown.

       With  a reporting interval, register shows summary postings, one per interval, aggregating
       the postings to each account:

              $ hledger register --monthly income
              2008/01                 income:salary                          $-1           $-1
              2008/06                 income:gifts                           $-1           $-2

       Periods with no activity, and summary postings with  a  zero  amount,  are  not  shown  by
       default; use the --empty/-E flag to see them:

              $ hledger register --monthly income -E
              2008/01                 income:salary                          $-1           $-1
              2008/02                                                          0           $-1
              2008/03                                                          0           $-1
              2008/04                                                          0           $-1
              2008/05                                                          0           $-1
              2008/06                 income:gifts                           $-1           $-2
              2008/07                                                          0           $-2
              2008/08                                                          0           $-2
              2008/09                                                          0           $-2
              2008/10                                                          0           $-2
              2008/11                                                          0           $-2
              2008/12                                                          0           $-2

       Often, you'll want to see just one line per interval.  The --depth option helps with this,
       causing subaccounts to be aggregated:

              $ hledger register --monthly assets --depth 1h
              2008/01                 assets                                  $1            $1
              2008/06                 assets                                 $-1             0
              2008/12                 assets                                 $-1           $-1

       Note when using report intervals, if you specify start/end dates these  will  be  adjusted
       outward  if necessary to contain a whole number of intervals.  This ensures that the first
       and last intervals are full length and comparable to the others in the report.

   Custom register output
       register uses the full terminal width by default, except on  windows.   You  can  override
       this  by  setting the COLUMNS environment variable (not a bash shell variable) or by using
       the --width/-w option.

       The description and account columns normally share the space equally (about half of (width
       -  40)  each).   You  can  adjust  this  by adding a description width as part of –width's
       argument, comma-separated: --width W,D .  Here's a diagram:

              <--------------------------------- width (W) ---------------------------------->
              date (10)  description (D)       account (W-41-D)     amount (12)   balance (12)
              DDDDDDDDDD dddddddddddddddddddd  aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa  AAAAAAAAAAAA  AAAAAAAAAAAA

       and some examples:

              $ hledger reg                     # use terminal width (or 80 on windows)
              $ hledger reg -w 100              # use width 100
              $ COLUMNS=100 hledger reg         # set with one-time environment variable
              $ export COLUMNS=100; hledger reg # set till session end (or window resize)
              $ hledger reg -w 100,40           # set overall width 100, description width 40
              $ hledger reg -w $COLUMNS,40      # use terminal width, and set description width

       This command also supports output destination and output format selection.

   register-match
       Print the one posting whose transaction description is closest to DESC, in  the  style  of
       the  register  command.   Helps  ledger-autosync  detect  already-seen  transactions  when
       importing.

   rewrite
       Print all transactions, adding custom postings to the matched ones.

   stats
       Show some journal statistics.

       -o FILE --output-file=FILE
              write output to FILE.  A file extension matching one of the above  formats  selects
              that format.

              $ hledger stats
              Main journal file        : /src/hledger/examples/sample.journal
              Included journal files   :
              Transactions span        : 2008-01-01 to 2009-01-01 (366 days)
              Last transaction         : 2008-12-31 (2333 days ago)
              Transactions             : 5 (0.0 per day)
              Transactions last 30 days: 0 (0.0 per day)
              Transactions last 7 days : 0 (0.0 per day)
              Payees/descriptions      : 5
              Accounts                 : 8 (depth 3)
              Commodities              : 1 ($)

       The stats command displays summary information for the whole journal, or a matched part of
       it.  With a reporting interval, it shows a report for each report period.

       This command also supports output destination and output format selection.

   tags
       List all the tag names used in the journal.  With a  TAGREGEX  argument,  only  tag  names
       matching  the  regular  expression  (case  insensitive)  are shown.  With additional QUERY
       arguments, only transactions matching the query are considered.

   test
       Run built-in unit tests.

              $ hledger test
              Cases: 74  Tried: 74  Errors: 0  Failures: 0

       This command runs hledger's built-in unit tests and  displays  a  quick  report.   With  a
       regular  expression argument, it selects only tests with matching names.  It's mainly used
       in development, but it's also nice to be able to check your hledger executable  for  smoke
       at any time.

ADD-ON COMMANDS

       hledger also searches for external add-on commands, and will include these in the commands
       list.  These are programs or scripts in your PATH whose name starts with hledger- and ends
       with    a    recognised    file   extension   (currently:   no   extension,   bat,com,exe,
       hs,lhs,pl,py,rb,rkt,sh).

       Add-ons can be invoked like any hledger command, but there are a few things  to  be  aware
       of.  Eg if the hledger-web add-on is installed,

       · hledger -h web shows hledger's help, while hledger web -h shows hledger-web's help.

       · Flags  specific  to  the  add-on must have a preceding -- to hide them from hledger.  So
         hledger web --serve --port 9000     will     be     rejected;     you      must      use
         hledger web -- --serve --port 9000.

       · You can always run add-ons directly if preferred: hledger-web --serve --port 9000.

       Add-ons  are  a  relatively  easy  way to add local features or experiment with new ideas.
       They can be written in any language, but haskell scripts have a big  advantage:  they  can
       use  the  same  hledger  (and  haskell)  library  functions that built-in commands do, for
       command-line options, journal parsing, reporting, etc.

       Here are some hledger add-ons available:

   Official add-ons
       These are maintained and released along with hledger.

   api
       hledger-api serves hledger data as a JSON web API.

   ui
       hledger-ui provides an efficient curses-style interface.

   web
       hledger-web provides a simple web interface.

   Third party add-ons
       These are maintained separately, and usually updated shortly after a hledger release.

   diff
       hledger-diff shows differences in an account's transactions between one journal  file  and
       another.

   iadd
       hledger-iadd is a curses-style, more interactive replacement for the add command.

   interest
       hledger-interest  generates  interest  transactions  for  an  account according to various
       schemes.

   irr
       hledger-irr calculates the internal rate of return of an investment account.

   Experimental add-ons
       These are available in source form in the hledger repo's bin/ directory;  installing  them
       is  pretty  easy.  They may be less mature and documented than built-in commands.  Reading
       and tweaking these is a good way to start making your own!

   autosync
       hledger-autosync is a symbolic link for  easily  running  ledger-autosync,  if  installed.
       ledger-autosync  does  deduplicating  conversion of OFX data and some CSV formats, and can
       also download the data if your bank offers OFX Direct Connect.

   chart
       hledger-chart.hs is an old pie chart generator, in need of some love.

   check
       hledger-check.hs checks more powerful account balance assertions.

ENVIRONMENT

       COLUMNS The screen width used by the register command.  Default: the full terminal width.

       LEDGER_FILE The journal file path when not specified with -f.  Default: ~/.hledger.journal
       (on windows, perhaps C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal).

FILES

       Reads  data  from  one or more files in hledger journal, timeclock, timedot, or CSV format
       specified with  -f,  or  $LEDGER_FILE,  or  $HOME/.hledger.journal  (on  windows,  perhaps
       C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal).

BUGS

       The need to precede addon command options with -- when invoked from hledger is awkward.

       When input data contains non-ascii characters, a suitable system locale must be configured
       (or there will be an unhelpful error).  Eg on POSIX, set LANG to something other than C.

       In a Microsoft Windows CMD window, non-ascii characters and colours are not supported.

       In a Cygwin/MSYS/Mintty window, the tab key is not supported in hledger add.

       Not all of Ledger's journal file syntax is supported.  See file format differences.

       On large data files, hledger is slower and uses more memory than Ledger.

TROUBLESHOOTING

       Here are some issues you might encounter when you run hledger (and remember you  can  also
       seek help from the IRC channel, mail list or bug tracker):

       Successfully installed, but “No command `hledger' found”
       stack  and  cabal install binaries into a special directory, which should be added to your
       PATH environment variable.  Eg on unix-like systems, that is ~/.local/bin and ~/.cabal/bin
       respectively.

       I set a custom LEDGER_FILE, but hledger is still using the default file
       LEDGER_FILE should be a real environment variable, not just a shell variable.  The command
       env | grep LEDGER_FILE  should  show  it.   You  may  need  to  use  export.   Here's   an
       explanation.

       “Illegal byte sequence” or “Invalid or incomplete multibyte or wide character” errors
       In  order  to  handle non-ascii letters and symbols (like £), hledger needs an appropriate
       locale.  This is usually configured system-wide; you can also  configure  it  temporarily.
       The locale may need to be one that supports UTF-8, if you built hledger with GHC < 7.2 (or
       possibly always, I'm not sure yet).

       Here's an example of setting the locale temporarily, on ubuntu gnu/linux:

              $ file my.journal
              my.journal: UTF-8 Unicode text                 # <- the file is UTF8-encoded
              $ locale -a
              C
              en_US.utf8                             # <- a UTF8-aware locale is available
              POSIX
              $ LANG=en_US.utf8 hledger -f my.journal print   # <- use it for this command

       Here's one way to set it permanently, there are probably better ways:

              $ echo "export LANG=en_US.UTF-8" >>~/.bash_profile
              $ bash --login

       If we preferred to use eg fr_FR.utf8, we might have to install that first:

              $ apt-get install language-pack-fr
              $ locale -a
              C
              en_US.utf8
              fr_BE.utf8
              fr_CA.utf8
              fr_CH.utf8
              fr_FR.utf8
              fr_LU.utf8
              POSIX
              $ LANG=fr_FR.utf8 hledger -f my.journal print

       Note  some  platforms  allow  variant  locale  spellings,  but  not  all  (ubuntu  accepts
       fr_FR.UTF8, mac osx requires exactly fr_FR.UTF-8).

REPORTING BUGS

       Report  bugs  at  http://bugs.hledger.org  (or on the #hledger IRC channel or hledger mail
       list)

AUTHORS

       Simon Michael <simon@joyful.com> and contributors

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright (C) 2007-2016 Simon Michael.
       Released under GNU GPL v3 or later.

SEE ALSO

       hledger(1),     hledger-ui(1),     hledger-web(1),     hledger-api(1),     hledger_csv(5),
       hledger_journal(5), hledger_timeclock(5), hledger_timedot(5), ledger(1)

       http://hledger.org