Provided by: latexmk_4.65-0.2_all bug

NAME

       latexmk - generate LaTeX document

SYNOPSIS

       latexmk [options] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION

       Latexmk  completely  automates the process of compiling a LaTeX document.  Essentially, it
       is like a specialized relative of the general  make  utility,  but  one  which  determines
       dependencies  automatically and has some other very useful features.  In its basic mode of
       operation latexmk is given the name of the primary source file  for  a  document,  and  it
       issues  the appropriate sequence of commands to generate a .dvi, .ps, .pdf and/or hardcopy
       version of the document.

       By default latexmk will run the commands necessary to generate a .dvi file.

       Latexmk can also be set to run continuously with a suitable previewer.  In that  case  the
       latex  program  (or one of its relatives), etc, are rerun whenever one of the source files
       is modified, and the previewer automatically updates the on-screen view  of  the  compiled
       document.

       Latexmk  determines which are the source files by examining the log file.  (Optionally, it
       also examines the list of input and output files generated  by  the  -recorder  option  of
       modern  versions  of  latex (and pdflatex, xelatex, lualatex, etc).  See the documentation
       for the -recorder option of latexmk below.)  When latexmk is run, it  examines  properties
       of  the  source  files,  and  if any have been changed since the last document generation,
       latexmk will run the various LaTeX processing programs as necessary.   In  particular,  it
       will  repeat  the  run  of latex (or a related program)) often enough to resolve all cross
       references; depending on the macro packages used.  With some macro packages  and  document
       classes,  four,  or  even  more,  runs  may be needed. If necessary, latexmk will also run
       bibtex, biber, and/or makeindex.  In addition, latexmk can be configured to generate other
       necessary files.  For example, from an updated figure file it can automatically generate a
       file in encapsulated postscript or another suitable format for reading by LaTeX.

       Latexmk has two different  previewing  options.   With  the  simple  -pv  option,  a  dvi,
       postscript  or  pdf previewer is automatically run after generating the dvi, postscript or
       pdf version of the  document.   The  type  of  file  to  view  is  selected  according  to
       configuration settings and command line options.

       The   second   previewing   option   is  the  powerful  -pvc  option  (mnemonic:  "preview
       continuously").  In this case, latexmk runs continuously,  regularly  monitoring  all  the
       source  files  to  see if any have changed.  Every time a change is detected, latexmk runs
       all the programs necessary to generate a new version of the document.   A  good  previewer
       will  then  automatically  update  its display.  Thus the user can simply edit a file and,
       when the changes are written to disk, latexmk completely automates the cycle  of  updating
       the .dvi (and/or the .ps and .pdf) file, and refreshing the previewer's display.  It's not
       quite WYSIWYG, but usefully close.

       For other previewers, the user may have to manually make the previewer update its display,
       which  can  be (e.g., with some versions of xdvi and gsview) as simple as forcing a redraw
       of its display.

       Latexmk has the ability to print a banner in gray diagonally across each page when  making
       the  postscript  file.   It  can  also,  if  needed,  call an external program to do other
       postprocessing on generated dvi and postscript files.  (See the options -dF and  -pF,  and
       the  documentation  for  the  $dvi_filter  and $ps_filter configuration variables.)  These
       capabilities are  leftover  from  older  versions  of  latexmk,  but  are  currently  non-
       functional.   More  flexibility  can  be  obtained  in current versions, since the command
       strings for running latex, pdflatex, etc can now be configured to run  multiple  commands.
       This also extends the possibility of postprocessing generated files.

       Latexmk  is highly configurable, both from the command line and in configuration files, so
       that it can accommodate a wide variety of user needs and system  configurations.   Default
       values  are  set according to the operating system, so latexmk often works without special
       configuration on MS-Windows, cygwin, Linux, OS-X, and other UNIX systems.  See the section
       "Configuration/Initialization  (rc)  Files",  and  then  the  later  sections  "How to Set
       Variables  in  Initialization  Files",  "Format  of  Command  Specifications",  "List   of
       Configuration  Variables  Usable  in  Initialization  Files",  "Custom  Dependencies", and
       "Advanced Configuration"

       A very annoying complication handled very reliably by latexmk, is that LaTeX is a multiple
       pass  system.   On  each  run, LaTeX reads in information generated on a previous run, for
       things like cross referencing and indexing.  In the simplest cases, a second run of  LaTeX
       suffices,  and  often  the  log  file  contains a message about the need for another pass.
       However, there is a wide variety of add-on macro packages to  LaTeX,  with  a  variety  of
       behaviors.   The  result  is  to  break  simple-minded determinations of how many runs are
       needed and of which programs.  Latexmk has a highly  general  and  efficient  solution  to
       these  issues.   The  solution  involves  retaining between runs information on the source
       files, and a symptom is that latexmk generates an extra file (with extension .fdb_latexmk,
       by default) that contains the source file information.

LATEXMK OPTIONS AND ARGUMENTS ON COMMAND LINE

       In general the command line to invoke latexmk has the form

            latexmk [options] [file]

       All options can be introduced by single or double "-" characters, e.g., "latexmk -help" or
       "latexmk --help".

       Note 1: In addition to the options in the list below, latexmk recognizes  almost  all  the
       options  recognized by the latex, pdflatex programs (and their relatives) in their current
       TeXLive and MiKTeX implementations.  Some of the options for these programs  also  trigger
       special  action  or  behavior by latexmk, in which case they have specific explanations in
       this document.  Otherwise, they are just passed through to  a  called  latex  or  pdflatex
       program.  Run latexmk with the -showextraoptions to get a list of the options that latexmk
       accepts and that are simply passed through to latex  or  pdflatex  (etc).   See  also  the
       explanation of the -showextraoptions option for more information.

       Note  2:  In  this  documentation,  the  program  pdflatex is often referred to.  Users of
       programs like lualatex and xelatex should know that from latexmk's point  of  view,  these
       other programs behave very like pdflatex, i.e., they make a pdf file from a tex file, etc.
       So whenever pdflatex is mentioned without mention of the other  programs,  the  statements
       apply equally to lualatex, xelatex, and any other similar programs.  Latexmk can be easily
       configured to use whichever of these programs is needed.  See the  documentation  for  the
       following   options:   -pdflua,   -pdfxe,  -lualatex,  and  -xelatex,  and  also  see  the
       documentation for the $pdflatex, $lualatex,  and  $xelatex  configuration  variables.   At
       present latexmk does not do automatic detection of which program is to be used.

       Definitions of options and arguments

       file   One  or  more  files can be specified.  If no files are specified, latexmk will, by
              default, run on all files in the current working directory with a ".tex" extension.
              This  behavior  can  be  changed: see the description concerning the @default_files
              variable in the section "List of configuration variables usable  in  initialization
              files".

              If  a  file  is  specified  without  an  extension,  then  the  ".tex" extension is
              automatically added, just as LaTeX does.  Thus, if you specify:

                   latexmk foo

              then latexmk will operate on the file "foo.tex".

              There are certain restrictions on what characters can be  in  a  filename;  certain
              characters  are either prohibited or problematic for the latex etc programs.  These
              characters are: "$", "%", "\", "~", the double quote  character,  and  the  control
              characters  null,  tab,  form  feed,  carriage  return,  line feed, and delete.  In
              addition "&" is prohibited when it is the first character of a filename.

              Latexmk gives a fatal error when it detects any of the above characters in the  TeX
              filename(s)  specified  on  the  command  line.  However before testing for illegal
              characters, latexmk removes matching pairs of double quotes from a filename.   This
              matches the behavior of latex etc, and deals with problems that occasionally result
              from filenames that have been incorrectly quoted on the command line.  In addition,
              under  Microsoft Windows, the forward slash character "\" is a directory separator,
              so latexmk replaces it by a backward slash "/", which is  also  a  legal  directory
              separator in Windows, and is accepted by latex etc.

       -auxdir=FOO or -aux-directory=FOO
              Sets the directory for auxiliary output files of (pdf)latex (.aux, .log etc).  This
              achieves its effect by the -aux-directory option of (pdf)latex, which currently  is
              only implemented on the MiKTeX version of (pdf)latex.

              See  also  the  -outdir/-output-directory  options, and the $aux_dir, $out_dir, and
              $search_path_separator configuration variables of latexmk.  In particular, see  the
              documentation  of  $out_dir  for  some  complications  on  what directory names are
              suitable.

              If you also use the -cd option, and the specified auxiliary output directory  is  a
              relative path, then the path is interpreted relative to the document directory.

       -bibtex
              When the source file uses bbl files for bibliography, run bibtex or biber as needed
              to regenerate the bbl files.

              This property can also be configured by setting the $bibtex_use variable to 2 in  a
              configuration file.

       -bibtex-
              Never run bibtex or biber.  Also, always treat .bbl files as precious, i.e., do not
              delete them in a cleanup operation.

              A common use for this option is when a document  comes  from  an  external  source,
              complete  with  its  bbl  file(s), and the user does not have the corresponding bib
              files available.  In this situation use of the -bibtex- option will prevent latexmk
              from  trying  to  run bibtex or biber, which would result in overwriting of the bbl
              files.

              This property can also be configured by setting the $bibtex_use variable to 0 in  a
              configuration file.

       -bibtex-cond
              When  the source file uses bbl file(s) for the bibliography, run bibtex or biber as
              needed to regenerate the bbl files, but only if the  relevant  bib  file(s)  exist.
              Thus  when  the  bib  files  are not available, bibtex or biber is not run, thereby
              avoiding overwriting of  the  bbl  file(s).   Also,  always  treat  .bbl  files  as
              precious, i.e., do not delete them in a cleanup operation.

              This  is the default setting.  It can also be configured by setting the $bibtex_use
              variable to 1 in a configuration file.

              The reason for using this setting is  that  sometimes  a  .bbl  file  is  available
              containing the bibliography for a document, but the .bib file is not available.  An
              example would be for a scientific journal where authors submit .tex and .bbl files,
              but  not  the  original .bib file.  In that case, running bibtex or biber would not
              work, and the .bbl file should be treated as a user source file, and not as a  file
              that can be regenerated on demand.

              (Note  that  it is possible for latexmk to decide that the bib file does not exist,
              even though the bib file does exist and bibtex or biber finds it.  The  problem  is
              that  the bib file may not be in the current directory but in some search path; the
              places latexmk and bibtex or biber cause to be searched need not be identical.   On
              modern  installations  of  TeX  and related programs this problem should not arise,
              since latexmk uses the kpsewhich program to do the search, and kpsewhich should use
              the  same search path as bibtex and biber.  If this problem arises, use the -bibtex
              option when invoking latexmk.)

              Note that this value does not work properly if the document uses biber  instead  of
              bibtex.  (There's a long story why not.)

       -bibtex-cond1
              The  same  as  -bibtex-cond1 except that .bbl files are only treated as precious if
              one or more bibfiles fails to exist.

              Thus if all the bib files exist, bibtex or biber is run to generate .bbl  files  as
              needed,  and  then it is appropriate to delete the bbl files in a cleanup operation
              since they can be re-generated.

              This property can also be configured by setting the $bibtex_use variable to 1.5  in
              a configuration file.

       -bm <message>
              A  banner message to print diagonally across each page when converting the dvi file
              to postscript.  The message must be a single argument on the  command  line  so  be
              careful with quoting spaces and such.

              Note that if the -bm option is specified, the -ps option is assumed.

       -bi <intensity>
              How  dark  to  print  the  banner message.  A decimal number between 0 and 1.  0 is
              black and 1 is white.  The default is 0.95, which is OK unless your toner cartridge
              is getting low.

       -bs <scale>
              A  decimal  number  that  specifies  how  large the banner message will be printed.
              Experimentation is necessary to get the right scale for your message, as a rule  of
              thumb  the  scale should be about equal to 1100 divided by the number of characters
              in the message.  The default is 220.0 which is just right for 5 character messages.

       -commands
              List the commands used by latexmk for processing files, and then exit.

       -c     Clean up (remove) all regeneratable files generated by latex and  bibtex  or  biber
              except  dvi,  postscript  and pdf.  These files are a combination of log files, aux
              files,  latexmk's  database  file  of  source  file  information,  and  those  with
              extensions  specified  in the @generated_exts configuration variable.  In addition,
              files specified by the $clean_ext and @generated_exts configuration  variables  are
              removed.

              This  cleanup is instead of a regular make.  See the -gg option if you want to do a
              cleanup then a make.

              Treatment of .bbl files:  If $bibtex_use is set to 0 or 1,  bbl  files  are  always
              treated  as non-regeneratable.  If $bibtex_use is set to 1.5, bbl files are counted
              as non-regeneratable conditionally: If the bib file  exists,  then  bbl  files  are
              regeneratable,  and are deleted in a clean up.  But if $bibtex_use is 1.5 and a bib
              file doesn't exist, then the bbl files are treated as non-regeneratable  and  hence
              are not deleted.

              In  contrast,  if  $bibtex_use  is  set  to  2,  bbl  files  are  always treated as
              regeneratable, and are deleted in a cleanup.

              Treatment     of     files     generated     by     custom     dependencies:     If
              $cleanup_includes_cusdep_generated  is  nonzero, regeneratable files are considered
              as  including  those  generated  by  custom  dependencies  and  are  also  deleted.
              Otherwise these files are not deleted.

       -C     Clean  up  (remove) all regeneratable files generated by latex and bibtex or biber.
              This is the same as the -c option with the addition  of  dvi,  postscript  and  pdf
              files, and those specified in the $clean_full_ext configuration variable.

              This  cleanup is instead of a regular make.  See the -gg option if you want to do a
              cleanup than a make.

              See the -c option for the specification of whether or not .bbl files are treated as
              non-regeneratable or regeneratable.

              If   $cleanup_includes_cusdep_generated   is   nonzero,   regeneratable  files  are
              considered as including  those  generated  by  custom  dependencies  and  are  also
              deleted.  Otherwise these files are not deleted.

       -CA    (Obsolete).  Now equivalent to the -C option.  See that option for details.

       -cd    Change to the directory containing the main source file before processing it.  Then
              all the generated files (.aux, .log, .dvi, .pdf,  etc)  will  be  relative  to  the
              source file.

              This option is particularly useful when latexmk is invoked from a GUI configured to
              invoke latexmk with a full pathname for the source file.

              This option works by setting the $do_cd configuration variable to one; you can  set
              that variable if you want to configure latexmk to have the effect of the -cd option
              without specifying it  on  the  command  line.   See  the  documentation  for  that
              variable.

       -cd-   Do  NOT  change  to the directory containing the main source file before processing
              it.  Then all the generated files (.aux, .log, .dvi, .pdf, etc) will be relative to
              the current directory rather than the source file.

              This  is  the  default  behavior  and  corresponds to the behavior of the latex and
              pdflatex programs.  However, it is not desirable behavior when latexmk  is  invoked
              by  a  GUI  configured  to invoke latexmk with a full pathname for the source file.
              See the -cd option.

              This option works by setting the $do_cd configuration variable to  zero.   See  the
              documentation for that variable for more information.

       -CF    Remove  the  file  containing the database of source file information, before doing
              the other actions requested.

       -d     Set draft mode.  This prints the banner  message  "DRAFT"  across  your  page  when
              converting the dvi file to postscript.  Size and intensity can be modified with the
              -bs and -bi options.  The -bm option will override this option as  this  is  really
              just a short way of specifying:

                   latexmk -bm DRAFT

              Note that if the -d option is specified, the -ps option is assumed.

       -deps  Show  a  list  of  dependent  files  after  processing.   This  is in the form of a
              dependency list of the form used by the make program, and it is therefore  suitable
              for  use  in  a  Makefile.   It  gives an overall view of the files without listing
              intermediate files, as well as latexmk can determine them.

              By default the list of dependent files is sent to stdout  (i.e.,  normally  to  the
              screen  unless  you've  redirected  latexmk's output). But you can set the filename
              where the list is sent by the -deps-out= option.

              See the section "USING latexmk WITH make" for an example of how to use a dependency
              list with make.

              Users  familiar  with  GNU automake and gcc will find that the -deps option is very
              similar in its purpose and results to the -M option to gcc.  (In fact, latexmk also
              has options -M, -MF, and -MP options that behave like those of gcc.)

       -dependents
              Equivalent to -deps.

       -deps- Do not show a list of dependent files after processing.  (This is the default.)

       -dependents-
              Equivalent to -deps-.

       -deps-out=FILENAME
              Set  the filename to which the list of dependent files is written.  If the FILENAME
              argument is omitted or set to "-", then the output is sent to stdout.

              Use of this option also turns on the output of the list of  dependent  files  after
              processing.

       -dF    Dvi  file filtering.  The argument to this option is a filter which will generate a
              filtered  dvi  file  with  the  extension  ".dviF".   All  extra  processing  (e.g.
              conversion  to  postscript,  preview,  printing)  will  then  be  performed on this
              filtered dvi file.

              Example usage: To use dviselect to select only the even pages of the dvi file:

                   latexmk -dF "dviselect even" foo.tex

       -diagnostics
              Print detailed diagnostics during a run.  This may help for debugging  problems  or
              to understand latexmk's behavior in difficult situations.

       -dvi   Generate dvi version of document.

       -dvi-  Turn  off generation of dvi version of document.  (This may get overridden, if some
              other file is made (e.g., a .ps file) that is generated from the dvi file, or if no
              generated file at all is requested.)

       -e <code>
              Execute the specified initialization code before processing.  The code is Perl code
              of the same form as is used in latexmk's initialization files.  For  more  details,
              see    the    information    on    the   -r   option,   and   the   section   about
              "Configuration/initialization (RC) files".  The code is  typically  a  sequence  of
              assignment statements separated by semicolons.

              The  code is executed when the -e option is encountered during latexmk's parsing of
              its command line.  See the -r option for a way  of  executing  initialization  code
              from  a  file.  An error results in latexmk stopping.  Multiple instances of the -r
              and -e options can be used, and they are executed in the order they appear  on  the
              command line.

              Some  care  is needed to deal with proper quoting of special characters in the code
              on the command line.  For example, suppose you want to set the latex command to use
              its -shell-escape option, then under UNIX/Linux you could use the line

                   latexmk -e '$latex=q/latex %O -shell-escape %S/' file.tex

              Note  that  the  single quotes block normal UNIX/Linux command shells from treating
              the characters inside  the  quotes  as  special.   (In  this  example,  the  q/.../
              construct  is  a  Perl  idiom  equivalent  to using single quotes.  This avoids the
              complications of getting a quote character inside an already quoted string in a way
              that is independent of both the shell and the operating-system.)

              The  above  command line will NOT work under MS-Windows with cmd.exe or command.com
              or 4nt.exe.  For MS-Windows with these command shells you could use

                   latexmk -e "$latex=q/latex %O -shell-escape %S/" file.tex

              or

                   latexmk -e "$latex='latex %O -shell-escape %S'" file.tex

              The last two examples will NOT work with UNIX/Linux command shells.

              (Note: the above  examples  show  are  to  show  how  to  use  the  -e  to  specify
              initialization code to be executed.  But the particular effect can be achieved also
              by the use of the -latex option with less problems in dealing with quoting.)

       -f     Force latexmk to continue  document  processing  despite  errors.   Normally,  when
              latexmk  detects that LaTeX or another program has found an error which will not be
              resolved by further processing, no further processing is carried out.

              Note: "Further processing" means the running of other programs or the rerunning  of
              latex  (etc)  that  would  be  done  if  no  errors  had  occurred.  If instead, or
              additionally, you want the latex (etc) program not to pause for user input after an
              error, you should arrange this by an option that is passed to the program, e.g., by
              latexmk's option -interaction=nonstopmode.

       -f-    Turn off the forced processing-past-errors such as is set by the -f  option.   This
              could be used to override a setting in a configuration file.

       -g     Force  latexmk to process document fully, even under situations where latexmk would
              normally decide that no changes  in  the  source  files  have  occurred  since  the
              previous  run.   This option is useful, for example, if you change some options and
              wish to reprocess the files.

       -g-    Turn off -g.

       -gg    "Super go mode" or "clean make": clean out generated files as if -C had been given,
              and then do a regular make.

       -h, -help
              Print help information.

       -jobname=STRING
              Set the basename of output files(s) to STRING, instead of the default, which is the
              basename of the specified  TeX  file.   (At  present,  STRING  should  not  contain
              spaces.)

              This  is  like  the same option for current implementations of the latex, pdflatex,
              etc, and the passing of  this  option  to  these  programs  is  part  of  latexmk's
              implementation of -jobname.

              There  is  one  enhancement, that the STRING may contain the placeholder '%A'. This
              will be substituted by the basename of the TeX file.  The primary purpose  is  when
              multiple  files are specified on the command line to latexmk, and you wish to use a
              jobname with a different file-dependent value for each file.  For example,  suppose
              you  had  .tex files test1.tex and test2.tex, and you wished to compare the results
              of compilation by  pdflatex  and  those  with  xelatex.   Then  under  a  unix-type
              operating system you could use the command line

                  latexmk -pdf -jobname=%A-pdflatex *.tex
                  latexmk -pdfxe -jobname=%A-xelatex *.tex

              Then  the  .aux, .log, and .pdf files from the use of pdflatex would have basenames
              test1-pdflatex and test2-pdflatex, while  from  xelatex,  the  basenames  would  be
              test1-xelatex and test2-xelatex.

              Under  MS-Windows  with cmd.exe, you would need to double the percent sign, so that
              the percent character is passed to latexmk rather than being used to substitute  an
              environment variable:

                  latexmk -pdf -jobname=%%A-pdflatex *.tex
                  latexmk -pdfxe -jobname=%%A-xelatex *.tex

       -l     Run  in  landscape mode, using the landscape mode for the previewers and the dvi to
              postscript converters.  This option is not normally needed nowadays, since  current
              previewers normally determine this information automatically.

       -l-    Turn off -l.

       -latex="COMMAND"
              This  sets the string specifying the command to run latex, and is typically used to
              add desired options.  Since the string  normally  contains  spaces,  it  should  be
              quoted, e.g.,

                   latexmk -latex="latex --shell-escape %O %S"  foo.tex

              The  specification  of  the  contents  of the string are the same as for the $latex
              configuration variable.  Depending on your operating system  and  the  command-line
              shell  you are using, you may need to change the single quotes to double quotes (or
              something else).

              To set the command for running pdflatex (rather than the command for latex) see the
              -pdflatex option.

       -logfilewarninglist
              -logfilewarnings After a run of (pdf)latex, give a list of warnings about undefined
              citations and references (unless silent mode is on).

              See also the $silence_logfile_warnings configuration variable.

       -logfilewarninglist-
              -logfilewarnings- After a run of (pdf)latex, do not give a list of  warnings  about
              undefined citations and references.  (Default)

              See also the $silence_logfile_warnings configuration variable.

       -lualatex
              Use  lualatex.   That  is,  use lualatex to process the source file(s) to pdf.  The
              generation of dvi and postscript files is turned off.

              This option is equivalent to using the following set of options


                   -pdflua -dvi- -ps-
              (Note: Note that the method of implementation of this option, but not its  intended
              effect, differ from some earlier versions of latexmk.)

       -M     Show  list  of  dependent  files after processing.  This is equivalent to the -deps
              option.

       -MF file
              If a list of dependents is made, the -MF specifies the file to write it to.

       -MP    If a list of dependents is made, include a phony target for each source  file.   If
              you  use  the dependents list in a Makefile, the dummy rules work around errors the
              program make gives if you remove header files  without  updating  the  Makefile  to
              match.

       -new-viewer
              When  in  continuous-preview  mode, always start a new viewer to view the generated
              file.  By default, latexmk will, in continuous-preview mode, test for a  previously
              running previewer for the same file and not start a new one if a previous previewer
              is running.  However, its test sometimes fails (notably if  there  is  an  already-
              running  previewer that is viewing a file of the same name as the current file, but
              in a different directory).  This option turns off the default behavior.

       -new-viewer-
              The inverse of the -new-viewer option.  It puts latexmk in its normal behavior that
              in preview-continuous mode it checks for an already-running previewer.

       -nobibtex
              Never run bibtex or biber.  Equivalent to the -bibtex- option.

       -norc  Turn off the automatic reading of initialization (rc) files.

              N.B.  Normally  the initialization files are read and obeyed, and then command line
              options are obeyed in the order they are encountered.  But -norc is an exception to
              this rule: it is acted on first, no matter where it occurs on the command line.

       -outdir=FOO or -output-directory=FOO

              Sets the directory for the output files of (pdf)latex.  This achieves its effect by
              the -output-directory option of (pdf)latex, which currently (Dec. 2011  and  later)
              is  implemented on the common versions of (pdf)latex, i.e., MiKTeX and TeXLive.  It
              may not be present in other versions.

              See also the  -auxdir/-aux-directory  options,  and  the  $aux_dir,  $out_dir,  and
              $search_path_separator  configuration variables of latexmk.  In particular, see the
              documentation of $out_dir for  some  complications  on  what  directory  names  are
              suitable.

              If  you  also  use the -cd option, and the specified output directory is a relative
              path, then the path is interpreted relative to the document directory.

       -p     Print out the document.  By default the file to be printed is the first in the list
              postscript,  pdf, dvi that is being made.  But you can use the -print=... option to
              change the type of file to be printed, and you can configure this  in  a  start  up
              file (by setting the $print_type variable).

              However,  printing  is  enabled by default only under UNIX/Linux systems, where the
              default is to use the lpr command and only on postscript files.   In  general,  the
              correct  behavior  for  printing  very  much depends on your system's software.  In
              particular, under MS-Windows you must have suitable program(s) available,  and  you
              must  have configured the print commands used by latexmk.  This can be non-trivial.
              See the documentation on the $lpr, $lpr_dvi, and $lpr_pdf  configuration  variables
              to see how to set the commands for printing.

              This option is incompatible with the -pv and -pvc options, so it turns them off.

       -pdf   Generate  pdf  version of document using pdflatex.  (If you wish to use lualatex or
              xelatex, you can use  whichever  of  the  options  -pdflua,  -pdfxe,  -lualatex  or
              -xelatex  applies.)  To configure latexmk to have such behavior by default, see the
              section on "Configuration/initialization (rc) files".

       -pdfdvi
              Generate pdf version of document from the dvi file, by default using dvipdf.

       -pdflua
              Generate pdf version of document using lualatex.

       -pdfps Generate pdf version of document from the .ps file, by default using ps2pdf.

       -pdfxe Generate pdf version of document using xelatex.  Note that to  optimize  processing
              time,  latexmk  uses  xelatex  to  generate  an  .xdv  file  rather than a pdf file
              directly.  Only after possibly multiple runs to generate a  fully  up-to-date  .xdv
              file does latexmk then call xdvipdfmx to generate the final .pdf file.

              (Note:  When the document includes large graphics files, especially .png files, the
              last step can be quite time consuming, even when the creation of the .xdv  file  by
              xelatex  is  fast.   So  the  use  of  the  intermediate  .xdv  file  can result in
              substantial gains in procesing time, since the .pdf file is  produced  once  rather
              than on every run of xelatex. See the documentation on the -pdfxe option for why an
              .xdv file is used.

       -pdf-  Turn off generation of pdf version of document.  (This can be used  to  override  a
              setting  in  a  configuration  file.   It  may  get overridden if some other option
              requires the generation of a pdf file.)

              If after all options have been processed, pdf generation is still turned off,  then
              generation of a dvi file will be turned on, and then the program used to compiled a
              document will be latex (or, more precisely, whatever program is  configured  to  be
              used in the $latex configuration variable).

       -pdflatex="COMMAND"
              This  sets the string specifying the command to run pdflatex, and is typically used
              to add desired options.  Since the string normally contains spaces,  it  should  be
              quoted, e.g.,

                   latexmk -pdf -pdflatex="pdflatex --shell-escape %O %S"  foo.tex

              The  specification  of the contents of the string are the same as for the $pdflatex
              configuration  variable.   (The  option  -pdflatex  in  fact  sets   the   variable
              $pdflatex.)   Depending on your operating system and the command-line shell you are
              using, you may need to change the single quotes  to  double  quotes  (or  something
              else).

              To set the command for running latex (rather than the command for pdflatex) see the
              -latex option.

       -pdflualatex="COMMAND"
              This sets the string specifying the command to run lualatex.  It behaves  like  the
              -pdflatex option, but sets the variable $lualatex.

       -pdfxelatex="COMMAND"
              This  sets  the  string specifying the command to run xelatex.  It behaves like the
              -pdflatex option, but sets the variable $xelatex.

              Warning: It is important to ensure  that  the  -no-pdf  is  used  when  xelatex  is
              invoked;  see  the explanation for the variable $xelatex for why this is necessary.
              If you provide %O in the command specification, this will be done automatically.

              An example of the use of the -pdfxelatex option:

                   latexmk -pdfxe -pdfxelatex="xelatex --shell-escape %O %S"  foo.tex

       -pretex=CODE

              Given that CODE is some TeX code, this options sets that code to be executed before
              inputting  source  file.   This only works if the command for invoking the relevant
              *latex  is  suitably  configured.   See   the   documentation   of   the   variable
              $pre_tex_code,  and  the  substitution  strings  %P  and %U for more details.  This
              option works by setting the variable $pre_tex_code.

              See also the -usepretex option.

              An example:

                  latexmk -pretex='\AtBeginDocument{Message\par}' -usepretex foo.tex

              But this is better written

                  latexmk -usepretex='\AtBeginDocument{Message\par}' foo.tex

              If you already have a suitable command configured, you only need

                  latexmk -pretex='\AtBeginDocument{Message\par}' foo.tex

       -print=dvi, -print=ps, -print=pdf, -print=auto,
              Define which kind of file is printed.  This option also ensures that the  requisite
              file is made, and turns on printing.

              The (default) case -print=auto determines the kind of print file automatically from
              the set of files that is being made.  The first in the list  postscript,  pdf,  dvi
              that is among the files to be made is the one used for print out.

       -ps    Generate postscript version of document.

       -ps-   Turn  off  generation  of  postscript  version  of  document.   This can be used to
              override a setting in a configuration file.  (It may get overridden by  some  other
              option that requires a postscript file, for example a request for printing.)

       -pF    Postscript  file  filtering.   The  argument  to this option is a filter which will
              generate  a  filtered  postscript  file  with  the  extension  ".psF".   All  extra
              processing  (e.g.  preview,  printing)  will  then  be  performed  on this filtered
              postscript file.

              Example of usage: Use psnup to print two pages on the one page:

                   latexmk -ps -pF 'psnup -2' foo.tex

              or

                   latexmk -ps -pF "psnup -2" foo.tex

              Whether to use single or double quotes round the "psnup -2"  will  depend  on  your
              command  interpreter,  as  used by the particular version of perl and the operating
              system on your computer.

       -pv    Run file previewer.  If the -view option is used, this will select the kind of file
              to be previewed (.dvi, .ps or .pdf).  Otherwise the viewer views the "highest" kind
              of file selected, by the -dvi, -ps, -pdf, -pdfps options, in the order  .dvi,  .ps,
              .pdf  (low  to high).  If no file type has been selected, the dvi previewer will be
              used.  This option is incompatible with the -p and -pvc options, so it  turns  them
              off.

       -pv-   Turn off -pv.

       -pvc   Run  a  file  previewer  and  continually  update  the .dvi, .ps, and/or .pdf files
              whenever changes are made to source files (see the Description  above).   Which  of
              these  files is generated and which is viewed is governed by the other options, and
              is the same as for the -pv option.  The preview-continuous  option  -pvc  can  only
              work with one file.  So in this case you will normally only specify one filename on
              the command line.  It is also incompatible with the -p and -pv options, so it turns
              these options off.

              The  -pvc option also turns off force mode (-f), as is normally best for continuous
              preview mode.  If you really want force mode, use the options in the order -pvc -f.

              With a good previewer the display will be automatically updated.  (Under  some  but
              not all versions of UNIX/Linux "gv -watch" does this for postscript files; this can
              be set by a configuration variable.  This would also work for pdf files except  for
              an  apparent  bug  in  gv  that  causes an error when the newly updated pdf file is
              read.)  Many other previewers will need a manual update.

              Important note: the acroread program on MS-Windows locks the pdf file, and prevents
              new  versions  being written, so it is a bad idea to use acroread to view pdf files
              in preview-continuous mode.  It is better to use a different viewer: SumatraPDF and
              gsview are good possibilities.

              There  are  some  other  methods  for  arranging an update, notably useful for many
              versions of xdvi and xpdf.  These are best  set  in  latexmk's  configuration;  see
              below.

              Note  that  if  latexmk dies or is stopped by the user, the "forked" previewer will
              continue to run.  Successive invocations with the -pvc option  will  not  fork  new
              previewers,  but  latexmk will normally use the existing previewer.  (At least this
              will happen when latexmk is running under an operating system where it knows how to
              determine whether an existing previewer is running.)

       -pvc-  Turn off -pvc.

       -pvctimeout
              Do  timeout  in  pvc  mode after period of inactivity, which is 30 min. by default.
              Inactivity means a period when latexmk has detected no file changes and  hence  has
              not taken any actions like compiling the document.

       -pvctimeout-
              Don't do timeout in pvc mode after inactivity.

       -pvctimeoutmins=<time>
              Set period of inactivity in minutes for pvc timeout.

       -quiet Same as -silent

       -r <rcfile>
              Read the specified initialization file ("RC file") before processing.

              Be careful about the ordering: (1) Standard initialization files -- see the section
              below on "Configuration/initialization (RC) files" -- are read first.  (2) Then the
              options on the command line are acted on in the order they are given.  Therefore if
              an initialization file is specified by the -r option, it is read during this second
              step.   Thus  an initialization file specified with the -r option can override both
              the standard initialization files and previously specified  options.   But  all  of
              these can be overridden by later options.

              The  contents  of the RC file just comprise a piece of code in the Perl programming
              language (typically a sequence of assignment statements); they  are  executed  when
              the -r option is encountered during latexmk's parsing of its command line.  See the
              -e option for a way of giving initialization code  directly  on  latexmk's  command
              line.   An  error results in latexmk stopping.  Multiple instances of the -r and -e
              options can be used, and they are executed in the order they appear on the  command
              line.

       -recorder
              Give  the  -recorder  option with latex and pdflatex.  In (most) modern versions of
              these programs, this results in a file of extension .fls containing a list  of  the
              files  that  these programs have read and written.  Latexmk will then use this file
              to improve its detection of source files and generated files after a run  of  latex
              or  pdflatex.   This  is  the  default  setting of latexmk, unless overridden in an
              initialization file.

              For further information, see the  documentation  for  the  $recorder  configuration
              variable.

       -recorder-
              Do not supply the -recorder option with latex and pdflatex.

       -rules Show a list of latemk's rules and dependencies after processing.

       -rules-
              Do  not show a list of latexmk's rules and dependencies after processing.  (This is
              the default.)

       -showextraoptions
              Show the list of extra latex and pdflatex options that latexmk recognizes, but that
              it  simply  passes through to the programs latex, pdflatex, etc  when they are run.
              These options are (currently) a combination of those allowed  by  the  TeXLive  and
              MiKTeX  implementations.   (If  a  particular option is given to latexmk but is not
              handled by the particular implementation of latex or pdflatex that is  being  used,
              that  program  will  probably  give  an  error  message.)   These  options are very
              numerous, but are not listed in this documentation because they have no  effect  on
              latexmk's actions.

              There  are  a  few  options (-includedirectory=dir, -initialize, -ini) that are not
              recognized, either because they don't fit with latexmk's  intended  operations,  or
              because  they  need special processing by latexmk that isn't implemented (at least,
              not yet).

              There are also options that are accepted by latex etc, but instead trigger  actions
              by latexmk: -help, -version.

              Finally,  there  are  certain options for latex and pdflatex (e.g., -recorder) that
              trigger special actions or behavior by latexmk itself as well as  being  passed  in
              some  form  to the called latex and pdflatex program, or that affect other programs
              as well.  These options do have entries in this documentation.  These options  are:
              -jobname=STRING, -aux-directory=dir, -output-directory=DIR, -quiet, and -recorder.

       -silent
              Run  commands  silently,  i.e.,  with options that reduce the amount of diagnostics
              generated.   For  example,  with  the  default   settings,   the   command   "latex
              -interaction=batchmode" is used for latex, and similarly for its friends.

              See also the -logfilewarninglist and -logfilewarninglist- options.

              Also reduce the number of informational messages that latexmk itself generates.

              To change the options used to make the commands run silently, you need to configure
              latexmk with changed values of its configuration variables, the relevant ones being
              $bibtex_silent_switch,         $biber_silent_switch,         $dvipdf_silent_switch,
              $dvips_silent_switch,         $latex_silent_switch,         $lualatex_silent_switch
              $makeindex_silent_switch, $pdflatex_silent_switch, and $xelatex_silent_switch

       -stdtexcmds
              Sets  the  commands  for  latex,  etc,  so that they are the standard ones. This is
              useful to override special configurations.

              The result is that $latex = 'latex %O %S', and similarly for $pdflatex,  $lualatex,
              and  $xelatex.   (The option -no-pdf needed for $xelatex is provided automatically,
              given that %O appears in the definition.)

       -time  Show CPU time used.  See also the configuration variable $show_time.

       -time- Do not show CPU time used.  See also the configuration variable $show_time.

       -use-make
              When after a run of latex or pdflatex,  there  are  warnings  about  missing  files
              (e.g.,  as  requested by the LaTeX \input, \include, and \includgraphics commands),
              latexmk tries to make them by a custom dependency. If no relevant custom dependency
              with  an appropriate source file is found, and if the -use-make option is set, then
              as a last resort latexmk will try to use the  make  program  to  try  to  make  the
              missing files.

              Note   that   the  filename  may  be  specified  without  an  extension,  e.g.,  by
              \includegraphics{drawing} in a LaTeX file.  In that case, latexmk will  try  making
              drawing.ext  with  ext set in turn to the possible extensions that are relevant for
              latex (or as appropriate pdflatex).

              See  also  the  documentation  for  the  $use_make_for_missing_files  configuration
              variable.

       -use-make-
              Do not use the make program to try to make missing files.  (Default.)

       -usepretex
              Sets the command lines for latex, etc, so that they use the code that is defined by
              the variable $pre_tex_code or that is set by the option -pretex=CODE to execute the
              specified  TeX  code  before  the  source  file is read.  This option overrides any
              previous definition of the command lines.

              The result is that $latex = 'latex %O %P', and similarly for $pdflatex,  $lualatex,
              and  $xelatex.   (The option -no-pdf needed for $xelatex is provided automatically,
              given that %O appears in the definition.)

       -usepretex=CODE
              Equivalent to -pretex=CODE -usepretex.  Example

                latexmk -usepretex='\AtBeginDocument{Message\par}' foo.tex

       -v, -version
              Print version number of latexmk.

       -verbose
              Opposite of -silent.  This is the default setting.

       -view=default, -view=dvi, -view=ps, -view=pdf, -view=none
              Set the kind of file used when previewing is requested (e.g., by the  -pv  or  -pvc
              switches).   The  default  is  to view the "highest" kind of requested file (in the
              low-to-high order .dvi, .ps, .pdf).

              Note the possibility -view=none where no viewer is opened at all.  One  example  of
              is  use  is  in  conjunction  with  the  -pvc option, when you want latexmk to do a
              compilation automatically whenever  source  file(s)  change,  but  do  not  want  a
              previewer to be opened.

       -Werror
              This  causes latexmk to return a non-zero status code if any of the files processed
              gives a warning about  problems  with  citations  or  references  (i.e.,  undefined
              citations  or  references  or  about  multiply  defined references).  This is after
              latexmk has completed all the runs it needs  to  try  and  resolve  references  and
              citations.   Thus -Werror causes latexmk to treat such warnings as errors, but only
              when they occur on the  last  run  of  (pdf)latex  and  only  after  processing  is
              complete.  Also can be set by the configuration variable $warnings_as_errors.

       -xelatex
              Use  xelatex.   That  is,  use  xelatex  to process the source file(s) to pdf.  The
              generation of dvi and postscript files is turned off.

              This option is equivalent to using the following set of options


                   -pdfxe -dvi- -ps-
              [Note: Note that the method of implementation of this option, but not its  intended
              primary  effect,  differ  from some earlier versions of latexmk. Latexmk first uses
              xelatex to make an .xdv file, and does all the extra runs needed  (including  those
              of  bibtex,  etc).   Only  after that does it make the pdf file from the .xdv file,
              using xdvipdfmx.  This procedure can result in considerable savings  in  run  time,
              since  the  xdv-to-pdf conversion is quite time-consuming when large graphics files
              are used in the document.]

       Compatibility between options

       The preview-continuous option -pvc can only work with one file.  So in this case you  will
       normally only specify one filename on the command line.

       Options  -p,  -pv  and  -pvc  are  mutually exclusive.  So each of these options turns the
       others off.

EXAMPLES

       % latexmk thesis    # run latex enough times to resolve
                           cross-references

       % latexmk -pvc -ps thesis# run latex enough times to resolve
                           cross-references, make a postscript
                           file, start a previewer.  Then
                           watch for changes in the source
                           file thesis.tex and any files it
                           uses.  After any changes rerun latex
                           the appropriate number of times and
                           remake the postscript file.  If latex
                           encounters an error, latexmk will
                           keep running, watching for
                           source file changes.

       % latexmk -c        # remove .aux, .log, .bbl, .blg, .dvi,
                           .pdf, .ps & .bbl files

DEALING WITH ERRORS, PROBLEMS, ETC

       Some possibilities:

       a. If you get a strange error, do look carefully at the output that is on the  screen  and
       in log files.  While there is much that is notoriously verbose in the output of latex (and
       that is added to by latexmk), the verbosity is there for a reason: to enable the  user  to
       diagnose  problems.   Latexmk does repeat some messages at the end of a run that it thinks
       would otherwise be easy to miss in the middle of other output.

       b. Generally, remember that latexmk does its work by running other programs.   Your  first
       priority  in  dealing with errors should be to examine what went wrong with the individual
       programs.  Then you need to correct the causes of errors in the runs  of  these  programs.
       (Often these come from errors in the source document, but they could also be about missing
       LaTeX packages, etc.)

       c. If latexmk doesn't run the programs the way you would like, then you need  to  look  in
       this  documentation  at  the  list  of  command  line  options and then at the sections on
       configuration/initialization files.  A lot of latexmk's behavior is configurable  to  deal
       with particular situations.  (But there is a lot of reading!)

       The remainder of these notes consists of ideas for dealing with more difficult situations.

       d.  Further  tricks can involve replacing the standard commands that latexmk runs by other
       commands or scripts.

       e. For possible examples of code for use in an RC file, see the directory  example_rcfiles
       in          the          distribution         of         latexmk         (e.g.,         at
       http://mirror.ctan.org/support/latexmk/example_rcfiles).  Even if these examples don't  do
       what you want, they may provide suitable inspiration.

       f.  There's a useful trick that can be used when you use lualatex instead of pdflatex (and
       in some related situations).  The problem is that latexmk won't notice a dependency  on  a
       file,  bar.baz say, that is input by the lua code in your document instead of by the LaTeX
       part.  (Thus if you change bar.baz and rerun latexmk, then latexmk  will  think  no  files
       have  changed  and  not  rerun lualatex, whereas if you had '\input{bar.baz}' in the LaTeX
       part of the document, latexmk would notice the change.)  One solution is just to  put  the
       following somewhere in the LaTeX part of the document:

                     \typeout{(bar.baz)}

       This puts a line in the log file that latexmk will treat as implying that the file bar.baz
       was read.  (At present I don't know a way of doing this automatically.)  Of course, if the
       file has a different name, change bar.baz to the name of your file.

       g. See also the section "Advanced Configuration: Some extra resources".

       h.            Look            on           tex.stackexchange,           i.e.,           at
       http://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/tagged/latexmk  Someone  may  have  already  solved
       your problem.

       i. Ask a question at tex.stackexchange.com.

       j. Or ask me (the author of latexmk).  My e-mail is at the end of this documentation.

ALLOWING FOR CHANGE OF OUTPUT FILE TYPE

       When  one  of  the latex engines is run, the usual situation is that latex produces a .dvi
       file, while pdflatex and lualatex produce a .pdf file.  For  xelatex  the  default  is  to
       produce  a  .pdf  file,  but  to optimize processing time latexmk runs xelatex its -no-pdf
       option so that it produces an .xdv file.  Further processing by latexmk takes  this  as  a
       starting point.

       However,  the  actual output file may differ from the normal expectation; and then latexmk
       can adjust its processing to accommodate this situation.  The difference  in  output  file
       type can happen for two reasons: One is that for latex, pdflatex and lualatex the document
       itself can override the defaults. The other is that  there  may  be  a  configuration,  or
       misconfiguration,  such  that  the program that latexmk invokes to compile the document is
       not the expected one, or  is  given  options  incompatible  with  what  latexmk  initially
       expects.   (E.g.,  the  -output-format=...  option could be used with lualatex, or xelatex
       gets invoked without the -no-pdf option.)

       Under latex and pdflatex, control of the output format by the document is done by  setting
       the \pdfoutput macro.  Under lualatex, the \outputmode macro is used instead.

       One  example  of  an  important  use-case  for  document control of the output format is a
       document that uses the psfrag package to insert graphical elements in the output file. The
       psfrag  package  achieves  its  effects  by inserting postscript code in the output of the
       compilation of the document.  This entails the use of compilation to a .dvi file, followed
       by the use of conversion to a postscript file (either directly, as by dvips or implicitly,
       as an intermediate step by dvipdf).  Then it is useful to force output to be of  the  .dvi
       format by inserting \pdfoutput=0 in the preamble of the document.

       Another example is where the document uses graphics file of the .pdf, .jpg, and png types.
       With the default setting for the graphicx package, these can be processed  in  compilation
       to  .pdf  but  not  with  compilation  to  .dvi.   In  this  case,  it is useful to insert
       \pdfoutput=1 in the preamble of the document to force compilation to .pdf output format.

       In all of these cases, it is needed that latexmk has to adjust its processing to deal with
       a  mismatch  between  the actual output format (out of .pdf, .dvi, .xdv) and the initially
       expected output, if possible.  Latexmk does this provided  the  following  conditions  are
       met.

       The  first  is  that  latexmk's  $allow_switch configuration variable is set to a non-zero
       value as it is by default.  If this variable is zero,  a  mismatch  of  filetypes  in  the
       compilation results in an erro.

       The  second  condition for latexmk to be able to handle a change of output type is that no
       explicit requests for .dvi or .ps output files are made.  Explicit  requests  are  by  the
       -dvi and -ps, -print=dvi, -print=ps, -view=dvi, and -view=ps options, and by corresponding
       settings  of  the  $dvi_mode,  $postscript_mode,  $print_type,  and  $view   configuration
       variables.  The print-type and view-type restrictions only apply when printing and viewing
       are explicitly requested, respectively.  For this purpose, the  use  of  the  -pdfdvi  and
       -pdfps options (and the corresponding setting of the $pdf_mode variable) does not count as
       an explicit request for the .dvi and .ps files; they are merely regarded as a request  for
       making a .pdf file together with an initial proposal for the processing route to make it.

       Note that when accommodating a change in output file type, there is involved a substantial
       change in the network of rules that latexmk uses in its  actions.   The  second  condition
       applied  to  accommodate  a  change  is  to  avoid situations where the change in the rule
       network is too radical to be readily handled automatically.

CONFIGURATION/INITIALIZATION (RC) FILES

       In this section is explained which configuration files are  read  by  latexmk.  Subsequent
       sections   "How   to   Set   Variables   in  Initialization  Files",  "Format  of  Command
       Specifications", "List of Configuration Variables Usable in Initialization Files", "Custom
       Dependencies",  and  "Advanced  Configuration"  give details on what can be configured and
       how.

       Latexmk can be customized using initialization files, which are read  at  startup  in  the
       following order:

       1) The system RC file, if it exists.
          On  a UNIX system, latexmk searches for following places for its system RC file, in the
       following order, and reads the first it finds:
          "/opt/local/share/latexmk/LatexMk",
          "/usr/local/share/latexmk/LatexMk",
          "/usr/local/lib/latexmk/LatexMk".
          On a MS-Windows system it looks for "C:\latexmk\LatexMk".
          On a cygwin system (i.e., a MS-Windows system in which Perl is that of cygwin), latexmk
       reads the first it finds of
          "/cygdrive/c/latexmk/LatexMk",
          "/opt/local/share/latexmk/LatexMk",
          "/usr/local/share/latexmk/LatexMk",
          "/usr/local/lib/latexmk/LatexMk".

       In  addition,  it  then  tries  the same set of locations, but with the file name replaced
       "LatexMk" replaced by "latexmkrc".

       If the environment variable LATEXMKRCSYS is set, its value is used  as  the  name  of  the
       system RC file, instead of any of the above.

       2)  The  user's RC file, if it exists.  This can be in one of two places.  The traditional
       one  is  ".latexmkrc"  in  the  user's  home  directory.    The   other   possibility   is
       "latexmk/latexmkrc"  in the user's XDG configuration home directory.  The actual file read
       is the first of "$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/latexmk/latexmkrc" or "$HOME/.latexmkrc"  which  exists.
       (See    https://specifications.freedesktop.org/basedir-spec/basedir-spec-latest.html   for
       details on the XDG Base Directory Specification.)

       Here $HOME is the user's home directory.  [Latexmk determines the user's home directory as
       follows:  It is the value of the environment variable HOME, if this variable exists, which
       normally is the case on UNIX-like systems  (including  Linux  and  OS-X).   Otherwise  the
       environment  variable USERPROFILE is used, if it exists, which normally is the case on MS-
       Windows systems. Otherwise a blank string is used instead of $HOME, in which case  latexmk
       does not look for an RC file in it.]

       $XDG_CONFIG_HOME  is  the  value of the environment variable XDG_CONFIG_HOME if it exists.
       If this environment variable does not exist, but $HOME is non-blank, then $XDG_CONFIG_HOME
       is  set  to  the default value of $HOME/.config.  Otherwise $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is blank, and
       latexmk does not look for an RC file under it.

       3) The RC file  in  the  current  working  directory.   This  file  can  be  named  either
       "latexmkrc" or ".latexmkrc", and the first of these to be found is used, if any.

       4) Any RC file(s) specified on the command line with the -r option.

       Each  RC  file is a sequence of Perl commands.  Naturally, a user can use this in creative
       ways.  But for most purposes, one simply uses a sequence  of  assignment  statements  that
       override  some  of the built-in settings of Latexmk.  Straightforward cases can be handled
       without knowledge of the  Perl  language  by  using  the  examples  in  this  document  as
       templates.  Comment lines are introduced by the "#" character.

       Note that command line options are obeyed in the order in which they are written; thus any
       RC file specified on the command line with the -r option can override previous options but
       can  be  itself  overridden  by  later  options on the command line.  There is also the -e
       option, which allows initialization code to be specified in latexmk's command line.

        For possible examples of code for in an RC file, see the directory example_rcfiles in the
       distribution of latexmk (e.g., at http://mirror.ctan.org/support/latexmk/example_rcfiles).

HOW TO SET VARIABLES IN INITIALIZATION FILES

       The  important  variables  that  can  be  configured are described in the section "List of
       configuration variables  usable  in  initialization  files".   (See  the  earlier  section
       "Configuration/Initialization  (rc)  Files"  for  the  files  where the configurations are
       done.)  Syntax for setting these variables is of the following forms:

                           $bibtex = 'bibtex %O %B';

       for the setting of a string variable,

                           $preview_mode = 1;

       for the setting of a numeric variable, and

                           @default_files = ('paper', 'paper1');

       for the setting of an array of strings.  It is possible to append  an  item  to  an  array
       variable as follows:

                           push @default_files, 'paper2';

       Note  that  simple  "scalar"  variables have names that begin with a $ character and array
       variables have names that begin with a @ character. Each statement ends with a semicolon.

       Strings should be enclosed in single quotes.  (You could use double  quotes,  as  in  many
       programming  languages.   But  then  the  Perl  programming language brings into play some
       special rules for interpolating variables into strings.  People not fluent  in  Perl  will
       want to avoid these complications.)

       You  can  do  much more complicated things, but for this you will need to consult a manual
       for the Perl programming language.

FORMAT OF COMMAND SPECIFICATIONS

       Some of the variables set the commands that latexmk uses for carrying out  its  work,  for
       example  to  generate  a  .dvi  file  from a .tex file or to view a postscript file.  This
       section describes some important features of how the commands are  specified.   (Note that
       some  of  the  possibilities  listed here do not apply to the $kpsewhich variable; see its
       documentation.)

       Placeholders:  Supposed you wanted latexmk to use the  command  elatex  in  place  of  the
       regular  latex  command,  and  suppose  moreover  that  you  wanted  to give it the option
       "--shell-escape".  You could do this by the following setting:

            $latex = 'elatex --shell-escape %O %S';

       The two items starting with the % character are placeholders.  These  are  substituted  by
       appropriate values before the command is run.  Thus %S will be replaced by the source file
       that elatex will be applied to, and %O will be replaced by any options  that  latexmk  has
       decided  to use for this command.  (E.g., if you used the -silent option in the invocation
       of latexmk,  it results in the replacement of %O by "-interaction=batchmode".)

       The available placeholders are:

       %A     basename of the main tex file.  Unlike %R, this is unaffected by the setting  of  a
              jobname by  the -jobname option or the $jobname configuration value.

       %B     base  of  filename  for current command.  E.g., if a postscript file document.ps is
              being made from the dvi file document.dvi, then the basename is document.

       %D     destination file (e.g., the name of the postscript file when converting a dvi  file
              to postscript).

       %O     options

       %P     If  the variable $pre_tex_code is non-empty, then %P is substituted by the contents
              of $pre_tex_code followed by \input{SOURCE}, where SOURCE stands for  the  name  of
              the  source file.  Appropriate quoting is done.  This enables TeX code to be passed
              to one of the *latex engines to be executed before the source file is read.

              If the variable $pre_tex_code is the empty string, then %P is equivalent to %S.

       %R     root filename.  This is the base name for the main tex file.

              By default this is the basename of the main tex file.  However  the  value  can  be
              changed by the use of the -jobname option or the $jobname configuration variable.

       %S     source file (e.g., the name of the dvi file when converting a .dvi file to ps).

       %T     The name of the primary tex file.

       %U     If  the  variable  $pre_tex_code is non-empty, then its value is substituted for %U
              (appropriately quoted).  Otherwise it is replaced by a null string.

       %Y     Name of directory for  auxiliary  output  files  (see  the  configuration  variable
              $aux_dir).   A directory separation character ('/') is appended if $aux_dir is non-
              empty and does not end in a suitable  character,  with  suitable  characters  being
              those  appropriate  to  UNIX and MS-Windows, i.e., ':', '/' and '\'.   Note that if
              after initialization,  $out_dir is set, but  $aux_dir  is  not  set  (i.e.,  it  is
              blank), then latexmk sets $aux_dir to the same value $out_dir.

       %Z     Name  of  directory  for output files (see the configuration variable $out_dir).  A
              directory separation character ('/') is appended if $out_dir is non-empty and  does
              not  end  in a suitable character, with suitable characters being those appropriate
              to UNIX and MS-Windows, i.e., ':', '/' and '\'.

       If for some reason you need a literal % character in your string not subject to the  above
       rules, use "%%".

       Appropriate  quoting  will be applied to the filename substitutions, so you mustn't supply
       them yourself even if the names of your files have spaces  in  them.   (But  if  your  TeX
       filenames  have  spaces in them, beware that some older versions of the TeX program cannot
       correctly handle filenames containing spaces.)  In case latexmk's quoting  does  not  work
       correctly  on  your  system, you can turn it off -- see the documentation for the variable
       $quote_filenames.

       The distinction between %B and %R needs a bit of care, since they are often the same,  but
       not always.  For example on a simple document, the basename of a bibtex run is the same as
       for the texfile.  But in a document with several bibliographies,  the  bibliography  files
       will  have  a  variety  of  names.   Since  bibtex  is  invoked  with  the basename of the
       bibliography file, the setting for the bibtex command should therefore be

            $bibtex = 'bibtex %O %B';

       Generally, you should use %B rather than %R.  Similarly for most purposes, the name %T  of
       the primary texfile is not a useful placeholder.

       See  the  default  values  in  the  section  "List  of  configuration  variables usable in
       initialization files" for what is normally the most appropriate usage.

       If you omit to supply any placeholders whatever in the specification of a command, latexmk
       will  supply  what  its  author thinks are appropriate defaults.  This gives compatibility
       with configuration files for previous versions of latexmk, which didn't use placeholders.

       "Detaching" a command: Normally when latexmk runs a command, it waits for the  command  to
       run  to  completion.   This  is  appropriate  for commands like latex, of course.  But for
       previewers, the command should normally run detached, so that latexmk gets  the  previewer
       running  and  then returns to its next task (or exits if there is nothing else to do).  To
       achieve this effect of detaching a command, you need to  precede  the  command  name  with
       "start ", as in

            $dvi_previewer = 'start xdvi %O %S';

       This will be translated to whatever is appropriate for your operating system.

       Notes: (1) In some circumstances, latexmk will always run a command detached.  This is the
       case for a previewer in preview continuous mode, since otherwise  previewing  continuously
       makes no sense.  (2) This precludes the possibility of running a command named start.  (3)
       If the word start occurs more than once at the beginning of the command  string,  that  is
       equivalent  to having just one.  (4) Under cygwin, some complications happen, since cygwin
       amounts to a complicated merging of UNIX and MS-Windows.  See the source code for how I've
       handled the problem.

       Command  names containing spaces: Under MS-Windows it is common that the name of a command
       includes spaces, since software is  often  installed  in  a  subdirectory  of  "C:\Program
       Files".  Such command names should be enclosed in double quotes, as in

            $lpr_pdf = '"c:/Program Files/Ghostgum/gsview/gsview32.exe" /p %S';
            $pdf_previewer = 'start "c:/Program Files/SumatraPDF/SumatraPDF.exe" %O %S';
            $pdf_previewer = 'start "c:/Program Files/SumatraPDF (x86)/SumatraPDF.exe" %O %S';

       (Note  about  the  above  example:  Under  MS-Windows  forward  slashes  are equivalent to
       backslashes in a filename under almost all circumstances, provided that  the  filename  is
       inside double quotes.  It is easier to use forward slashes in examples like the one above,
       since then one does not have to worry about the rules for dealing with forward slashes  in
       strings in the Perl language.)

       Command  names  under  Cygwin:  If  latexmk is executed by Cygwin's Perl,  be particularly
       certain that pathnames in commands have forward slashes not the usual backslashes for  the
       separator  of  pathname  components.   See  the  above  examples.   Backslashes  often get
       misinterpreted by the Unix shell used by  Cygwin's  Perl  to  execute  external  commands.
       Forward  slashes  don't  suffer from this problem, and (when quoted, as above) are equally
       acceptable to MS-Windows.

       Using MS-Windows file associations: A useful trick under  modern  versions  of  MS-Windows
       (e.g., WinXP) is to use just the command 'start' by itself:

            $dvi_previewer = 'start %S';

       Under  MS-Windows,  this  will  cause to be run whatever program the system has associated
       with dvi files.  (The same applies for a postscript viewer and a pdf  viewer.)   But  note
       that  this  trick is not always suitable for the pdf previwer, if your system has acroread
       for the default pdf viewer.  As explained elsewhere, acroread under  MS-Windows  does  not
       work well with latex and latexmk, because acroread locks the pdf file.

       Not using a certain command: If a command is not to be run, the command name NONE is used,
       as in

            $lpr  = 'NONE lpr';

       This typically is used when an appropriate command does not exist  on  your  system.   The
       string after the "NONE" is effectively a comment.

       Options  to  commands: Setting the name of a command can be used not only for changing the
       name of the command called, but also to add options to command.  Suppose you want  latexmk
       to  use  latex  with source specials enabled.  Then you might use the following line in an
       initialization file:

            $latex = 'latex --src-specials %O %S';

       Running a subroutine instead of an external command: Use  a  specification  starting  with
       "internal", as in

            $latex = 'internal mylatex %O %S';
            sub mylatex {
                my @args = @_;
                # Possible preprocessing here
                return system 'latex', @args;
            }

       For  some  of  the  more  exotic possibilities that then become available, see the section
       "ADVANCED CONFIGURATION: Some extra resources and advanced tricks". Also see some  of  the
       examples in the directory example_rcfiles in the latexmk distribution.

       Advanced  tricks:  Normally  one  specifies  a  single command for the commands invoked by
       latexmk.  Naturally, if there is some complicated additional processing you need to do  in
       your  special  situation, you can write a script (or batch file) to do the processing, and
       then configure latexmk to use your script in place of the standard program.

       You can also use a Perl subroutine instead of a script -- see above.   This  is  generally
       the most flexible and portable solution.

       It  is  also possible to configure latexmk to run multiple commands.  For example, if when
       running pdflatex to generate a pdf file from a tex file you need to  run  another  program
       after pdflatex to perform some extra processing, you could do something like:

            $pdflatex = 'pdflatex --shell-escape %O %S; pst2pdf_for_latexmk %B';

       This  definition assumes you are using a UNIX-like system (which includes Linux and OS-X),
       so that the two commands to be run are separated by the semicolon in  the  middle  of  the
       string.

       If you are using MS-Windows, you would replace the above line by

          $pdflatex = 'cmd /c pdflatex --shell-escape %O %S'
                      . '&& pst2pdf_for_latexmk %B';

       Here,  the  UNIX  command  separator ; is replaced by &&.  In addition, there is a problem
       that some versions of Perl on MS-Windows do not obey the command separator;  this  problem
       is overcome by explicitly invoking the MS-Windows command-line processor cmd.exe.

LIST OF CONFIGURATION VARIABLES USABLE IN INITIALIZATION FILES

       In  this  section  are  specified  the variables whose values can be adjusted to configure
       latexmk.  (See the earlier section "Configuration/Initialization (rc) Files" for the files
       where the configurations are done.)

       Default  values  are  indicated  in brackets.  Note that for variables that are boolean in
       character, concerning whether latexmk does or does not behave in a certain way, a non-zero
       value, normally 1, indicates true, i.e., the behavior occurs, while a zero value indicates
       a false value, i.e., the behavior does not occur.

       $allow_switch [1]

              This controls what happens when the output extension of latex,  pdflatex,  lualatex
              or xelatex differs from what is expected.  (The possible extensions are .dvi, .pdf,
              .xdv.)  This can happen with the use of the \pdfoutput macro in a document compiled
              under  latex  or pdflatex, or with the use of the \outputmode macro under lualatex.
              It can also happen with certain kinds of incorrect configuration.

              In such a case, latexmk  can  appropriately  adjust  its  network  of  rules.   The
              adjustment  is  made if $allow_switch is on, and if no request for a dvi or ps file
              has been made.

              See the section ALLOWING FOR CHANGE OF OUTPUT EXTENSION.

       $always_view_file_via_temporary [0]
              Whether .ps and .pdf files are initially to be made in a  temporary  directory  and
              then  moved  to  the  final  location.   (This applies to dvips, dvipdf, and ps2pdf
              operations, and the filtering operators on .dvi and .ps files.  It does  not  apply
              to  pdflatex,  unfortunately, since pdflatex provides no way of specifying a chosen
              name for the output file.)

              This use of a temporary file solves a problem that the making of  these  files  can
              occupy  a  substantial  time.   If  a  viewer  (notably  gv) sees that the file has
              changed, it may read the new file before the program writing the file has  not  yet
              finished its work, which  can cause havoc.

              See  the  $pvc_view_file_via_temporary  variable for a setting that applies only if
              preview-continuous mode (-pvc option) is used.  See $tmpdir for the setting of  the
              directory where the temporary file is created.

       $analyze_input_log_always [1]

              After  a  run  of latex (etc), always analyze .log for input files in the <...> and
              (...) constructions.  Otherwise, only do the analysis when fls file  doesn't  exist
              or is out of date.

              Under  normal  circumstances, the data in the fls file is reliable, and the test of
              the log file gets lots of false  positives;  usually  $analyze_input_log_always  is
              best set to zero.  But the test of the log file is needed at least in the following
              situation: When a user needs to persuade latexmk that a certain file  is  a  source
              file,  and  latexmk  doesn't  otherwise find it.  Then the user can write code that
              causes a line with (...) to be written to log file.   One  important  case  is  for
              lualatex, which doesn't always generate lines in the .fls file for input lua files.
              (The situation with lualatex is HIGHLY version dependent, e.g.,  there  was  a  big
              change between TeXLive 2016 and TeXLive 2017.)

              To  keep  backward  compatibility with older versions of latexmk, the default is to
              set $analyze_input_log_always to 1.

       $auto_rc_use [1]
              Whether to automatically read the standard initialization (rc) files, which are the
              system  RC file, the user's RC file, and the RC file in the current directory.  The
              command line option -norc can be used to turn this setting off.  Each RC file could
              also  turn  this  setting  off,  i.e., it could set $auto_rc_use to zero to prevent
              automatic reading of the later RC files.

              This variable does not affect the reading of RC files specified on the command line
              by the -r option.

       $aux_dir [""]
              The  directory  in which auxiliary files (aux, log, etc) are to be written by a run
              of (pdf)latex.  If this variable is not set, but $out_dir is set, then $aux_dir  is
              set  to  $out_dir,  which  is the directory to which general output files are to be
              written.

              Important note:  The effect of $aux_dir, if different from $out_dir, is achieved by
              giving  (pdf)latex  the  -aux-directory.  Currently (Dec. 2011 and later) this only
              works on the MiKTeX version of (pdf)latex.

              See also the documentation of $out_dir for some  complications  on  what  directory
              names are suitable.

              If  you  also  use  the  -cd option, and $out_dir (or $aux_dir) contains a relative
              path, then the path is interpreted relative to the document directory.

       $banner [0]
              If nonzero, the banner message is printed across each page when converting the  dvi
              file  to  postscript.   Without  modifying  the  variable  $banner_message, this is
              equivalent to specifying the -d option.

              Note that if $banner is nonzero, the $postscript_mode is assumed and the postscript
              file is always generated, even if it is newer than the dvi file.

       $banner_intensity [0.95]
              Equivalent  to  the  -bi  option,  this  is  a  decimal number between 0 and 1 that
              specifies how dark to print the banner message.  0  is  black,  1  is  white.   The
              default is just right if your toner cartridge isn't running too low.

       $banner_message ["DRAFT"]
              The  banner  message  to  print  across  each  page when converting the dvi file to
              postscript.  This is equivalent to the -bm option.

       $banner_scale [220.0]
              A decimal number that specifies how large  the  banner  message  will  be  printed.
              Experimentation  is necessary to get the right scale for your message, as a rule of
              thumb the scale should be about equal to 1100 divided by the number  of  characters
              in  the  message.   The  Default  is  just right for 5 character messages.  This is
              equivalent to the -bs option.

       @BIBINPUTS
              This is an array variable, now mostly obsolete, that  specifies  directories  where
              latexmk  should  look  for  .bib  files.   By  default it is set from the BIBINPUTS
              environment variable of the operating system.  If that environment variable is  not
              set,  a single element list consisting of the current directory is set.  The format
              of the directory names depends on your operating system, of course.   Examples  for
              setting this variable are:

                      @BIBINPUTS = ( ".", "C:\\bibfiles" );
                      @BIBINPUTS = ( ".", "\\server\bibfiles" );
                      @BIBINPUTS = ( ".", "C:/bibfiles" );
                      @BIBINPUTS = ( ".", "//server/bibfiles" );
                      @BIBINPUTS = ( ".", "/usr/local/texmf/bibtex/bib" );

              Note  that under MS Windows, either a forward slash "/" or a backward slash "\" can
              be used to separate pathname components, so  the  first  two  and  the  second  two
              examples  are  equivalent.   Each backward slash should be doubled to avoid running
              afoul of Perl's rules for writing strings.

              Important note: This variable is now mostly obsolete  in  the  current  version  of
              latexmk,  since  it  has a better method of searching for files using the kpsewhich
              command.  However, if your system is an unusual one without the kpsewhich  command,
              you may need to set the variable @BIBINPUTS.

       $biber ["biber %O %S"]
              The biber processing program.

       $biber_silent_switch ["--onlylog"]
              Switch(es) for the biber processing program when silent mode is on.

       $bibtex ["bibtex %O %S"]
              The BibTeX processing program.

       $bibtex_fudge [1]
              When  using  bibtex,  whether  to  take special action to allow bibtex to work when
              $out_dir or $aux_dir is specified.  In May 2018, there was  planned  an  update  to
              bibtex  to  correct  a bug, after that update, the special action will no longer be
              required.

       $bibtex_silent_switch ["-terse"]
              Switch(es) for the BibTeX processing program when silent mode is on.

       $bibtex_use [1]
              Under what conditions to run bibtex or biber.  When latexmk discovers from the  log
              file  that one (or more) bibtex/biber-generated bibliographies are used, it can run
              bibtex or biber whenever it appears necessary to regenerate the  bbl  file(s)  from
              their  source  bib  database  file(s).   But  sometimes,  the  bib  file(s) are not
              available (e.g., for a document obtained from an external  archive),  but  the  bbl
              files  are  provided.  In that case use of bibtex or biber will result in incorrect
              overwriting of the precious bbl files.  The variable $bibtex_use  controls  whether
              this  happens, and also controls whether or not .bbl files are deleted in a cleanup
              operation.

              The possible values of $bibtex_use are:
                0: never use BibTeX or biber; never delete .bbl files in a cleanup.
                1: only use bibtex or biber if the bib files exist; never delete .bbl files in  a
              cleanup.
                1.5:  only  use bibtex or biber if the bib files exist; conditionally delete .bbl
              files in a cleanup (i.e., delete them only when the bib files all exist).
                2: run bibtex or biber whenever it appears necessary to  update  the  bbl  files,
              without  testing  for the existence of the bib files; always delete .bbl files in a
              cleanup.

              Note that the value 1.5 does not work properly if the document uses  biber  instead
              of bibtex.  (There's a long story why not.)

       $cleanup_includes_cusdep_generated [0]
              If  nonzero, specifies that cleanup also deletes files that are generated by custom
              dependencies.  (When doing a clean up, e.g.,  by  use  of  the  -C  option,  custom
              dependencies are those listed in the .fdb_latexmk file from a previous run.)

       $cleanup_includes_generated [0]
              If  nonzero, specifies that cleanup also deletes files that are detected in the fls
              file (or failing that, in log file) as being generated.  It will also include files
              made from these first generation generated files.

              This  operation  is somewhat dangerous, and can have unintended consequences, since
              the files to be deleted are determined from a file created by (pdf)latex, which can
              contain  erroneous  information.  Therefore this variable is turned off by default,
              and then files to be  deleted  are  restricted  to  those  explictly  specified  by
              patterns    configured    in   the   variables   clean_ext,   clean_full_ext,   and
              @generated_exts, together with those very standard cases that  are  hardwired  into
              latexmk (e.g., .log files).

       $cleanup_mode [0]
              If  nonzero,  specifies  cleanup mode: 1 for full cleanup, 2 for cleanup except for
              .dvi, .ps and .pdf files, 3 for cleanup except for dep and aux  files.   (There  is
              also   extra   cleaning   as  specified  by  the  $clean_ext,  $clean_full_ext  and
              @generated_exts variables.)

              This variable is equivalent to specifying one of the -c or -C options.   But  there
              should be no need to set this variable from an RC file.

       $clean_ext [""]
              Extra  extensions  of  files for latexmk to remove when any of the clean-up options
              (-c or -C) is selected.  The value of this variable  is  a  string  containing  the
              extensions separated by spaces.

              It  is  also  possible  to specify a more general pattern of file to be deleted, by
              using the place holder %R,  as  in  commands,  and  it  is  also  possible  to  use
              wildcards.  Thus setting

                  $clean_ext = "out %R-blx.bib %R-figures*.log pythontex-files-%R/*";

              in  an  initialization file will imply that when a clean-up operation is specified,
              not only is the standard set of files deleted, but also files of the form  FOO.out,
              FOO-blx.bib,  %R-figures*.log,  and pythontex-files-FOO/*, where FOO stands for the
              basename of the file being processed (as in FOO.tex).

              The files to be deleted are relative to the directory specified by $aux_dir.  (Note
              that  if $out_dir but not $aux_dir is set, then in its initialization, latexmk sets
              $aux_dir equal to $out_dir.  A normal situation is therefore that  $aux_dir  equals
              $out_dir, which is the only case supported by TeXLive, unlike MiKTeX.)

              The filenames specfied for a clean-up operation can refer not only to regular files
              but also to directories.  Directories are only  deleted  if  they  are  empty.   An
              example  of  an  application  is  to pythontex, which creates files in a particular
              directory.  You can arrange to remove both the files and the directory by setting

                  $clean_ext = "pythontex-files-%R pythontex-files-%R";

              See also the variable @generated_exts.

       $clean_full_ext [""]
              Extra extensions of files for latexmk to remove when the  -C  option  is  selected,
              i.e., extensions of files to remove when the .dvi, etc files are to be cleaned-up.

              More general patterns are allowed, as for $clean_ext.

              The  files specified by $clean_full_ext to be deleted are relative to the directory
              specified by $out_dir.

       $compiling_cmd [""], $failure_cmd [""], $warning_cmd [""], $success_cmd [""]

              These  variables  specify  commands  that  are  executed  at  certain   points   of
              compilations during preview-continuous mode.  One motivation for their existance is
              to allow very useful convenient visual indications of compilation status even  when
              the window receiving the screen output of the compilation is hidden.

              The  commands  are executed at the following points: $compiling_cmd at the start of
              compilation, $success_cmd at  the  end  of  a  completely  successful  compilation,
              $failure_cmd  at  the end of an unsuccessful compilation, $warning_cmd at the of an
              otherwise successful compilation that gives warnings about undefined  citations  or
              references  or  about  multiply  defined  references.  If any of above variables is
              undefined or blank (the default situation), then the corresponding command  is  not
              executed.

              However,  when  $warning_cmd  is  not  set,  then in the case of a compilation with
              warnings about references or citations, but with no other error, one  or  other  of
              $success_cmd  or  $failure_cmd  is  used (if it is set) according to the setting of
              $warnings_as_errors.

              An example of a simple setting of these variables is as follows

                  $compiling_cmd  =  "xdotool  search  --name  \"%D\"  set_window   --name   \"%D
              compiling\"";
                  $success_cmd   = "xdotool search --name \"%D\" set_window --name \"%D OK\"";
                  $warning_cmd   = "xdotool search --name \"%D\" ".
                                   "set_window --name \"%D CITE/REF ISSUE\"";
                  $failure_cmd     =   "xdotool  search  --name  \"%D\"  set_window  --name  \"%D
              FAILURE\"";

              These assume that the program xdotool is installed, that the previewer is using  an
              X-Window  system for display, and that the title of the window contains the name of
              the displayed file, as it normally does.   When  the  commands  are  executed,  the
              placeholder string %D is replaced by the name of the destination file, which is the
              previewed file.  The above commands result in an appropriate string being  appended
              to the filename in the window title: " compiling", " OK", or " FAILURE".

              Other  placeholders  that  can  be used are %S, %T, and %R, with %S and %T normally
              being identical. These can be useful for a command changing the title of  the  edit
              window. The visual indication in a window title can useful, since the user does not
              have to keep shifting attention to the (possibly hidden) compilation window to know
              the status of the compilation.

              More  complicated  situations  can best be handled by defining a Perl subroutine to
              invoke the necessary commands, and using the "internal" keyword in the  definitions
              to  get  the  subroutine  to  be  invoked.   (See  the  section  "Format of Command
              Specifications" for how to do this.)

              Naturally, the above settings that invoke the xdotool program are  only  applicable
              when  the X-Window system is used for the relevant window(s).  For other cases, you
              will have to find what software solutions are available.

       @cus_dep_list [()]
              Custom dependency list -- see section on "Custom Dependencies".

       @default_excluded_files [()]
              When latexmk is invoked with no files specified  on  the  command  line,  then,  by
              default,  it  will  process  all  files in the current directory with the extension
              .tex.  (In general, it will process  the  files  specified  in  the  @default_files
              variable.)

              But sometimes you want to exclude particular files from this default list.  In that
              case you can specify the excluded files in the array @default_excluded_files.   For
              example  if  you wanted to process all .tex files with the exception of common.tex,
              which is a not a standard alone LaTeX file but a file input by some or all  of  the
              others, you could do

                   @default_files = ("*.tex");

                   @default_excluded_files = ("common.tex");

              If  you have a variable or large number of files to be processed, this method saves
              you from having to list them in detail in @default_files and having to  update  the
              list every time you change the set of files to be processed.

              Notes:  1.  This  variable  has no effect except when no files are specified on the
              latexmk command line.  2. Wildcards are allowed in @default_excluded_files.

       @default_files [("*.tex")]
              Default list of files to be processed.

              If no filenames are specified on the command line, latexmk processes all tex  files
              specified  in the @default_files variable, which by default is set to all tex files
              ("*.tex") in the current directory.  This is a convenience: just run latexmk and it
              will  process  an  appropriate  set  of files.  But sometimes you want only some of
              these files to be processed.  In this case you can list the files to  be  processed
              by  setting @default_files in an initialization file (e.g., the file "latexmkrc" in
              the current directory).  Then if no files are specified on the  command  line  then
              the files you specify by setting @default_files are processed.

              Three examples:

                   @default_files = ("paper_current");

                   @default_files = ("paper1", "paper2.tex");

                   @default_files = ("*.tex", "*.dtx");

              Note  that  more  than file may be given, and that the default extension is ".tex".
              Wild cards are allowed.  The parentheses are because  @default_files  is  an  array
              variable, i.e., a sequence of filename specifications is possible.

              If  you  want  latexmk  to  process  all  .tex files with a few exceptions, see the
              @default_excluded_files array variable.

       $dependents_phony [0]
              If a list of dependencies is output, this variable determines whether to include  a
              phony  target  for each source file.  If you use the dependents list in a Makefile,
              the dummy rules work around errors make gives if you remove  header  files  without
              updating the Makefile to match.

       $dependents_list [0]
              Whether to display a list(s) of dependencies at the end of a run.

       $deps_file ["-"]
              Name  of file to receive list(s) of dependencies at the end of a run, to be used if
              $dependesnt_list is set.  If the filename is "-", then the dependency list  is  set
              to stdout (i.e., normally the screen).

       $do_cd [0]
              Whether  to change working directory to the directory specified for the main source
              file before processing it.  The default behavior is not to do this,  which  is  the
              same  as  the behavior of latex and pdflatex programs.  This variable is set by the
              -cd and -cd- options on latexmk's command line.

       $dvi_filter [empty]
              The dvi file filter to  be  run  on  the  newly  produced  dvi  file  before  other
              processing.  Equivalent to specifying the -dF option.

       $dvi_mode [See below for default]
              If nonzero, generate a dvi version of the document.  Equivalent to the -dvi option.

              The  variable  $dvi_mode  defaults  to  0, but if no explicit requests are made for
              other types of file (postscript, pdf),  then  $dvi_mode  will  be  set  to  1.   In
              addition,  if  a  request  for a file for which a .dvi file is a prerequisite, then
              $dvi_mode will be set to 1.

       $dvi_previewer ["start xdvi %O %S" under UNIX]
              The command to invoke a dvi-previewer.  [Under MS-Windows the default  is  "start";
              then  latexmk  arranges to use the MS-Windows start program, which will cause to be
              run whatever command the system has associated with .dvi files.]

              Important note: Normally you will want to have a previewer run  detached,  so  that
              latexmk doesn't wait for the previewer to terminate before continuing its work.  So
              normally you should prefix the command by "start ", which flags to latexmk that  it
              should  do the detaching of the previewer itself (by whatever method is appropriate
              to the operating system).  But sometimes letting latexmk do the  detaching  is  not
              appropriate  (for a variety of non-trivial reasons), so you should put the "start "
              bit in yourself, whenever it is needed.

       $dvi_previewer_landscape ["start xdvi %O %S"]
              The command to invoke a dvi-previewer in landscape  mode.   [Under  MS-Windows  the
              default  is  "start";  then  latexmk  arranges to use the MS-Windows start program,
              which will cause to be run whatever command the system  has  associated  with  .dvi
              files.]

       $dvipdf ["dvipdf %O %S %D"]
              Command  to  convert  .dvi  to  .pdf  file.  A common reconfiguration is to use the
              dvipdfm command, which needs its arguments in a different order:

                   $dvipdf = "dvipdfm %O -o %D %S";

              WARNING: The default dvipdf script generates pdf files with bitmapped fonts,  which
              do  not  look good when viewed by acroread.  That script should be modified to give
              dvips the options "-P pdf" to ensure that type 1 fonts are used in the pdf file.

       $dvipdf_silent_switch ["-q"]
              Switch(es) for dvipdf program when silent mode is on.

              N.B. The standard dvipdf program runs silently, so adding the silent switch has  no
              effect,  but  is  actually innocuous.  But if an alternative program is used, e.g.,
              dvipdfmx, then the silent switch has an effect.  The default setting is correct for
              dvipdfm and dvipdfmx.

       $dvips ["dvips %O -o %D %S"]
              The  program  to  used as a filter to convert a .dvi file to a .ps file.  If pdf is
              going to be generated from pdf, then the value of the $dvips_pdf_switch variable --
              see below -- will be included in the options substituted for "%O".

       $dvips_landscape ["dvips -tlandscape %O -o %D %S"]
              The  program  to used as a filter to convert a .dvi file to a .ps file in landscape
              mode.

       $dvips_pdf_switch ["-P pdf"]
              Switch(es) for dvips program when pdf file is to be generated from .ps file.

       $dvips_silent_switch ["-q"]
              Switch(es) for dvips program when silent mode is on.

       $dvi_update_command [""]
              When the dvi previewer is set to be updated by  running  a  command,  this  is  the
              command  that  is run.  See the information for the variable $dvi_update_method for
              further information, and see information on the variable $pdf_update_method for  an
              example for the analogous case of a pdf previewer.

       $dvi_update_method [2 under UNIX, 1 under MS-Windows]
              How  the  dvi viewer updates its display when the dvi file has changed.  The values
              here  apply  equally  to  the  $pdf_update_method  and  to  the   $ps_update_method
              variables.
                  0 => update is automatic,
                  1=>  manual  update  by user, which may only mean a mouse click on the viewer's
              window or may mean a more serious action.
                  2 => Send the signal, whose number is in the variable $dvi_update_signal.   The
              default value under UNIX is suitable for xdvi.
                  3  =>  Viewer cannot do an update, because it locks the file. (As with acroread
              under MS-Windows.)
                  4 => run a command to do the update.  The command is specified by the  variable
              $dvi_update_command.

              See  information  on  the variable $pdf_update_method for an example of updating by
              command.

       $dvi_update_signal [Under UNIX: SIGUSR1, which is a system-dependent value]
              The number of the signal that is sent to the dvi  viewer  when  it  is  updated  by
              sending  a  signal  -- see the information on the variable $dvi_update_method.  The
              default value is the one appropriate for xdvi on a UNIX system.

       $failure_cmd [undefined]
              See the documentation for $compiling_cmd.

       $fdb_ext ["fdb_latexmk"]
              The extension of the  file  which  latexmk  generates  to  contain  a  database  of
              information on source files.  You will not normally need to change this.

       $filetime_causality_threshold   [5];  $filetime_offset_report_threshold  [30].  (Units  of
       seconds.)

              These variables control how latexmk deals  with  the  following  issue,  which  can
              affect  the use of files that are on a remote filesystem (network share) instead of
              being on a file system local to the computer running latexmk.   Almost  users  will
              not have to worry about these settings, and can ignore the following explanation.

              In almost all situations, latexmk does not need to use the time stamps of the files
              it works with.  However, there are a couple of situations when  it  needs  to  know
              whether  a  certain  file  was  created  in  the  current  run  of a program (e.g.,
              (pdf)latex) or is a leftover file from a previous run. It does  this  by  comparing
              the  modification time of the file with the system time just before the program was
              started. If the modification time is earlier than when the program was started, the
              file  is  a  leftover file, which latexmk treats as if it were not created.  If the
              filetime is at least the program start time, then it can be assumed that  the  file
              was created in the current run.

              Unfortunately,  this  test  can  fail  if the file is on a remote system, since its
              system time is not necessarily synchronized with that  of  the  local  system;  the
              timestamps  on the remote files are set by the remote system, not the local system.
              Generally, modern operating systems regularly synchronize their time with a server,
              so the non-synchronization is mostly small (a second or so, or a few seconds).  But
              even a small difference can mess up latexmk's test.

              Latexmk measures the time difference between  the  time  on  the  two  systems  and
              compensates  for  this.   But the measurement (in a system-independent way) is only
              accurate to a second or two.  So latexmk allows for a threshold on  the  difference
              between  file  and  system  time before it concludes that a file is a leftover file
              from a previous  run.  The  configuration  variable  $filetime_causality_theshhold,
              which in units of seconds, specifies this threshold.  Luckily high precision is not
              needed.  The previous run is normally the previous  run  in  a  human  run-edit-run
              cycle,  and  is at least many seconds back.  A few seconds is therefore appropriate
              for the threshold, $filetime_causality_theshhold; it should be non-negative always,
              and should be bigger than 2 if a remote filesystem or network share is used.

              If  the  difference  in  system  times  on  the  two  systems is large, it normally
              indicates that at  least  one  of  the  systems  is  misconfigured.   The  variable
              $filetime_offset_report_threshold specifies the smallest size of the difference (or
              offset) in seconds between the times of the local and remote  system  beyond  which
              the  offset  is  reported.  This is reported at the point in the latexmk's progress
              that it measures the offset. The  report  is  made  if  silent  mode  is  used  and
              diagnostic mode is not on.

       $force_mode [0]
              If  nonzero,  continue  processing  past  minor latex errors including unrecognized
              cross references.  Equivalent to specifying the -f option.

       @generated_exts [( aux , bbl , idx , ind , lof , lot , out , toc , $fdb_ext )]
              This contains a list of extensions for files that are generated during a LaTeX  run
              and that are read in by LaTeX in later runs, either directly or indirectly.

              This  list  specifies files known to be generated by latex (and pdflatex, etc).  It
              is used in two ways: (a) The specified files are deleted  in  a  cleanup  operation
              (with the -c, -C, -CA, -g and -gg options), and (b) It affects the determination of
              whether a rerun of (pdf)LaTeX is needed after a run that gives an error.

              (Concerning item (b): Normally, a change of a  source  file  during  a  run  should
              provoke  a rerun.  This includes a file generated by LaTeX, e.g., an aux file, that
              is read in on subsequent runs.  But after a run that results in an error, a new run
              should  not  occur until the user has made a change in the files.  But the user may
              have corrected an error in a source .tex file during the run.  So latexmk needs  to
              distinguish  user-generated  and  automatically  generated files; it determines the
              automatically  generated  files  as  those  with  extensions   in   the   list   in
              @generated_exts.)

              A  convenient way to add an extra extension to the list, without losing the already
              defined ones is to use a push command in the line in an RC file.  E.g.,

                              push @generated_exts, "end";

              adds the extension "end" to the list of  predefined  generated  extensions.   (This
              extension is used by the RevTeX package, for example.)

       $go_mode [0]
              If  nonzero,  process files regardless of timestamps, and is then equivalent to the
              -g option.

       %hash_calc_ignore_pattern
              !!!This variable is for experts only!!!

              The general rule latexmk uses for determining when an extra run of some program  is
              needed  is  that  one  of the source files has changed.  But consider for example a
              latex package that causes an encapsulated postscript file (an  "eps"  file)  to  be
              made  that  is  to  be  read  in on the next run.  The file contains a comment line
              giving its creation date and time.  On the next run the time  changes,  latex  sees
              that the eps file has changed, and therefore reruns latex.  This causes an infinite
              loop, that is only terminated because latexmk has a limit on the number of runs  to
              guard against pathological situations.

              But  the changing line has no real effect, since it is a comment.  You can instruct
              latex to ignore the offending line as follows:

                 $hash_calc_ignore_pattern{'eps'} = '^%%CreationDate: ';

              This creates a rule for files with extension .eps about lines to ignore.  The left-
              hand  side  is  a  Perl  idiom  for  setting an item in a hash.  Note that the file
              extension is specified without a period.  The value, on the right-hand side,  is  a
              string  containing  a regular expresssion.  (See documentation on Perl for how they
              are to be specified in general.)  This particular regular expression specifies that
              lines  beginning  with  "%%CreationDate:  " are to be ignored in deciding whether a
              file of the given extension .eps has changed.

              There is only one regular expression available for each  extension.   If  you  need
              more  one pattern to specify lines to ignore, then you need to combine the patterns
              into a single regular expression.  The simplest method is  separate  the  different
              simple patterns by a vertical bar character (indicating "alternation" in the jargon
              of regular expressions).  For example,

                 $hash_calc_ignore_pattern{'eps'} = '^%%CreationDate: |^%%Title: ';

              causes lines starting with  either  "^%%CreationDate:  "  or  "^%%Title:  "  to  be
              ignored.

              It  may  happen  that  a  pattern  to be ignored is specified in, for example, in a
              system or user initialization file, and you wish to remove this in a file  that  is
              read later.  To do this, you use Perl's delete function, e.g.,

                  delete $hash_calc_ignore_pattern{'eps'};

       $jobname [""]

              This  specifies  the  jobname,  i.e., the basename that is used for generated files
              (.aux, .log, .dvi, .ps, .pdf, etc).  If this variable is a null  string,  then  the
              basename is the basename of the main tex file.  (At present, the string in $jobname
              should not contain spaces.)

              The placeholder '%A' is permitted. This will be substituted by the basename of  the
              TeX  file.  The primary purpose is when a variety of tex files are to be processed,
              and you want to use a different jobname for each but one that is distinct for each.
              Thus if you wanted to compare compilations of a set of files on different operating
              systems, with distinct filenames for all the cases, you could set

                 $jobname = "%A-$^O";

              in an initialization file.  (Here $^O is a variable provided by perl that  contains
              perl's name for the operating system.)

              Suppose you had .tex files test1.tex and test2.tex.  Then when you run

                 latexmk -pdf *.tex

              both  files  will  be compiled.  The .aux, .log, and .pdf files will have basenames
              test1-MSWin32  ante  test2-MSWin32  on  a  MS-Windows  system,   test1-darwin   and
              test2-darwin on an OS-X system, and a variety of similar cases on linux systems.

       $kpsewhich ["kpsewhich %S"]
              The  program  called to locate a source file when the name alone is not sufficient.
              Most filenames used by  latexmk  have  sufficient  path  information  to  be  found
              directly.   But sometimes, notably when a .bib or a .bst file is found from the log
              file of a bibtex or biber run, only the base name of the file is known, but not its
              path. The program specified by $kpsewhich is used to find it.

              (For advanced users: Because of the different way in which latexmk uses the command
              specified in $kpsewhich, some of the possibilities listed in the FORMAT OF  COMMAND
              SPECIFICATIONS  do not apply.  The internal and start keywords are not available. A
              simple command specification with possible options and then "%S"  is  all  that  is
              guaranteed  to work.  Note that for other commands, "%S" is substituted by a single
              source file. In contrast, for $kpsewhich, "%S" may be substituted by a long list of
              space-separated  filenames,  each  of  which  is  quoted.   The result on STDOUT of
              running the command is then piped to latexmk.)

              See also the @BIBINPUTS variable for another way that latexmk also uses to  try  to
              locate files; it applies only in the case of .bib files.

       $kpsewhich_show [0]
              Whether to show diagnostics about invocations of kpsewhich: the command line use to
              invoke it and the results.  These diagnostics are shown if $kpsewhich_show is  non-
              zero  or  if  diagnostics  mode  is  on.   (But  in  the second case, lots of other
              diagnostics are also shown.)  Without these diagnostics there is nothing visible in
              latexmk's screen output about invocations of kpsewhich.

       $landscape_mode [0]
              If  nonzero,  run in landscape mode, using the landscape mode previewers and dvi to
              postscript converters.  Equivalent to the -l  option.   Normally  not  needed  with
              current previewers.

       $latex ["latex %O %S"]
              Specifies  the  command  line  for the LaTeX processing program.  Note that as with
              other programs, you can use this variable not  just  to  change  the  name  of  the
              program used, but also specify options to the program.  E.g.,

                                  $latex = "latex --src-specials %O %S";

              To  do  a coordinated setting of all of $latex, $pdflatex, $lualatex, and $xelatex,
              see the section "Advanced Configuration".

       %latex_input_extensions
              This variable specifies the extensions tried by latexmk when it finds that a  LaTeX
              run  resulted  in  an  error  that a file has not been found, and the file is given
              without an extension.  This typically happens  when  LaTeX  commands  of  the  form
              \input{file}  or  \includegraphics{figure},  when the relevant source file does not
              exist.

              In this situation, latexmk searches for custom dependencies  to  make  the  missing
              file(s),   but   restricts   it   to  the  extensions  specified  by  the  variable
              %latex_input_extensions.  The default extensions are 'tex' and 'eps'.

              (For Perl experts: %latex_input_extensions is a hash whose keys are the extensions.
              The values are irrelevant.)  Two subroutines are provided for manipulating this and
              the    related    variable    %pdflatex_input_extensions,     add_input_ext     and
              remove_input_ext.  They are used as in the following examples are possible lines in
              an initialization file:

                  remove_input_ext( 'latex', 'tex' );

              removes the extension 'tex' from latex_input_extensions

                  add_input_ext( 'latex', 'asdf' );

              add the  extension  'asdf  to  latex_input_extensions.   (Naturally  with  such  an
              extension,  you  should have made an appropriate custom dependency for latexmk, and
              should also have done the appropriate programming  in  the  LaTeX  source  file  to
              enable  the  file to be read.  The standard extensions are handled by LaTeX and its
              graphics/graphicx packages.)

       $latex_silent_switch ["-interaction=batchmode"]
              Switch(es) for the LaTeX processing program when silent mode is on.

              If you use MikTeX, you may prefer the results  if  you  configure  the  options  to
              include -c-style-errors, e.g., by the following line in an initialization file

                $latex_silent_switch = "-interaction=batchmode -c-style-errors";

       $lpr ["lpr %O %S" under UNIX/Linux, "NONE lpr" under MS-Windows]
              The command to print postscript files.

              Under  MS-Windows  (unlike  UNIX/Linux),  there is no standard program for printing
              files.  But there are ways you  can  do  it.   For  example,  if  you  have  gsview
              installed, you could use it with the option "/p":

                  $lpr = '"c:/Program Files/Ghostgum/gsview/gsview32.exe" /p';

              If  gsview  is  installed  in  a  different  directory,  you  will need to make the
              appropriate change.  Note the combination of single and double  quotes  around  the
              name.   The  single  quotes  specify  that  this  is a string to be assigned to the
              configuration variable $lpr.  The double quotes are part of the  string  passed  to
              the  operating system to get the command obeyed; this is necessary because one part
              of the command name ("Program Files") contains a space  which  would  otherwise  be
              misinterpreted.

       $lpr_dvi ["NONE lpr_dvi"]
              The printing program to print dvi files.

       $lpr_pdf ["NONE lpr_pdf"]
              The printing program to print pdf files.

              Under MS-Windows you could set this to use gsview, if it is installed, e.g.,

                  $lpr = '"c:/Program Files/Ghostgum/gsview/gsview32.exe" /p';

              If  gsview  is  installed  in  a  different  directory,  you  will need to make the
              appropriate change.  Note the double quotes around  the  name:  this  is  necessary
              because one part of the command name ("Program Files") contains a space which would
              otherwise be misinterpreted.

       $lualatex ["lualatex %O %S"]
              Specifies the command line for the LaTeX processing program that is to be used when
              the lualatex program is called for (e.g., by the option -lualatex.

              To  do  a coordinated setting of all of $latex, $pdflatex, $lualatex, and $xelatex,
              see the section "Advanced Configuration".

       %lualatex_input_extensions
              This variable specifies the extensions tried  by  latexmk  when  it  finds  that  a
              lualatex  run  resulted in an error that a file has not been found, and the file is
              given without an extension.  This typically happens when LaTeX commands of the form
              \input{file}  or  \includegraphics{figure},  when the relevant source file does not
              exist.

              In this situation, latexmk searches for custom dependencies  to  make  the  missing
              file(s),   but   restricts   it   to  the  extensions  specified  by  the  variable
              %pdflatex_input_extensions.  The default extensions are  'tex',  'pdf',  'jpg,  and
              'png'.

              See  details  of  the  %latex_input_extensions  for  other information that equally
              applies to %lualatex_input_extensions.

       $lualatex_silent_switch ["-interaction=batchmode"]
              Switch(es) for the lualatex program (specified  in  the  variable  $lualatex)  when
              silent mode is on.

              See  details of the $latex_silent_switch for other information that equally applies
              to $lualatex_silent_switch.

       $make ["make"]
              The make processing program.

       $makeindex ["makeindex %O -o %D %S"]
              The index processing program.

       $makeindex_silent_switch ["-q"]
              Switch(es) for the index processing program when silent mode is on.

       $max_repeat [5]
              The maximum number of times latexmk will run latex/pdflatex  before  deciding  that
              there  may be an infinite loop and that it needs to bail out, rather than rerunning
              latex/pdflatex again to resolve cross-references, etc.  The  default  value  covers
              all normal cases.

              (Note  that  the  "etc"  covers  a  lot  of  cases  where one run of latex/pdflatex
              generates files to be read in on a later run.)

       $MSWin_back_slash [1]
              This configuration variable only has an effect when latexmk is  running  under  MS-
              Windows.  It determines whether, when a command is executed under MS-Windows, there
              should be substituted "\" for the  separator  character  between  components  of  a
              directory   name.   Internally,  latexmk  uses  "/"  for  the  directory  separator
              character, which is the character used by Unix-like systems.

              For many programs under  MS-Windows,  both  "\"  and  "/"  are  acceptable  as  the
              directory  separator  character.   But some programs only accept "\" on the command
              line.  So for safety latexmk makes a translation, by default.   It  is  conceivable
              that  under  certain  situations  this  is undesirable, so the configuration can be
              changed.  (A possible example might be when some of  the  software  is  implemented
              using Cygwin, which provides a Unix-like environment inside MS-Windows.)

       $new_viewer_always [0]
              This   variable   applies   to   latexmk   only  in  continuous-preview  mode.   If
              $new_viewer_always is 0, latexmk will check for a previously running  previewer  on
              the   same   file,   and  if  one  is  running  will  not  start  a  new  one.   If
              $new_viewer_always is non-zero, this check will be skipped, and latexmk will behave
              as if no viewer is running.

       $out_dir [""]
              If non-blank, this variable specifies the directory in which output files are to be
              written by a run of (pdf)latex.  See also the variable $aux_dir.

              The effect of this variable (when non-blank) is  achieved  by  using  the  -output-
              directory  option  of  (pdf)latex.  This exists in the usual current (Dec. 2011 and
              later) implementations of TeX, i.e., MiKTeX and TeXLive. But it may not be  present
              in other versions.

              If  you  also  use  the  -cd option, and $out_dir (or $aux_dir) contains a relative
              path, then the path is interpreted relative to the document directory.

              Commonly, the directory specified for output files is a subdirectory of the current
              working  directory.  However, if you specify some other directory, e.g., "/tmp/foo"
              or "../output", be aware that this could cause problems, e.g.,  with  makeindex  or
              bibtex.  This is because modern versions of these programs, by default, will refuse
              to work when they find that they are asked to write to a file in a  directory  that
              appears not to be the current working directory or one of its subdirectories.  This
              is part of security measures by the whole TeX system that try to prevent  malicious
              or  errant  TeX  documents  from  incorrectly  messing with a user's files.  If for
              $out_dir or $aux_dir you really do need to  specify  an  absolute  pathname  (e.g.,
              "/tmp/foo")  or  a path (e.g., "../output") that includes a higher-level directory,
              and you need to use makeindex or bibtex, then you  need  to  disable  the  security
              measures  (and  assume  any risks).  One way of doing this is to temporarily set an
              operating system environment variable openout_any to "a" (as in "all"), to override
              the default "paranoid" setting.

       $pdf_mode [0]
              If  zero, do NOT generate a pdf version of the document.  If equal to 1, generate a
              pdf version of the document using pdflatex, using  the  command  specified  by  the
              $pdflatex variable.  If equal to 2, generate a pdf version of the document from the
              ps file, by using the command specified by the $ps2pdf variable.  If  equal  to  3,
              generate  a  pdf  version  of  the document from the dvi file, by using the command
              specified by the $dvipdf variable.  If equal to 4, generate a pdf  version  of  the
              document using lualatex, using the command specified by the $lualatex variable.  If
              equal to 5, generate a pdf version (and an  xdv  version)  of  the  document  using
              xelatex, using the commands specified by the $xelatex and xdvipdfmx variables.

              In  $pdf_mode=2,  it  is  ensured  that  .dvi  and  .ps  files  are  also made.  In
              $pdf_mode=3, it is ensured that a  .dvi  file  is  also  made.   But  this  may  be
              overridden by the document.

       $pdflatex ["pdflatex %O %S"]
              Specifies the command line for the LaTeX processing program in a version that makes
              a pdf file instead of a dvi file.

              An example use of this variable is to add certain options to the command  line  for
              the program, e.g.,

                   $pdflatex = "pdflatex --shell-escape %O %S";

              (In  some earlier versions of latexmk, you needed to use an assignment to $pdflatex
              to allow the use of lualatex  or  xelatex  instead  of  pdflatex.   There  are  now
              separate configuration variables for the use of lualatex or xelatex.  See $lualatex
              and $xelatex.)

              To do a coordinated setting of all of $latex, $pdflatex, $lualatex,  and  $xelatex,
              see the section "Advanced Configuration".

       %pdflatex_input_extensions
              This  variable  specifies  the  extensions  tried  by  latexmk when it finds that a
              pdflatex run resulted in an error that a file has not been found, and the  file  is
              given without an extension.  This typically happens when LaTeX commands of the form
              \input{file} or \includegraphics{figure}, when the relevant source  file  does  not
              exist.

              In  this  situation,  latexmk  searches for custom dependencies to make the missing
              file(s),  but  restricts  it  to  the  extensions   specified   by   the   variable
              %pdflatex_input_extensions.   The  default  extensions  are 'tex', 'pdf', 'jpg, and
              'png'.

              See details of the  %latex_input_extensions  for  other  information  that  equally
              applies to %pdflatex_input_extensions.

       $pdflatex_silent_switch ["-interaction=batchmode"]
              Switch(es)  for  the  pdflatex  program  (specified in the variable $pdflatex) when
              silent mode is on.

              See details of the $latex_silent_switch for other information that equally  applies
              to $pdflatex_silent_switch.

       $pdf_previewer ["start acroread %O %S"]
              The command to invoke a pdf-previewer.

              On  MS-Windows,  the  default  is  changed  to "cmd /c start """; under more recent
              versions of Windows, this will cause to be run  whatever  command  the  system  has
              associated  with .pdf files.  But this may be undesirable if this association is to
              acroread -- see the notes in the explanation of the -pvc option.]

              On OS-X the default is changed to "open %S", which results in OS-X starting up (and
              detaching)  the  viewer  associated  with the file.  By default, for pdf files this
              association is to OS-X's preview, which is quite satisfactory.

              WARNING:  Problem under MS-Windows: if acroread is used as the pdf  previewer,  and
              it  is  actually  viewing  a  pdf file, the pdf file cannot be updated.  Thus makes
              acroread a bad choice of previewer if you use  latexmk's  previous-continuous  mode
              (option  -pvc)  under  MS-windows.   This  problem  does not occur if, for example,
              SumatraPDF or gsview is used to view pdf files.

              Important note: Normally you will want to have a previewer run  detached,  so  that
              latexmk doesn't wait for the previewer to terminate before continuing its work.  So
              normally you should prefix the command by "start ", which flags to latexmk that  it
              should  do the detaching of the previewer itself (by whatever method is appropriate
              to the operating system).  But sometimes letting latexmk do the  detaching  is  not
              appropriate  (for a variety of non-trivial reasons), so you should put the "start "
              bit in yourself, whenever it is needed.

       $pdf_update_command [""]
              When the pdf previewer is set to be updated by  running  a  command,  this  is  the
              command that is run.  See the information for the variable $pdf_update_method.

       $pdf_update_method [1 under UNIX, 3 under MS-Windows]
              How  the  pdf  viewer  updates  its  display when the pdf file has changed. See the
              information  on  the  variable  $dvi_update_method  for  the  codes.   (Note   that
              information  needs be changed slightly so that for the value 4, to run a command to
              do the update, the command is specified by the  variable  $pdf_update_command,  and
              for  the  value  2,  to  specify  update  by  signal,  the  signal  is specified by
              $pdf_update_signal.)

              Note that acroread under MS-Windows (but not UNIX)  locks  the  pdf  file,  so  the
              default value is then 3.

              Arranging  to  use  a  command to get a previewer explicitly updated requires three
              variables to be set.  For example:

                  $pdf_previewer = "start xpdf -remote %R %O %S";
                  $pdf_update_method = 4;
                  $pdf_update_command = "xpdf -remote %R -reload";

              The first setting arranges for the xpdf program to be used in  its  "remote  server
              mode",  with the server name specified as the rootname of the TeX file.  The second
              setting arranges for updating to be done in response to a command,  and  the  third
              setting sets the update command.

       $pdf_update_signal [Under UNIX: SIGHUP, which is a system-dependent value]
              The  number  of  the  signal  that  is sent to the pdf viewer when it is updated by
              sending a signal -- see the information on the  variable  $pdf_update_method.   The
              default value is the one appropriate for gv on a UNIX system.

       $pid_position[1 under UNIX, -1 under MS-Windows]
              The  variable  $pid_position  is  used to specify which word in lines of the output
              from $pscmd corresponds to the process ID.  The first word in the line is  numbered
              0.   The  default  value of 1 (2nd word in line) is correct for Solaris 2.6, Linux,
              and OS-X with their default settings of $pscmd.

              Setting the variable to -1 is used to indicate that $pscmd is not to be used.

       $postscript_mode [0]
              If nonzero, generate a postscript version of the document.  Equivalent to  the  -ps
              option.

              If  some  other  request  is  made  for  which  a  postscript  file is needed, then
              $postscript_mode will be set to 1.

       $pre_tex_code ['']

              Sets TeX code to be executed before inputting the source file.  This works  if  the
              relevant  one  of  $latex,  etc  contains  a  suitable command line with a %P or %U
              substitution.  For example you could do

                   $latex = 'latex %O %P';
                   $pre_tex_code = '\AtBeginDocument{An initial message\par}';

              To set all of  $latex,  $pdflatex,  $lualatex,  and  $xelatex  you  could  use  the
              subroutine alt_tex_cmds:

                   &alt_tex_cmds;
                   $pre_tex_code = '\AtBeginDocument{An initial message\par}';

       $preview_continuous_mode [0]
              If  nonzero,  run a previewer to view the document, and continue running latexmk to
              keep .dvi up-to-date.  Equivalent to the  -pvc  option.   Which  previewer  is  run
              depends  on  the  other  settings,  see  the  command  line options -view=, and the
              variable $view.

       $preview_mode [0]
              If nonzero, run a previewer to preview the document.  Equivalent to the -pv option.
              Which  previewer is run depends on the other settings, see the command line options
              -view=, and the variable $view.

       $printout_mode [0]
              If nonzero, print the document using the command specified in  the  $lpr  variable.
              Equivalent  to  the  -p option.  This is recommended not to be set from an RC file,
              otherwise you could waste lots of paper.

       $print_type = ["auto"]
              Type of file to printout: possibilities are "auto", "dvi", "none", "pdf", or  "ps".
              See the option -print= for the meaning of the "auto" value.

       $pscmd Command  used  to get all the processes currently run by the user.  The -pvc option
              uses the command specified by the variable $pscmd  to  determine  if  there  is  an
              already  running  previewer, and to find the process ID (needed if latexmk needs to
              signal the previewer about file changes).

              Each line of the output of this command is assumed to correspond  to  one  process.
              See the $pid_position variable for how the process number is determined.

              The  default  for pscmd is "NONE" under MS-Windows and cygwin (i.e., the command is
              not used), "ps -ww -u $ENV{USER}" under OS-X, and "ps -f -u $ENV{USER}" under other
              operating  systems  (including  Linux).   In  these  specifications "$ENV{USER}" is
              substituted by the username.

       $ps2pdf ["ps2pdf %O %S %D"]
              Command to convert .ps to .pdf file.

       $ps_filter [empty]
              The postscript file filter to be run on the newly produced postscript  file  before
              other processing.  Equivalent to specifying the -pF option.

       $ps_previewer ["start gv %O %S", but start %O %S under MS-Windows]
              The  command to invoke a ps-previewer.  (The default under MS-Windows will cause to
              be run whatever command the system has associated with .ps files.)

              Note that gv could be used with the -watch option updates its display whenever  the
              postscript  file  changes, whereas ghostview does not.  However, different versions
              of gv have slightly different ways of writing this option.  You can configure  this
              variable appropriately.

              WARNING:  Linux  systems  may  have  installed  one  (or more) versions of gv under
              different names, e.g., ggv, kghostview, etc, but perhaps not  one  actually  called
              gv.

              Important  note:  Normally  you will want to have a previewer run detached, so that
              latexmk doesn't wait for the previewer to terminate before continuing its work.  So
              normally  you should prefix the command by "start ", which flags to latexmk that it
              should do the detaching of the previewer itself (by whatever method is  appropriate
              to  the  operating  system).  But sometimes letting latexmk do the detaching is not
              appropriate (for a variety of non-trivial reasons), so you should put the "start  "
              bit in yourself, whenever it is needed.

       $ps_previewer_landscape ["start gv -swap %O %S", but start %O %S under MS-Windows]
              The command to invoke a ps-previewer in landscape mode.

       $ps_update_command [""]
              When  the  postscript  previewer is set to be updated by running a command, this is
              the command that is run.  See the information for the variable $ps_update_method.

       $ps_update_method [0 under UNIX, 1 under MS-Windows]
              How the postscript viewer updates its display when the .ps file  has  changed.  See
              the  information  on  the  variable  $dvi_update_method  for the codes.  (Note that
              information needs be changed slightly so that for the value 4, to run a command  to
              do the update, the command is specified by the variable $ps_update_command, and for
              the  value  2,  to  specify  update  by  signal,  the  signal   is   specified   by
              $ps_update_signal.)

       $ps_update_signal [Under UNIX: SIGHUP, which is a system-dependent value]
              The  number  of  the  signal  that  is sent to the pdf viewer when it is updated by
              sending  a  signal  --  see  $ps_update_method.   The  default  value  is  the  one
              appropriate for gv on a UNIX system.

       $pvc_timeout [0]
              If this variable is nonzero, there will be a  timeout in pvc mode after a period of
              inactivity.  Inactivity means a period when latexmk has detected  no  file  changes
              and  hence  has  not  taken  any actions like compiling the document. The period of
              inactivity is in the variable $pvc_timeout_mins.

       $pvc_timeout_mins [30]
              The period of inactivity, in minutes, after which pvc mode times out.  This is used
              if $pvc_timeout is nonzero.

       $pvc_view_file_via_temporary [1]
              The  same  as  $always_view_file_via_temporary,  except  that  it  only  applies in
              preview-continuous mode (-pvc option).

       $quote_filenames [1]
              This specifies whether substitutions for placeholders in command specifications (as
              in $pdflatex) are surrounded by double quotes.  If this variable is 1 (or any other
              value Perl regards as true), then quoting is done.  Otherwise quoting is omitted.

              The quoting method used by latexmk is tested to work correctly under  UNIX  systems
              (including  Linux  and  Mac  OS-X)  and  under  MS-Windows.   It  allows the use of
              filenames containing special characters,  notably  spaces.   (But  note  that  many
              versions  of  latex  and  pdflatex cannot correctly deal with TeX files whose names
              contain spaces.  Latexmk's quoting only ensures that such filenames  are  correctly
              treated by the operating system in passing arguments to programs.)

       $recorder [1]
              Whether  to  use  the  -recorder  option  to latex and pdflatex. Use of this option
              results in a file of extension .fls containing a  list  of  the  files  that  these
              programs  have  read  and  written.  Latexmk will then use this file to improve its
              detection of source files and generated files after a run of latex or pdflatex.

              It is generally recommended to use this  option  (or  to  configure  the  $recorder
              variable to be on.)  But it only works if (pdf)latex supports the -recorder option,
              which is true for most current implementations

              Note about the name of the .fls file: Most implementations of (pdf)latex produce an
              .fls  file  with  the  same  basename  as  the  main  document's  LaTeX,  e.g., for
              Document.tex, the .fls file is Document.fls.  However, some implementations instead
              produce  files  named  for  the  program, i.e., latex.fls or pdflatex.fls.  In this
              second case, latexmk copies the latex.fls  or  pdflatex.fls  to  a  file  with  the
              basename of the main LaTeX document, e.g., Document.fls.

       $search_path_separator [See below for default]
              The  character  separating paths in the environment variables TEXINPUTS, BIBINPUTS,
              and BSTINPUTS.  This variable is mainly used by latexmk when the -outdir,  -output-
              directory,  -auxdir,  and/or -aux-directory options are used.  In that case latexmk
              needs to communicate appropriately modified search paths to bibtex, dvipdf,  dvips,
              and (pdf)latex.

              [Comment  to  technically  savvy  readers:  (pdf)latex  doesn't  actually  need the
              modified search path.  But, surprisingly, dvipdf and dvips  do,  because  sometimes
              graphics files get generated in the output or aux directories.]

              The  default  under  MSWin  and Cygwin is ';' and under UNIX-like operating systems
              (including Linux and OS-X) is ':'.  Normally the defaults  give  correct  behavior.
              But  there can be difficulties if your operating system is of one kind, but some of
              your software is running under an emulator for the other kind of operating  system;
              in that case you'll need to find out what is needed, and set $search_path_separator
              explicitly.  (The same goes, of course, for unusual operating systems that are  not
              in the MSWin, Linux, OS-X, Unix collection.)

       $show_time [0]
              Whether to show CPU time used.

       $silence_logfile_warnings [0]
              Whether  after  a  run  of  (pdf)latex  to summarize warnings in the log file about
              undefined citations and references.  Setting $silence_logfile_warnings=0 gives  the
              summary  of  warnings  (provided silent mode isn't also set), and this is useful to
              locate undefined citations and references without searching through the  much  more
              verbose  log  file or the screen output of (pdf)latex.  But the summary can also be
              excessively annoying.  The default is not to give these warnings.  The command line
              options  -silence_logfile_warning_list  and -silence_logfile_warning_list- also set
              this variable.

              Note that multiple occurrences for the same undefined object on the same  page  and
              same line will be compressed to a single warning.

       $silent [0]
              Whether to run silently.  Setting $silent to 1 has the same effect as the -quiet of
              -silent options on the command line.

       $sleep_time [2]
              The time to sleep (in seconds)  between  checking  for  source  file  changes  when
              running  with  the  -pvc option.  This is subject to a minimum of one second delay,
              except that zero delay is also allowed.

              A value of exactly 0 gives no delay, and typically results in 100% CPU usage, which
              may not be desirable.

       $texfile_search [""]
              This is an obsolete variable, replaced by the @default_files variable.

              For backward compatibility, if you choose to set $texfile_search, it is a string of
              space-separated filenames,  and  then  latexmk  replaces  @default_files  with  the
              filenames in $texfile_search to which is added "*.tex".

       $success_cmd [undefined]
              See the documentation for $compiling_cmd.

       $tmpdir [See below for default]
              Directory to store temporary files that latexmk may generate while running.

              The  default  under MSWindows (including cygwin), is to set $tmpdir to the value of
              the first of whichever of the system environment variables TMPDIR or  TEMP  exists,
              otherwise  to the current directory.  Under other operating systems (expected to be
              UNIX/Linux, including OS-X), the default is the value  of  the  system  environment
              variable TMPDIR if it exists, otherwise "/tmp".

       $use_make_for_missing_files [0]
              Whether  to use make to try and make files that are missing after a run of latex or
              pdflatex, and for which a custom dependency has not been found.  This is  generally
              useful  only  when  latexmk  is  used as part of a bigger project which is built by
              using the make program.

              Note that once a missing file has been made, no further calls to make will be  made
              on  a  subsequent  run of latexmk to update the file.  Handling this problem is the
              job of a suitably defined Makefile.  See the section "USING latexmk WITH make"  for
              how  to  do  this.   The  intent  of  calling make from latexmk is merely to detect
              dependencies.

       $view ["default"]
              Which kind of file is to be previewed if a previewer is used.  The possible  values
              are "default", "dvi", "ps", "pdf".  The value of "default" means that the "highest"
              of the kinds of file generated is to be used (among .dvi, .ps and .pdf).

       $warnings_as_errors [0]
              Normally latexmk copies the behavior of latex in treating undefined references  and
              citations and multiply defined references as conditions that give a warning but not
              an error.  The variable  $warnings_as_errors  controls  whether  this  behavior  is
              modified.

              When the variable is non-zero, latexmk at the end of its run will return a non-zero
              status code to the operating system if any of the files processed gives  a  warning
              about   problems  with  citations  or  references  (i.e.,  undefined  citations  or
              references or multiply defined references).  This is after  latexmk  has  completed
              all  the  runs  it  needs  to  try  and  resolve  references  and  citations.  Thus
              $warnings_as_errors being nonzero causes latexmk to treat such warnings as  errors,
              but only when they occur on the last run of (pdf)latex and only after processing is
              complete.  A non-zero value $warnings_as_errors can  be  set  by  the  command-line
              option -Werror.

              The default behavior is normally satisfactory in the usual edit-compile-edit cycle.
              But, for example, latexmk can also be used as part of  a  build  process  for  some
              bigger  project,  e.g.,  for  creating  documentation  in  the  build of a software
              application.  Then it is often sensible to treat citation and reference warnings as
              errors  that  require  the  overall  build process to be aborted.  Of course, since
              multiple runs  of  (pdf)latex  are  generally  needed  to  resolve  references  and
              citations,  what  matters is not the warnings on the first run, but the warnings on
              the last run; latexmk takes this into account appropriately.

              In  addition,  when  preview-continuous  mode  is  used,  a  non-zero   value   for
              $warnings_as_errors changes the use of the commands $failure_cmd, $warning_cmd, and
              $success_cmd after a compliation.  If there are citation or reference warnings, but
              no  other  errors,  the behavior is as follows. If $warning_cmd is set, it is used.
              If it is not set, then then if $warnings_as_errors is non-zero and $failure_cmd  is
              set,  then  $failure_cmd.   Otherwise  $success_cmd  is  used,  if it is set.  (The
              foregoing explanation is rather complicated, because latexmk has to deal  with  the
              case that one or more of the commands isn't set.)

       $xdvipdfmx ["xdvipdfmx -o %D %O %S"]

              The  program  to make a pdf file from an xdv file (used in conjunction with xelatex
              when $pdf_mode=5).

       $xdvipdfmx_silent_switch ["-q"]
              Switch(es) for the xdvipdfmx program when silent mode is on.

       $xelatex ["xelatex %O %S"]
              Specifies the command line for the LaTeX processing program  of  when  the  xelatex
              program  is  called  for.   See  the  documentation of the -xelatex option for some
              special properties of latexmk's use of xelatex.

              Note about xelatex: Now latexmk uses xelatex to make an .xdv rather than .pdf file,
              with  the  .pdf file being created in a separate step.  This is enforced by the use
              of the -no-pdf option.  If %O is part of the command  for  invoking  xelatex,  then
              latexmk  will  insert  the -no-pdf option automatically, otherwise you must provide
              the option yourself

              To do a coordinated setting of all of $latex, $pdflatex, $lualatex,  and  $xelatex,
              see the section "Advanced Configuration".

       %xelatex_input_extensions
              This  variable  specifies  the  extensions  tried  by latexmk when it finds that an
              xelatex run resulted in an error that a file has not been found, and  the  file  is
              given without an extension.  This typically happens when LaTeX commands of the form
              \input{file} or \includegraphics{figure}, when the relevant source  file  does  not
              exist.

              In  this  situation,  latexmk  searches for custom dependencies to make the missing
              file(s),  but  restricts  it  to  the  extensions   specified   by   the   variable
              %xelatex_input_extensions.   The  default  extensions  are  'tex', 'pdf', 'jpg, and
              'png'.

              See details of the  %latex_input_extensions  for  other  information  that  equally
              applies to %xelatex_input_extensions.

       $xelatex_silent_switch ["-interaction=batchmode"]
              Switch(es) for the xelatex program (specified in the variable $xelatex) when silent
              mode is on.

              See details of the $latex_silent_switch for other information that equally  applies
              to $xelatex_silent_switch.

CUSTOM DEPENDENCIES

       In  any  RC  file  a  set  of custom dependencies can be set up to convert a file with one
       extension to a file with another.  An example use of this would be  to  allow  latexmk  to
       convert a .fig file to .eps to be included in the .tex file.

   Defining a custom dependency:
       The  old  method  of  configuring  latexmk  to  use  a  custom  dependency was to directly
       manipulate  the  @cus_dep_list  array  that  contains  information  defining  the   custom
       dependencies.  (See the section "Old Method of Defining Custom Dependencies" for details.)
       This method still works, but is no longer preferred.

       A better method is to use the subroutines  that  allow  convenient  manipulations  of  the
       custom dependency list.  These are

           add_cus_dep( fromextension, toextension, must, subroutine )
           remove_cus_dep( fromextension, toextension )
           show_cus_dep()

       The arguments are as follows:

       from extension:
              The  extension  of  the  file we are converting from (e.g. "fig").  It is specified
              without a period.

       to extension:
              The extension of the file we are converting  to  (e.g.  "eps").   It  is  specified
              without a period.

       must:  If  non-zero, the file from which we are converting must exist, if it doesn't exist
              latexmk will give an error message and exit unless the -f option is specified.   If
              must  is  zero and the file we are converting from doesn't exist, then no action is
              taken.  Generally, the appropriate value of must is zero.

       function:
              The name of the subroutine that latexmk should call to perform the file conversion.
              The  first  argument to the subroutine is the base name of the file to be converted
              without any extension.  The subroutines are declared in the syntax  of  Perl.   The
              function should return 0 if it was successful and a nonzero number if it failed.

       Naturally  add_cus_dep adds a custom dependency with the specified from and to extensions.
       If a custom dependency has been previously defined (e.g.,  in  an  rcfile  that  was  read
       earlier), then it is replaced by the new one.

       The  subroutine  remove_cus_dep  removes  the  specified custom dependency. The subroutine
       show_cus_dep causes a list of the currently defined custom dependencies to be sent to  the
       screen output.

   How custom dependencies are used:
       An  instance of a custom dependency rule is created whenever latexmk detects that a run of
       latex/pdflatex needs to read a file, like a graphics file,  whose  extension  is  the  to-
       extension  of  a  custom dependency.  Then latexmk examines whether a file exists with the
       same name, but  with  the  corresponding  from-extension,  as  specified  in  the  custom-
       dependency.   If  it  does,  then  a  corresponding  instance  of the custom dependency is
       created, after which the rule is invoked whenever the destination file (the one  with  the
       to-extension) is out-of-date with respect to the corresponding source file.

       To  make  the  new destination file, the Perl subroutine specified in the rule is invoked,
       with an argument that is the base name of  the  files  in  question.   Simple  cases  just
       involve  a  subroutine  invoking  an  external  program; this can be done by following the
       templates below, even by those without knowledge of the  Perl  programming  language.   Of
       course, experts could do something much more elaborate.

       One  item  in  the  specification  of  each  custom-dependency rule, labeled "must" above,
       specifies how the rule should be applied when the source file fails to exist.

       When latex reports that an input file (e.g., a graphics  file)  does  not  exist,  latexmk
       tries  to  find  a source file and a custom dependency that can be used to make it.  If it
       succeeds, then it creates an instance of the custom dependency and invokes it to make  the
       missing  file,  after  which  the  next  pass  of latex etc will be able to read the newly
       created file.

       Note for advanced usage: The operating system's environment variable TEXINPUTS can be used
       to  specify a search path for finding files by latex etc.  Correspondingly, when a missing
       file is reported, latexmk looks in the directories specified in TEXINPUTS as  well  as  in
       the current directory, to find a source file from which an instance of a custom dependency
       can be used to make the missing file.

   Function to implement custom dependency, traditional method:
       The function that implements a custom dependency gets the information on the files  to  be
       processed  in  two ways.  The first is through its one argument; the argument contains the
       base name of the source and destination files.  The second way is described later.

       A simple and typical example of code in an initialization rcfile using  the  first  method
       is:

           add_cus_dep( 'fig', 'eps', 0, 'fig2eps' );
           sub fig2eps {
               system( "fig2dev -Leps \"$_[0].fig\" \"$_[0].eps\"" );
           }

       The  first  line  adds  a  custom dependency that converts a file with extension "fig", as
       created by the xfig program, to an encapsulated postscript  file,  with  extension  "eps".
       The  remaining  lines  define a subroutine that carries out the conversion.  If a rule for
       converting  "fig"  to  "eps"  files  already  exists  (e.g.,  from  a  previously  read-in
       initialization file), the latexmk will delete this rule before making the new one.

       Suppose  latexmk  is using this rule to convert a file "figure.fig" to "figure.eps".  Then
       it will invoke the fig2eps subroutine defined in the above code  with  a  single  argument
       "figure",  which  is  the  basename of each of the files (possibly with a path component).
       This argument is referred to by Perl as $_[0].  In the example above, the subroutine  uses
       the  Perl  command  system  to  invoke  the program fig2dev.  The double quotes around the
       string are a Perl idiom that signify that each string of the  form  of  a  variable  name,
       $_[0] in this case, is to be substituted by its value.

       If  the  return  value  of  the  subroutine is non-zero, then latexmk will assume an error
       occurred during the execution of the subroutine.  In the above example, no explicit return
       value  is given, and instead the return value is the value returned by the last (and only)
       statement, i.e., the invocation of system, which returns the value 0 on success.

       If you use pdflatex instead of latex, then  you  will  probably  prefer  to  convert  your
       graphics  files  to  pdf  format,  in  which  case  you would replace the above code in an
       initialization file by

           add_cus_dep( 'fig', 'pdf, 0, 'fig2pdf' );
           sub fig2pdf {
               system( "fig2dev -Lpdf \"$_[0].fig\" \"$_[0].pdf\"" );
           }

       Note 1: In the command lines given in the system commands in the  above  examples,  double
       quotes  have  been  inserted  around  the  file  names  (implemented  by  '\"' in the Perl
       language).  They immunize the  running  of  the  program  against  special  characters  in
       filenames.   Very often these quotes are not necessary, i.e., they can be omitted.  But it
       is normally safer to keep them in.   Even  though  the  rules  for  quoting  vary  between
       operating  systems,  command  shells  and individual pieces of software, the quotes in the
       above examples do not cause problems in the cases I have tested.

       Note 2: One case in which the quotes are important is when the files are in a subdirectory
       and  your  operating  system  is  Microsoft  Windows.   Then  the  separator character for
       directory components can be either a forward slash '/' or Microsoft's more usual  backward
       slash ยด\'.  Forward slashes are generated by latexmk, to maintain its sanity from software
       like MiKTeX that mixes both directory separators; but their correct use normally  requires
       quoted  filenames.   (See  a  log  file  from  a run of MiKTeX (at least in v. 2.9) for an
       example of the use of both directory separators.)

       Note 3: The subroutines implementing custom dependencies in the examples given just have a
       single  line  invoking  an  external  program.  That's the usual situation.  But since the
       subroutines are in the Perl language, you can implement much more  complicated  processing
       if you need it.

   Removing custom dependencies, and when you might need to do this:
       If  you have some general custom dependencies defined in the system or user initialization
       file, you may find that for a particular project they are undesirable.  So you might  want
       to delete the unneeded ones.  A situation where this would be desirable is where there are
       multiple custom dependencies with the same from-extension or  the  same  to-extension.  In
       that  case,  latexmk  might  choose  a  different one from the one you want for a specific
       project.  As an example, to remove any "fig" to "eps" rule you would use:

           remove_cus_dep( 'fig', 'eps' );

       If you have complicated sets of custom dependencies, you may want to get a listing of  the
       custom dependencies.  This is done by using the line

           show_cus_dep();

       in an initialization file.

   Function implementing custom dependency, alternative methods:
       So  far the examples for functions to implement custom dependencies have used the argument
       of the function to specify the  base  name  of  converted  file.   This  method  has  been
       available since very old versions of latexmk, and many examples can be found, e.g., on the
       web.

       However in later versions of latexmk the internal structure of the implementation  of  its
       "rules"  for  the  steps  of  processing,  including custom dependencies, became much more
       powerful.  The function implementing a custom dependency  is  executed  within  a  special
       context  where  a  number  of  extra  variables  and  subroutines  are  defined.  Publicly
       documented ones, intended to be long-term stable, are  listed  below,  under  the  heading
       "Variables and subroutines for processing a rule".

       Examples  of their use is given in the following examples, concerning multiple index files
       and glossaries.

       The only index-file conversion built-in to latexmk is from an ".idx" file written  on  one
       run  of  latex/pdflatex to an ".ind" file to be read in on a subsequent run.  But with the
       index.sty package, for example, you can create extra  indexes  with  extensions  that  you
       configure.   Latexmk  does  not  know how to deduce the extensions from the information it
       has.  But you can easily write a custom dependency.  For example if your latex  file  uses
       the  command "\newindex{special}{ndx}{nnd}{Special index}" you will need to get latexmk to
       convert files with the extension .ndx to .nnd.  The most elementary method is to define  a
       custom dependency as follows:

           add_cus_dep( 'ndx', 'nnd', 0, 'ndx2nnd' );
           sub ndx2nnd {
               return system( "makeindex -o \"$_[0].nnd\" \"$_[0].ndx\"" );
           }
           push @generated_exts, 'ndx', 'nnd';

       Notice  the added line compared with earlier examples.  The extra line gets the extensions
       "ndx" and "nnd" added to the list of extensions for generated files; then the extra  index
       files will be deleted by clean-up operations

       But  if  you  have  yet more indexes with yet different extensions, e.g., "adx" and "and",
       then you will need a separate function  for  each  pair  of  extensions.   This  is  quite
       annoying.   You can use the Run_subst function to simplify the definitions to use a single
       function:

           add_cus_dep( 'ndx', 'nnd', 0, 'dx2nd' );
           add_cus_dep( 'adx', 'and', 0, 'dx2nd' );
           sub dx2nd {
               return Run_subst( "makeindex -o %D %S" );
           }
           push @generated_exts, 'ndx', 'nnd', 'adx', 'and';

       You could also instead use

           add_cus_dep( 'ndx', 'nnd', 0, 'dx2nd' );
           add_cus_dep( 'adx', 'and', 0, 'dx2nd' );
           sub dx2nd {
               return Run_subst( $makeindex );
           }
           push @generated_exts, 'ndx', 'nnd', 'adx', 'and';

       This last example uses the command specification in $makeindex, and so  any  customization
       you have made for the standard index also applies to your extra indexes.

       Similar techniques can be applied for glossaries.

       Those  of  you  with  experience  with  Makefiles, may get concerned that the .ndx file is
       written during a run of latex/pdflatex and is always later than the  .nnd  last  read  in.
       Thus  the  .nnd  appears  to  be  perpetually  out-of-date.   This  situation, of circular
       dependencies, is endemic to latex, and is one of the issues that latexmk is programmed  to
       overcome.   It  examines the contents of the files (by use of a checksum), and only does a
       remake when the file contents have actually changed.

       Of course if you choose to write random data to the .nnd (or  the  .aux  file,  etc)  that
       changes  on  each  new  run,  then  you  will  have  a problem.  For real experts: See the
       %hash_cal_ignore_pattern if you have to deal with such problems.

   Old Method of Defining Custom Dependencies:
       In much older versions of latexmk, the only method of defining custom dependencies was  to
       directly  manipulate  the  table  of  custom  dependencies.   This  is  contained  in  the
       @cus_dep_list array.  It is an array of strings, and each string in  the  array  has  four
       items  in  it, each separated by a space, the from-extension, the to-extension, the "must"
       item, and the name of the subroutine for the custom dependency.  These  were  all  defined
       above.

       An example of the old method of defining custom dependencies is as follows. It is the code
       in an RC file to ensure automatic conversion of .fig files to .eps files:

           push @cus_dep_list, "fig eps 0 fig2eps";
           sub fig2eps {
               return system( "fig2dev -Lps \"$_[0].fig\" \"$_[0].eps\"" );
           }

       This method still works, and is almost equivalent to the code given earlier that used  the
       add_cus_dep  subroutine.   However,  the  old  method  doesn't delete any previous custom-
       dependency for the same conversion.  So the new method is preferable.

ADVANCED CONFIGURATION: Some extra resources and advanced tricks

       For most purposes, simple configuration for latexmk along the lines of the examples  given
       is sufficient.  But sometimes you need something harder.  In this section, I indicate some
       extra possibilities.  Generally to use these, you need to be fluent in the Perl  language,
       since this is what is used in the rc files.

       See  also  the  section  DEALING WITH ERRORS, PROBLEMS, ETC.  See also the examples in the
       directory example_rcfiles in the latexmk distributions.  Even  if  none  of  the  examples
       apply to your case, they may give you useful ideas

   Utility subroutines
       ensure_path( var, values ...)

              The  first  parameter  is the name of one of the system's environment variables for
              search paths.  The remaining parameters are values that should be in the  variable.
              For  each  of the value parameters, if it isn't already in the variable, then it is
              prepended to the variable; in that case the environment variable is created  if  it
              doesn't  already  exist.  For  separating values, the character appropriate the the
              operating system is used -- see the configuration variable $search_path_separator.

              Example:

                ensure_path( 'TEXINPUTS', './custom_cls_sty_files//' );

              (In this example, the trailing '//' is documented  by  TeX  systems  to  mean  that
              latex,  pdflatex,  etc  search  for  files  in  the  specified directory and in all
              subdirectories.)

              Technically ensure_path works by setting Perl's variable $ENV{var},  where  var  is
              the  name  of  the  target  variable.   The  changed  value  is  then  passed as an
              environment variable to any invoked programs.

   Variables and subroutines for processing a rule
       A step in the processing is called a rule. One possibility to implement the processing  of
       a  rule  is  by a Perl subroutine.  This is always the case for custom dependencies. Also,
       for any other rule, you can use a subroutine by prefixing the command specification by the
       word "internal" -- see the section FORMAT OF COMMAND SPECIFICATIONS.

       When you use a subroutine for processing a rule, all the possibilities of Perl programming
       are available,  of  course.   In  addition,  some  of  latexmk's  internal  variables  and
       subroutines  are  available.   The  ones  listed  below  are  intended  to be available to
       (advanced) users, and their specifications will generally have stability  under  upgrades.
       Generally,  the  variables  should be treated as read-only: Changing their values can have
       bad consequences, since it is liable to mess up the consistency of what latexmk is doing.

       $rule  This variable has the name of the rule, as known to latexmk. Note  that  the  exact
              contents  of  this  variable  for  a  given rule may be dependent on the version of
              latexmk

       $$Psource
              This gives the name of the primary source file.  Note the double dollar signs.

       $$Pdest
              This gives the name of the main output file if any.  Note the double dollar signs.

       rdb_ensure_file( $rule, file )
              This a subroutine that ensures that the given file is among the  source  files  for
              the specified rule.  It is typically used when, during the processing of a rule, it
              is known that a particular extra file is among the dependencies that latexmk should
              know,  but  its  default methods don't find the dependency. Almost always the first
              argument is the name  of  the  rule  currently  being  processed,  so  it  is  then
              appropriate to specify it by $rule.

              For  examples of its use, see some of the files in the directory example_rcfiles of
              latexmk's distribution.  Currently the cases that use this subroutine are  bib2gls-
              latexmkrc,  exceltex_latexmkrc  and  texinfo-latexmkrc.   These  illustrate typical
              cases where latexmk's normal processing fails to detect certain extra source files.

       rdb_remove_files( $rule, file, ... )
              This subroutine removes one or more files from the dependency list  for  the  given
              rule.

       rdb_list_source( $rule )
              This  subroutine  returns  the list of source files (i.e., the dependency list) for
              the given rule.

       rdb_set_source( $rule, file, ... )

       rdb_set_source( $rule, @files )
              This subroutine sets the dependency list for the given rule  to  be  the  specified
              files.   Files that are already in the list have unchanged information.  Files that
              were not in the list are added to it.  Files in the previous dependency  list  that
              are not in the newly specified list of files are removed from the dependency list.

       Run_subst( command_spec )
              This subroutine runs the command specified by command_spec.  The specification is a
              string in the format listed in the section "Format of Command Specifications".   An
              important  action  of the Run_subst is to make substitutions of placeholders, e.g.,
              %S and %D for source and  destination  files;  these  get  substituted  before  the
              command  is  run.   In  addition,  the command after substitution is printed to the
              screen unless latexmk is running in silent mode.

   Coordinated Setting of Commands for *latex
       To set all of $latex, $pdflatex, $lualatex, and $xelatex to a common pattern, you can  use
       one of the following subroutines, std_tex_cmds, alt_tex_cmds, and set_tex_cmds.

       They work as follows

          &std_tex_cmds;

       This  results  in  $latex  =  'latex  %O  %S', and similarly for $pdflatex, $lualatex, and
       $xelatex.  Note the ampersand in the invocation; this indicates to Perl that a  subroutine
       is being called.

          &alt_tex_cmds;

       This  results  in  $latex  =  'latex  %O  %P', and similarly for $pdflatex, $lualatex, and
       $xelatex.  Note the ampersand in the invocation; this indicates to Perl that a  subroutine
       is being called.

         set_tex_cmds( CMD_SPEC );

       Here  CMD_SPEC  is  the  command  line  without the program name. This results in $latex =
       'CMD_SPEC', and similarly for $pdflatex, $lualatex, and $xelatex. An example would be

         set_tex_cmds( '--interaction=batchmode %O %S' );

   Advanced configuration: Using latexmk with make
       This section is targeted only at advanced users who  use  the  make  program  for  complex
       projects, as for software development, with the dependencies specified by a Makefile.

       Now  the  basic  task  of  latexmk  is  to run the appropriate programs to make a viewable
       version of a LaTeX document.  However, the usual  make  program  is  not  suited  to  this
       purpose  for  at  least  two  reasons.   First  is that the use of LaTeX involves circular
       dependencies (e.g., via .aux files), and these cannot be  handled  by  the  standard  make
       program.   Second  is  that  in  a large document the set of source files can change quite
       frequently, particularly with  included  graphics  files;  in  this  situation  keeping  a
       Makefile   manually   updated  is  inappropriate  and  error-prone,  especially  when  the
       dependencies can be determined automatically.   Latexmk  solves  both  of  these  problems
       robustly.

       Thus  for  many  standard  LaTeX  documents latexmk can be used by itself without the make
       program.  In a complex project it simply needs to  be  suitably  configured.   A  standard
       configuration  would  be  to  define custom dependencies to make graphics files from their
       source files (e.g., as created by the xfig program).  Custom  dependencies  are  latexmk's
       equivalent of pattern rules in Makefiles.

       Nevertheless  there  are projects for which a Makefile is appropriate, and it is useful to
       know how to use latexmk  from  a  Makefile.   A  typical  example  would  be  to  generate
       documentation  for  a  software project.  Potentially the interaction with the rest of the
       rules in the Makefile could be quite complicated, for example if some of the source  files
       for a LaTeX document are generated by the project's software.

       In this section, I give a couple of examples of how latexmk can be usefully invoked from a
       Makefile.  The examples use specific features of current versions of GNU  make,  which  is
       the  default  on  both  linux  and  OS-X  systems.   They may need modifications for other
       versions of make.

       The simplest method is simply to delegate  all  the  relevant  tasks  to  latexmk,  as  is
       suitable for a straightforward LaTeX document.  For this a suitable Makefile is like

           .PHONY : FORCE_MAKE
           all : try.pdf
           %.pdf : %.tex FORCE_MAKE
               latexmk -pdf -dvi- -ps- $<

       (Note:  the last line must be introduced by a tab for the Makefile to function correctly!)
       Naturally, if making try.pdf from its associated LaTeX file try.tex were the only task  to
       be  performed,  a  direct use of latexmk without a Makefile would normally be better.  The
       benefit of using a Makefile for a LaTeX document would be in a larger project, where lines
       such as the above would be only be a small part of a larger Makefile.

       The  above  example  has a pattern rule for making a .pdf file from a .tex file, and it is
       defined to use latexmk in the obvious way.  There is a conventional default  target  named
       "all",  with  a  prerequisite  of  try.pdf.   So when make is invoked, by default it makes
       try.pdf.  The only complication is that there may be many source files beyond try.tex, but
       these  aren't  specified  in the Makefile, so changes in them will not by themselves cause
       latexmk to be invoked.  Instead, the pattern rule is equipped with a "phony"  prerequisite
       FORCE_MAKE;  this  has  the  effect  of causing the rule to be always out-of-date, so that
       latexmk is always run.  It is latexmk that decides whether any action is needed,  e.g.,  a
       rerun  of  pdflatex.   Effectively  the Makefile delegates all decisions to latexmk, while
       make has no knowledge of the list of source files except for primary LaTeX  file  for  the
       document.   If  there  are,  for example, graphics files to be made, these must be made by
       custom dependencies configured in latexmk.

       But something better is needed in more  complicated  situations,  for  example,  when  the
       making  of graphics files needs to be specified by rules in the Makefile.  To do this, one
       can use a Makefile like the following:

            TARGETS = document1.pdf document2.pdf
            DEPS_DIR = .deps
            LATEXMK = latexmk -recorder -use-make -deps \
                  -e 'warn qq(In Makefile, turn off custom dependencies\n);' \
                  -e '@cus_dep_list = ();' \
                  -e 'show_cus_dep();'
            all : $(TARGETS)
            $(foreach file,$(TARGETS),$(eval -include $(DEPS_DIR)/$(file)P))
            $(DEPS_DIR) :
                   mkdir $@
            %.pdf : %.tex
                   if [ ! -e $(DEPS_DIR) ]; then mkdir $(DEPS_DIR); fi
                   $(LATEXMK) -pdf -dvi- -ps- -deps-out=$(DEPS_DIR)/$@P $<
            %.pdf : %.fig
                   fig2dev -Lpdf $< $@

       (Again, the lines containing the commands for the rules  should  be  started  with  tabs.)
       This  example  was inspired by how GNU automake handles automatic dependency tracking of C
       source files.

       After each run of  latexmk,  dependency  information  is  put  in  a  file  in  the  .deps
       subdirectory.   The  Makefile  causes these dependency files to be read by make, which now
       has the full dependency information for each  target  .pdf  file.   To  make  things  less
       trivial  it  is specificed that two files document1.pdf and document2.pdf are the targets.
       The dependency files are .deps/document1.pdfP and .deps/document2.pdfP.

       There is now no need for the phony prerequisite for the rule to make .pdf files from  .tex
       files.   But  I  have added a rule to make .pdf files from .fig files produced by the xfig
       program; these are commonly used for graphics insertions in LaTeX documents.   Latexmk  is
       arranged  to  output  a dependency file after each run.  It is given the -recorder option,
       which improves its detection of files generated during  a  run  of  pdflatex;  such  files
       should  not  be  in  the  dependency list.  The -e options are used to turn off all custom
       dependencies, and to document this.  Instead the -use-make is used to delegate the  making
       of missing files to make itself.

       Suppose  in  the  LaTeX  file there is a command \includegraphics{graph}, and an xfig file
       "graph.fig" exists.  On a first run, pdflatex  reports  a  missing  file,  named  "graph".
       Latexmk  succeeds  in making "graph.pdf" by calling "make graph.pdf", and after completion
       of its work, it lists "fig.pdf" among the dependents of the file latexmk is making.   Then
       let  "fig.fig"  be  updated,  and then let make be run.  Make first remakes "fig.pdf", and
       only then reruns latexmk.

       Thus we now have a method by which all the subsidiary processing is delegated to make.

SEE ALSO

       latex(1), bibtex(1), lualatex(1), pdflatex(1), xelatex(1).

BUGS

       Sometimes a viewer (gv) tries to read an updated .ps or .pdf file after  its  creation  is
       started  but  before  the  file  is  complete.   Work around: manually refresh (or reopen)
       display.  Or use one of the other previewers and update methods.

       (The following isn't  really  a  bug,  but  concerns  features  of  previewers.)   Preview
       continuous mode only works perfectly with certain previewers: Xdvi on UNIX/Linux works for
       dvi files.  Gv on UNIX/Linux works for both postscript and pdf.  Ghostview  on  UNIX/Linux
       needs  a  manual  update  (reopen);  it views postscript and pdf.  Gsview under MS-Windows
       works for both postscript and pdf, but only reads the updated  file  when  its  screen  is
       refreshed.   Acroread  under  UNIX/Linux  views  pdf,  but the file needs to be closed and
       reopened to view an updated version.  Under MS-Windows, acroread locks its input file  and
       so the pdf file cannot be updated.  (Remedy: configure latexmk to use sumatrapdf instead.)

THANKS TO

       Authors of previous versions.  Many users with their feedback, and especially David Coppit
       (username david at node coppit.org) who made many useful suggestions that  contributed  to
       version  3, and Herbert Schulz.  (Please note that the e-mail addresses are not written in
       their standard form to avoid being harvested too easily.)

AUTHOR

       Current version, by John Collins (username jcc8 at node psu.edu).  (Version 4.65).

       Released version can be obtained from CTAN: <http://www.ctan.org/pkg/latexmk/>,  and  from
       the author's website <http://www.personal.psu.edu/jcc8/latexmk/>.
       Modifications and enhancements by Evan McLean (Version 2.0)
       Original script called "go" by David J. Musliner (RCS Version 3.2)

                                           18 June 2019                                LATEXMK(1)