Provided by: lcov_1.14-1_all bug

NAME

       lcov - a graphical GCOV front-end

SYNOPSIS

       lcov -c|--capture
            [-d|--directory directory] [-k|--kernel-directory directory]
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [-t|--test-name testname]
            [-b|--base-directory directory] [-i|--initial] [--gcov-tool tool]
            [--checksum] [--no-checksum] [--no-recursion] [-f|--follow]
            [--compat-libtool] [--no-compat-libtool] [--ignore-errors errors]
            [--to-package package] [--from-package package] [-q|--quiet]
            [--no-markers] [--external] [--no-external]
            [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]
            [--compat mode=on|off|auto]
            [--include pattern] [--exclude pattern]

       lcov -z|--zerocounters
            [-d|--directory directory] [--no-recursion] [-f|--follow]
            [-q|--quiet]

       lcov -l|--list tracefile
            [-q|--quiet] [--list-full-path] [--no-list-full-path]
            [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov -a|--add-tracefile tracefile
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [--checksum] [--no-checksum]
            [-q|--quiet] [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov -e|--extract tracefile pattern
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [--checksum] [--no-checksum]
            [-q|--quiet] [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov -r|--remove tracefile pattern
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [--checksum] [--no-checksum]
            [-q|--quiet] [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov --diff tracefile diff
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [--checksum] [--no-checksum]
            [--convert-filenames] [--strip depth] [--path path] [-q|--quiet]
            [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov --summary tracefile
            [-q|--quiet]

       lcov [-h|--help] [-v|--version]

DESCRIPTION

       lcov  is  a  graphical  front-end  for GCC's coverage testing tool gcov. It collects line,
       function and branch coverage data  for  multiple  source  files  and  creates  HTML  pages
       containing  the  source  code  annotated with coverage information.  It also adds overview
       pages for easy navigation within the file structure.

       Use lcov to collect coverage data and genhtml to create  HTML  pages.  Coverage  data  can
       either  be  collected  from  the  currently  running  Linux  kernel  or  from a user space
       application. To do this, you have to complete the following preparation steps:

       For Linux kernel coverage:
              Follow   the   setup   instructions    for    the    gcov-kernel    infrastructure:
              http://ltp.sourceforge.net/coverage/gcov.php

       For user space application coverage:
              Compile   the   application   with  GCC  using  the  options  "-fprofile-arcs"  and
              "-ftest-coverage".

       Please note that this man page refers to the output format of  lcov  as  ".info  file"  or
       "tracefile" and that the output of GCOV is called ".da file".

       Also note that when printing percentages, 0% and 100% are only printed when the values are
       exactly 0% and 100% respectively. Other values which would conventionally be rounded to 0%
       or  100% are instead printed as nearest non-boundary value. This behavior is in accordance
       with that of the gcov(1) tool.

OPTIONS

       -a tracefile
       --add-tracefile tracefile
              Add contents of tracefile.

              Specify several tracefiles using  the  -a  switch  to  combine  the  coverage  data
              contained  in  these  files  by  adding  up  execution counts for matching test and
              filename combinations.

              The result of the add  operation  will  be  written  to  stdout  or  the  tracefile
              specified with -o.

              Only  one  of   -z,  -c,  -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be specified at a
              time.

       -b directory
       --base-directory directory
              Use directory as base directory for relative paths.

              Use this option to specify the base directory  of  a  build-environment  when  lcov
              produces error messages like:

                     ERROR:          could          not          read         source         file
                     /home/user/project/subdir1/subdir2/subdir1/subdir2/file.c

              In this example, use /home/user/project as base directory.

              This option is required when using lcov on projects built with libtool  or  similar
              build  environments  that  work with a base directory, i.e. environments, where the
              current working directory when invoking the compiler is not the same  directory  in
              which the source code file is located.

              Note that this option will not work in environments where multiple base directories
              are used. In that case use  configuration  file  setting  geninfo_auto_base=1  (see
              lcovrc(5)).

       -c
       --capture
              Capture coverage data.

              By  default  captures  the current kernel execution counts and writes the resulting
              coverage data to the standard output. Use the --directory option to capture  counts
              for a user space program.

              The  result  of  the  capture  operation will be written to stdout or the tracefile
              specified with -o.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary  may  be  specified  at  a
              time.

       --checksum
       --no-checksum
              Specify whether to generate checksum data when writing tracefiles.

              Use  --checksum  to  enable  checksum  generation  or  --no-checksum to disable it.
              Checksum generation is disabled by default.

              When checksum generation is enabled, a checksum will be generated for  each  source
              code  line  and  stored along with the coverage data. This checksum will be used to
              prevent attempts to combine coverage data from different source code versions.

              If you don't work with different source code versions, disable this option to speed
              up coverage data processing and to reduce the size of tracefiles.

       --compat mode=value[,mode=value,...]
              Set compatibility mode.

              Use  --compat  to  specify  that lcov should enable one or more compatibility modes
              when capturing coverage data. You can provide a comma-separated list of  mode=value
              pairs to specify the values for multiple modes.

              Valid values are:

              on
                     Enable compatibility mode.
              off
                     Disable compatibility mode.
              auto
                     Apply  auto-detection  to  determine if compatibility mode is required. Note
                     that auto-detection is not available for all compatibility modes.

              If no value is specified, 'on' is assumed as default value.

              Valid modes are:

              libtool
                     Enable this mode if you are capturing coverage data for a project  that  was
                     built using the libtool mechanism. See also --compat-libtool.

                     The default value for this setting is 'on'.

              hammer
                     Enable  this  mode if you are capturing coverage data for a project that was
                     built using a version of GCC 3.3 that contains a modification (hammer patch)
                     of  later  GCC versions. You can identify a modified GCC 3.3 by checking the
                     build directory of your project for files ending in  the  extension  '.bbg'.
                     Unmodified versions of GCC 3.3 name these files '.bb'.

                     The default value for this setting is 'auto'.

              split_crc
                     Enable  this  mode if you are capturing coverage data for a project that was
                     built using a version  of  GCC  4.6  that  contains  a  modification  (split
                     function  checksums)  of  later  GCC  versions.  Typical error messages when
                     running lcov on coverage data produced by such  GCC  versions  are  ┬┤out  of
                     memory' and 'reached unexpected end of file'.

                     The default value for this setting is 'auto'

       --compat-libtool
       --no-compat-libtool
              Specify whether to enable libtool compatibility mode.

              Use --compat-libtool to enable libtool compatibility mode or --no-compat-libtool to
              disable it. The libtool compatibility mode is enabled by default.

              When libtool compatibility mode is enabled, lcov will assume that the  source  code
              relating  to  a  .da  file located in a directory named ".libs" can be found in its
              parent directory.

              If you have directories named ".libs" in  your  build  environment  but  don't  use
              libtool, disable this option to prevent problems when capturing coverage data.

       --config-file config-file
              Specify a configuration file to use.

              When   this  option  is  specified,  neither  the  system-wide  configuration  file
              /etc/lcovrc, nor the per-user configuration file ~/.lcovrc is read.

              This option may be useful when there is a need to run  several  instances  of  lcov
              with different configuration file options in parallel.

       --convert-filenames
              Convert filenames when applying diff.

              Use  this  option  together  with --diff to rename the file names of processed data
              sets according to the data provided by the diff.

       --diff tracefile difffile
              Convert coverage data in tracefile using source code diff file difffile.

              Use this option if you want to merge  coverage  data  from  different  source  code
              levels  of  a program, e.g. when you have data taken from an older version and want
              to combine it with data from a more current version.  lcov will try to  map  source
              code  lines  between  those  versions  and  adjust  the coverage data respectively.
              difffile needs to be in unified format, i.e. it has to be created  using  the  "-u"
              option of the diff tool.

              Note  that  lines  which  are not present in the old version will not be counted as
              instrumented, therefore tracefiles resulting from  this  operation  should  not  be
              interpreted  individually  but  together with other tracefiles taken from the newer
              version. Also keep in mind that converted coverage data should  only  be  used  for
              overview purposes as the process itself introduces a loss of accuracy.

              The  result  of  the  diff  operation  will  be  written to stdout or the tracefile
              specified with -o.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary  may  be  specified  at  a
              time.

       -d directory
       --directory directory
              Use .da files in directory instead of kernel.

              If  you  want to work on coverage data for a user space program, use this option to
              specify the location where the program was compiled (that's where the counter files
              ending with .da will be stored).

              Note that you may specify this option more than once.

       --exclude pattern
              Exclude source files matching pattern.

              Use this switch if you want to exclude coverage data for a particular set of source
              files matching any of the given patterns. Multiple patterns  can  be  specified  by
              using multiple --exclude command line switches. The patterns will be interpreted as
              shell wildcard patterns (note that they may  need  to  be  escaped  accordingly  to
              prevent the shell from expanding them first).

              Can  be  combined  with  the --include command line switch. If a given file matches
              both the include pattern and the exclude pattern, the  exclude  pattern  will  take
              precedence.

       --external
       --no-external
              Specify whether to capture coverage data for external source files.

              External  source  files  are  files which are not located in one of the directories
              specified by --directory or --base-directory. Use --external  to  include  external
              source files while capturing coverage data or --no-external to ignore this data.

              Data for external source files is included by default.

       -e tracefile pattern
       --extract tracefile pattern
              Extract data from tracefile.

              Use  this  switch if you want to extract coverage data for only a particular set of
              files from a tracefile. Additional command line parameters will be  interpreted  as
              shell  wildcard  patterns  (note  that  they  may need to be escaped accordingly to
              prevent the shell from expanding them first).  Every file entry in tracefile  which
              matches at least one of those patterns will be extracted.

              The  result  of  the  extract  operation will be written to stdout or the tracefile
              specified with -o.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary  may  be  specified  at  a
              time.

       -f
       --follow
              Follow links when searching for .da files.

       --from-package package
              Use .da files in package instead of kernel or directory.

              Use  this  option  if  you  have  separate  machines for build and test and want to
              perform the .info file creation on the build machine.  See  --to-package  for  more
              information.

       --gcov-tool tool
              Specify the location of the gcov tool.

       -h
       --help
              Print a short help text, then exit.

       --include pattern
              Include source files matching pattern.

              Use  this  switch if you want to include coverage data for only a particular set of
              source files matching any of the given patterns. Multiple patterns can be specified
              by using multiple --include command line switches. The patterns will be interpreted
              as shell wildcard patterns (note that they may need to be  escaped  accordingly  to
              prevent the shell from expanding them first).

       --ignore-errors errors
              Specify a list of errors after which to continue processing.

              Use this option to specify a list of one or more classes of errors after which lcov
              should continue processing instead of aborting.

              errors can be a comma-separated list of the following keywords:

              gcov: the gcov tool returned with a non-zero return code.

              source: the source code file for a data set could not be found.

              graph: the graph file could not be found or is corrupted.

       -i
       --initial
              Capture initial zero coverage data.

              Run lcov with -c and this option on the directories containing .bb, .bbg  or  .gcno
              files  before  running any test case. The result is a "baseline" coverage data file
              that contains zero coverage for every instrumented line.  Combine  this  data  file
              (using  lcov  -a) with coverage data files captured after a test run to ensure that
              the percentage of total lines covered is correct even  when  not  all  source  code
              files were loaded during the test.

              Recommended procedure when capturing data for a test case:

              1. create baseline coverage data file
                     # lcov -c -i -d appdir -o app_base.info

              2. perform test
                     # appdir/test

              3. create test coverage data file
                     # lcov -c -d appdir -o app_test.info

              4. combine baseline and test coverage data
                     # lcov -a app_base.info -a app_test.info -o app_total.info

       -k subdirectory
       --kernel-directory subdirectory
              Capture kernel coverage data only from subdirectory.

              Use  this  option if you don't want to get coverage data for all of the kernel, but
              only for specific subdirectories. This option may be specified more than once.

              Note that you may need  to  specify  the  full  path  to  the  kernel  subdirectory
              depending on the version of the kernel gcov support.

       -l tracefile
       --list tracefile
              List the contents of the tracefile.

              Only  one  of   -z,  -c,  -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be specified at a
              time.

       --list-full-path
       --no-list-full-path
              Specify whether to show full paths during list operation.

              Use   --list-full-path   to   show   full   paths   during   list   operation    or
              --no-list-full-path to show shortened paths. Paths are shortened by default.

       --no-markers
              Use  this  option  if  you  want  to  get coverage data without regard to exclusion
              markers in the source code file. See geninfo (1) for details on exclusion markers.

       --no-recursion
              Use this option if you want to get coverage data for the specified  directory  only
              without processing subdirectories.

       -o tracefile
       --output-file tracefile
              Write data to tracefile instead of stdout.

              Specify "-" as a filename to use the standard output.

              By  convention,  lcov-generated  coverage  data  files  are called "tracefiles" and
              should have the filename extension ".info".

       --path path
              Strip path from filenames when applying diff.

              Use this option together with --diff  to  tell  lcov  to  disregard  the  specified
              initial path component when matching between tracefile and diff filenames.

       -q
       --quiet
              Do not print progress messages.

              This  option  is  implied  when no output filename is specified to prevent progress
              messages to mess with coverage data which is also printed to the standard output.

       --rc keyword=value
              Override a configuration directive.

              Use  this  option  to  specify  a  keyword=value  statement  which  overrides   the
              corresponding  configuration  statement  in  the lcovrc configuration file. You can
              specify this option more than once to override multiple  configuration  statements.
              See lcovrc(5) for a list of available keywords and their meaning.

       -r tracefile pattern
       --remove tracefile pattern
              Remove data from tracefile.

              Use  this  switch if you want to remove coverage data for a particular set of files
              from a tracefile. Additional command line parameters will be interpreted  as  shell
              wildcard patterns (note that they may need to be escaped accordingly to prevent the
              shell from expanding them first).  Every file entry in tracefile which  matches  at
              least one of those patterns will be removed.

              The  result  of  the  remove  operation  will be written to stdout or the tracefile
              specified with -o.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary  may  be  specified  at  a
              time.

       --strip depth
              Strip path components when applying diff.

              Use this option together with --diff to tell lcov to disregard the specified number
              of initial directories when matching tracefile and diff filenames.

       --summary tracefile
              Show summary coverage information for the specified tracefile.

              Note that you may specify this option more than once.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary  may  be  specified  at  a
              time.

       -t testname
       --test-name testname
              Specify test name to be stored in the tracefile.

              This name identifies a coverage data set when more than one data set is merged into
              a combined tracefile (see option -a).

              Valid test names  can  consist  of  letters,  decimal  digits  and  the  underscore
              character ("_").

       --to-package package
              Store .da files for later processing.

              Use  this  option  if  you  have  separate  machines for build and test and want to
              perform the .info file creation on the build machine.  To  do  this,  follow  these
              steps:

              On the test machine:
                     - run the test
                     - run lcov -c [-d directory] --to-package file
                     - copy file to the build machine

              On the build machine:
                     - run lcov -c --from-package file [-o and other options]

              This  works  for both kernel and user space coverage data. Note that you might have
              to specify the path to the build directory using -b  with  either  --to-package  or
              --from-package.  Note  also that the package data must be converted to a .info file
              before recompiling the program or it will become invalid.

       -v
       --version
              Print version number, then exit.

       -z
       --zerocounters
              Reset all execution counts to zero.

              By default tries to reset kernel execution counts. Use the  --directory  option  to
              reset all counters of a user space program.

              Only  one  of   -z,  -c,  -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be specified at a
              time.

FILES

       /etc/lcovrc
              The system-wide configuration file.

       ~/.lcovrc
              The per-user configuration file.

AUTHOR

       Peter Oberparleiter <Peter.Oberparleiter@de.ibm.com>

SEE ALSO

       lcovrc(5), genhtml(1), geninfo(1), genpng(1), gendesc(1), gcov(1)