Provided by: abcmidi_20190705-1_amd64 bug


       midi2abc - program to convert MIDI format files to abc notation


       midi2abc  -f  infile  [-xa]  [-ga]  [-a acbeats] [-m time signature] [-ppu parts per unit]
       [-aul denominator of unit length] [-gu] [-b bars] [-Q tempo]  [-u  pulses]  [-k  key]  [-c
       channel] [-obpl] [-bpl bars] [-bps bars] [-o filename] [-s] [-sr units] [-sum] [-nb] [-nt]
       [-splitvoices] [-midigram] [-mftext]  [-mftextpulses]  [-nogr]  [-title  string]  [-origin


       midi2abc takes a MIDI format file and converts it to something as close as possible to abc
       text format. The user then has to add text fields not  present  in  the  MIDI  header  and
       possibly tidy up the abc note output.

       The output of midi2abc is printed to the screen. To save it to a file, use the redirection
       operator, (e.g. midi2abc -f file.mid > or specify the output file using  the  -o

       Use only one or none of the options -u -gu, -b and -Q. Midi2abc normally converts the MIDI
       time units into quantum units normally corresponding to the  abc  1/16th  note  or  1/32nd
       note.   If none of these is present, the program will use the PPQN information in the MIDI
       header to compute the suitable conversion factor. For most MIDI files on the  web,  it  is
       recommended  to  rely  on the MIDI header information and not use any of the options other
       than the formatting options.

       The program will extract the time signature information  from  the  MIDI  file  if  it  is
       present. Otherwise it will assume 4/4 or you could specify it with -m. option.

       If the tune has an anacrusis, you can use either the -ga or -xa option to estimate the its
       length. Alternatively, you can specify its value using the -a  option.  The  anacrusis  is
       specified  in  half  unit  lengths,  where the unit length is defined by the L: field. For
       example if L: 1/8, then a quarter note would be indicated by the value 4, (4 1/16 units).

       -a acbeats
              where acbeats specifies the anacrusis in half unit lengths.

       -xa    extract the anacrusis from file by finding the first strong note

       -ga    guess the anacrusis by minimizing the number of ties across bars

       -m time signature
              time signature

       -b bars
              number of bars wanted in output

       -Q tempo
              tempo in quarter-notes per minute

       -u pulses
              Allows you to specify directly the number of midi pulses per abc time unit.

       -ppu parts per abc unit length
              Normally, the smallest note unit that midi2abc can extract  is  half  the  L:  unit
              length.This is called the quantum unit.  Thus for L: 1/8, midi2abc can extract 1/16
              notes but not 1/32 notes.  You can change this by specifying -ppu  4  for  example.
              The number of parts should be a power of 2.

       -aul denominator of abc unit length
              Normally  midi2abc  chooses  a  unit  length of 1/8 or 1/16 depending upon the time
              signature. For time signatures smaller than 3/4 the L: 1/16 is used and for  larger
              time  signatures  L:  1/8 is used. You can specify the unit length to be used using
              this parameter. Thus -aul 32 will cause midi2abc to use a unit length  of  1/32  nd

       -gu    Tells  midi2abc  to  estimate  the number of midi pulses per abc time unit from the
              note duration or spacing in the MIDI file.

       -gk    Tells midi2abc to guess the key signature by minimizing the number  of  accidentals
              even if the key signature is already specified in the MIDI file. By default the key
              signature is the one specified in the MIDI file.  If it is not specified, then  the
              program guesses the key signature by minimizing accidentals.

       -k key key signature: -6 to 6 sharps.

       -c channel
              select only this midi channel.

       -f infile
              input file in midi format

       -o output file
              specifies the output abc file name.

       -s     do not discard very short notes.

       -sr quantum units
              do  not  notate  a  short rest smaller than the specified size after a note. If the
              size (in quantum units) is zero, nothing is done. For larger values,  the  rest  is
              absorbed  into the preceding note. In other words, the preceding note is lengthened
              to include that rest.

       -sum   print a short summary of the input midi file.

       -nb    do not look for broken rhythms

       -nt    do not look for triplets

       -obpl  Print only one bar per line instead of 4.  For  complex  music  this  improves  the
              readability  and  avoids some problems with some abc to postscript converters. This
              option is deprecated.

       -nogr  (No note grouping.) Inserts a space between all  notes.  It  makes  a  less  pretty
              postscript file but it is easier to edit.

       -bpl nbars
              Print nbars of music on every line followed by a backslash.

       -bps nbars
              When  nbars  have  been  printed  (including  those  lines  joined  by  a backslash
              continuation) go to a new line (with no backslash).

              This parameter handles polyphonic chords by splitting an entire voice into multiple
              voices.  (A  polyphonic chord is a chord composed of notes that do not start or end
              at the same time.) Normally, midi2abc joins the longer notes to the  notes  in  the
              following  chord  using  ties.  Here is an example:  [Bd-]d [Bd-]d|. This should be
              separated into two voices ideally  Bz Bz and d2 d2. However, the separation is  not
              unique. Bz d2 and d2 Bz are also ok.

              When  this  option  appears,  all  other  options  are  ignored  and no abc file is
              produced. Instead a list of all notes in the MIDI  file  are  printed  in  a  fixed
              format.  Each  line  represents a pair of MIDI note on/off event. The line contains
              the on/off time of the note, its track number, channel number, midi pitch and  midi
              velocity.  The  last  record  indicates the duration of the MIDI file in MIDI pulse
              units. The output is designed to go into a  graphical  user  interface  which  will
              produce a graphical representation (piano roll).

              When  this  option  appears,  all  other  options  are  ignored  and no abc file is
              produced. Instead a list of all the  MIDI  commands  are  printed.  The  output  is
              designed to go into a graphical user interface provided by runabc.tcl.

              Same as -mftext except the time units is in midi pulses.

       -title string
              Replaces the default title field following T: with the given string.

       -origin string
              Adds an O: field with the given string.

       -stats Extracts  the  characteristics  of  the  given  midi file. They include ntrks - the
              number of tracks, ppqn - pulses per quarter note, timesig - time signature,  keysig
              - key signature, program - mapping between channel number and midi program, npulses
              - length of the midi file in pulses, tempocmd - number of times the tempo has  been
              specified, pitchbends - number of pitchbends, pitchbendin - number of pitchbends in
              each of the channels, programcmd - number  of  times  the  midi  program  has  been
              revised,  progs  and  progsact  -  the programs used and the number of pulses these
              programs used, drums - the drum numbers that were used, drumhits -  the  number  of
              times  each  of  those  drums  were hit, pitches - the number of times the 11 pitch
              classes (C C# etc...) were activated and  a  few  other  complex  variables.  These
              characteristics  are  used in other applications such as midiexplorer. More details
              are available in the file midi2abc-stats.txt included in the  doc/  folder  of  the
              abcmidi distribution package.

       *  The key is chosen so as to minimize the number of accidentals.  Alternatively, the user
       can specify the key numerically (a positive number is the number  of  sharps,  a  negative
       number is minus the number of flats).

       * Note length can be set by specifying the total number of bars or the tempo of the piece.
       Alternatively the note length can be read from  the  file.   However,  by  default  it  is
       deduced  in  a heuristic manner from the inter-note distances.  This means that you do not
       have to use the MIDI clock as a metronome when playing in a tune from a keyboard.

       * Barlines are automatically inserted. The user specifies the number of  measures  in  the
       anacrusis before the first barline and the time signature.

       *  The  program can guess how the length of the anacrusis, either by looking for the first
       strong note or minimizing the number of notes split by a tie across a barline.

       * Where a note extends beyond a bar break, it is split into two tied notes.

       * The output has 4 bars per line.

       * Enough accidental signs are put in the music to ensure that no pitch errors occur  if  a
       barline is added or deleted.

       * The program attempts to group notes sensibly in each bar.

       * Triplets and broken rhythm (a>b) are supported.

       * Chords are identified.

       * Text information from the original MIDI file is included as comments.

       *  The  -c  option can be used to select only 1 MIDI channel. Events on other channels are

       midi2abc does not ...

       * Supply tune title, composer or any other field apart from X: , K:, Q:, M: and L: - these
       must  be  added  by hand afterwards, though they may have been included in the text of the
       MIDI file.

       * Support duplets, quadruplets, other esoteric features.

       * Support mid-tune key or time signature changes.

       * Deduce repeats. The output is just the notes in the input file.

       * Recover an abc tune as supplied to abc2midi. However, if you want to do this,  "midi2abc
       -xa -f file.mid" comes close.


       abc2ps(1), abc2midi(1), abc2abc(1)


       James Allwright <>


       Seymour Shlien <>


       This man page describes midi2abc version 2.91 from March 09 2008.


       Copyright 1999 James Allwright

       midi2abc does not work correctly if lyrics are embedded in the same track as the notes. If
       you are producing the MIDI file using abc2midi, use the -STFW option to  ensure  that  the
       lyrics are put in a separate track.

       midi2abc  is  supplied  "as is" without any warranty. It is free software and can be used,
       copied, modified and distributed without fee under the terms of  the  GNU  General  Public

                                          1 January 2017                              MIDI2ABC(1)