Provided by: mysql-server-core-8.0_8.0.17-0ubuntu2_amd64 bug

NAME

       mysql_upgrade - check and upgrade MySQL tables

SYNOPSIS

       mysql_upgrade [options]

DESCRIPTION

           Note
           As of MySQL 8.0.16, the MySQL server performs the upgrade tasks previously handled by
           mysql_upgrade (for details, see Section 2.11.3, “What the MySQL Upgrade Process
           Upgrades”). Consequently, mysql_upgrade is unneeded and is deprecated as of that
           version, and will be removed in a future MySQL version. Because mysql_upgrade no
           longer performs upgrade tasks, it exits with status 0 unconditionally.

       Each time you upgrade MySQL, you should execute mysql_upgrade, which looks for
       incompatibilities with the upgraded MySQL server:

       ·   It upgrades the system tables in the mysql schema so that you can take advantage of
           new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.

       ·   It upgrades the Performance Schema, INFORMATION_SCHEMA, and sys schema.

       ·   It examines user schemas.

       If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible incompatibility, it performs a table
       check and, if problems are found, attempts a table repair. If the table cannot be
       repaired, see Section 2.11.13, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes” for manual
       table repair strategies.

       mysql_upgrade communicates directly with the MySQL server, sending it the SQL statements
       required to perform an upgrade.

           Caution
           You should always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an
           upgrade. See Section 7.2, “Database Backup Methods”.

           Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before upgrading your
           MySQL installation and running mysql_upgrade. See Section 2.11, “Upgrading MySQL”, for
           instructions on determining whether any such incompatibilities apply to your
           installation and how to handle them.

       Use mysql_upgrade like this:

        1. Ensure that the server is running.

        2. Invoke mysql_upgrade to upgrade the system tables in the mysql schema and check and
           repair tables in other schemas:

               shell> mysql_upgrade [options]

        3. Stop the server and restart it so that any system table changes take effect.

       If you have multiple MySQL server instances to upgrade, invoke mysql_upgrade with
       connection parameters appropriate for connecting to each of the desired servers. For
       example, with servers running on the local host on parts 3306 through 3308, upgrade each
       of them by connecting to the appropriate port:

           shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3306 [other_options]
           shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3307 [other_options]
           shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3308 [other_options]

       For local host connections on Unix, the --protocol=tcp option forces a connection using
       TCP/IP rather than the Unix socket file.

       By default, mysql_upgrade runs as the MySQL root user. If the root password is expired
       when you run mysql_upgrade, you will see a message that your password is expired and that
       mysql_upgrade failed as a result. To correct this, reset the root password to unexpire it
       and run mysql_upgrade again. First, connect to the server as root:

           shell> mysql -u root -p
           Enter password: ****  <- enter root password here

       Reset the password using ALTER USER:

           mysql> ALTER USER USER() IDENTIFIED BY 'root-password';

       Then exit mysql and run mysql_upgrade again:

           shell> mysql_upgrade [options]

           Note
           If you run the server with the disabled_storage_engines system variable set to disable
           certain storage engines (for example, MyISAM), mysql_upgrade might fail with an error
           like this:

               mysql_upgrade: [ERROR] 3161: Storage engine MyISAM is disabled
               (Table creation is disallowed).

           To handle this, restart the server with disabled_storage_engines disabled. Then you
           should be able to run mysql_upgrade successfully. After that, restart the server with
           disabled_storage_engines set to its original value.

       Unless invoked with the --upgrade-system-tables option, mysql_upgrade processes all tables
       in all user schemas as necessary. Table checking might take a long time to complete. Each
       table is locked and therefore unavailable to other sessions while it is being processed.
       Check and repair operations can be time-consuming, particularly for large tables. Table
       checking uses the FOR UPGRADE option of the CHECK TABLE statement. For details about what
       this option entails, see Section 13.7.3.2, “CHECK TABLE Syntax”.

       mysql_upgrade marks all checked and repaired tables with the current MySQL version number.
       This ensures that the next time you run mysql_upgrade with the same version of the server,
       it can be determined whether there is any need to check or repair a given table again.

       mysql_upgrade saves the MySQL version number in a file named mysql_upgrade_info in the
       data directory. This is used to quickly check whether all tables have been checked for
       this release so that table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the
       check regardless, use the --force option.

       mysql_upgrade checks mysql.user system table rows and, for any row with an empty plugin
       column, sets that column to 'mysql_native_password' if the credentials use a hash format
       compatible with that plugin. Rows with a pre-4.1 password hash must be upgraded manually.

       mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the time zone tables or help tables. For
       upgrade instructions, see Section 5.1.13, “MySQL Server Time Zone Support”, and
       Section 5.1.14, “Server-Side Help Support”.

       Unless invoked with the --skip-sys-schema option, mysql_upgrade installs the sys schema if
       it is not installed, and upgrades it to the current version otherwise. An error occurs if
       a sys schema exists but has no version view, on the assumption that its absence indicates
       a user-created schema:

           A sys schema exists with no sys.version view. If
           you have a user created sys schema, this must be renamed for the
           upgrade to succeed.

       To upgrade in this case, remove or rename the existing sys schema first.

       mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line
       or in the [mysql_upgrade] and [client] groups of an option file. For information about
       option files used by MySQL programs, see Section 4.2.2.2, “Using Option Files”.

       ·   --help

           Display a short help message and exit.

       ·   --bind-address=ip_address

           On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option to select which
           interface to use for connecting to the MySQL server.

       ·   --character-sets-dir=dir_name

           The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 10.14, “Character Set
           Configuration”.

       ·   --compress, -C

           Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support
           compression.

       ·   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

           Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default
           is d:t:O,/tmp/mysql_upgrade.trace.

       ·   --debug-check

           Print some debugging information when the program exits.

       ·   --debug-info, -T

           Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program
           exits.

       ·   --default-auth=plugin

           A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See Section 6.2.17,
           “Pluggable Authentication”.

       ·   --default-character-set=charset_name

           Use charset_name as the default character set. See Section 10.14, “Character Set
           Configuration”.

       ·   --defaults-extra-file=file_name

           Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user
           option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.
           file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path
           name rather than a full path name.

           For additional information about this and other option-file options, see
           Section 4.2.2.3, “Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling”.

       ·   --defaults-file=file_name

           Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise
           inaccessible, an error occurs.  file_name is interpreted relative to the current
           directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

           For additional information about this and other option-file options, see
           Section 4.2.2.3, “Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling”.

       ·   --defaults-group-suffix=str

           Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a
           suffix of str. For example, mysql_upgrade normally reads the [client] and
           [mysql_upgrade] groups. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given,
           mysql_upgrade also reads the [client_other] and [mysql_upgrade_other] groups.

           For additional information about this and other option-file options, see
           Section 4.2.2.3, “Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling”.

       ·   --force

           Ignore the mysql_upgrade_info file and force execution even if mysql_upgrade has
           already been executed for the current version of MySQL.

       ·   --get-server-public-key

           Request from the server the public key required for RSA key pair-based password
           exchange. This option applies to clients that authenticate with the
           caching_sha2_password authentication plugin. For that plugin, the server does not send
           the public key unless requested. This option is ignored for accounts that do not
           authenticate with that plugin. It is also ignored if RSA-based password exchange is
           not used, as is the case when the client connects to the server using a secure
           connection.

           If --server-public-key-path=file_name is given and specifies a valid public key file,
           it takes precedence over --get-server-public-key.

           For information about the caching_sha2_password plugin, see Section 6.4.1.3, “Caching
           SHA-2 Pluggable Authentication”.

       ·   --host=host_name, -h host_name

           Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

       ·   --login-path=name

           Read options from the named login path in the .mylogin.cnf login path file. A “login
           path” is an option group containing options that specify which MySQL server to connect
           to and which account to authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use
           the mysql_config_editor utility. See mysql_config_editor(1).

           For additional information about this and other option-file options, see
           Section 4.2.2.3, “Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling”.

       ·   --max-allowed-packet=value

           The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The default value is
           24MB. The minimum and maximum values are 4KB and 2GB.

       ·   --net-buffer-length=value

           The initial size of the buffer for client/server communication. The default value is
           1MB − 1KB. The minimum and maximum values are 4KB and 16MB.

       ·   --no-defaults

           Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options
           from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

           The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read in all cases. This
           permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even when
           --no-defaults is used. (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility.
           See mysql_config_editor(1).)

           For additional information about this and other option-file options, see
           Section 4.2.2.3, “Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling”.

       ·   --password[=password], -p[password]

           The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form
           (-p), you cannot have a space between the option and the password. If you omit the
           password value following the --password or -p option on the command line,
           mysql_upgrade prompts for one.

           Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See
           Section 6.1.2.1, “End-User Guidelines for Password Security”. You can use an option
           file to avoid giving the password on the command line.

       ·   --pipe, -W

           On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option applies only if the
           server supports named-pipe connections.

       ·   --plugin-dir=dir_name

           The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if the --default-auth
           option is used to specify an authentication plugin but mysql_upgrade does not find it.
           See Section 6.2.17, “Pluggable Authentication”.

       ·   --port=port_num, -P port_num

           The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

       ·   --print-defaults

           Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.

       ·   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

           The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the
           other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the
           one you want. For details on the permissible values, see Section 4.2.3, “Connecting to
           the MySQL Server”.

       ·   --server-public-key-path=file_name

           The path name to a file containing a client-side copy of the public key required by
           the server for RSA key pair-based password exchange. The file must be in PEM format.
           This option applies to clients that authenticate with the sha256_password or
           caching_sha2_password authentication plugin. This option is ignored for accounts that
           do not authenticate with one of those plugins. It is also ignored if RSA-based
           password exchange is not used, as is the case when the client connects to the server
           using a secure connection.

           If --server-public-key-path=file_name is given and specifies a valid public key file,
           it takes precedence over --get-server-public-key.

           For sha256_password, this option applies only if MySQL was built using OpenSSL.

           For information about the sha256_password and caching_sha2_password plugins, see
           Section 6.4.1.2, “SHA-256 Pluggable Authentication”, and Section 6.4.1.3, “Caching
           SHA-2 Pluggable Authentication”.

       ·   --shared-memory-base-name=name

           On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made using shared memory to
           a local server. The default value is MYSQL. The shared-memory name is case-sensitive.

           The server must be started with the --shared-memory option to enable shared-memory
           connections.

       ·   --skip-sys-schema

           By default, mysql_upgrade installs the sys schema if it is not installed, and upgrades
           it to the current version otherwise. The --skip-sys-schema option suppresses this
           behavior.

       ·   --socket=path, -S path

           For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of
           the named pipe to use.

       ·   --ssl*

           Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the server using SSL and
           indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See Section 6.3.2, “Command Options
           for Encrypted Connections”.

       ·   --ssl-fips-mode={OFF|ON|STRICT} Controls whether to enable FIPS mode on the client
           side. The --ssl-fips-mode option differs from other --ssl-xxx options in that it is
           not used to establish encrypted connections, but rather to affect which cryptographic
           operations are permitted. See Section 6.5, “FIPS Support”.

           These --ssl-fips-mode values are permitted:

           ·   OFF: Disable FIPS mode.

           ·   ON: Enable FIPS mode.

           ·   STRICT: Enable “strict” FIPS mode.

               Note
               If the OpenSSL FIPS Object Module is not available, the only permitted value for
               --ssl-fips-mode is OFF. In this case, setting --ssl-fips-mode to ON or STRICT
               causes the client to produce a warning at startup and to operate in non-FIPS mode.

       ·   --tls-ciphersuites=ciphersuite_list

           For client programs, specifies which TLSv1.3 ciphersuites the client permits for
           encrypted connections. The value is a list of one or more colon-separated ciphersuite
           names. The ciphersuites that can be named for this option depend on the SSL library
           used to compile MySQL. For details, see Section 6.3.6, “Encrypted Connection Protocols
           and Ciphers”.

           This option was added in MySQL 8.0.16.

       ·   --tls-version=protocol_list

           The protocols the client permits for encrypted connections. The value is a list of one
           or more comma-separated protocol names. The protocols that can be named for this
           option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see
           Section 6.3.6, “Encrypted Connection Protocols and Ciphers”.

       ·   --upgrade-system-tables, -s

           Upgrade only the system tables in the mysql schema, do not upgrade user schemas.

       ·   --user=user_name, -u user_name

           The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server. The default user name is
           root.

       ·   --verbose

           Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.

       ·   --version-check, -k

           Check the version of the server to which mysql_upgrade is connecting to verify that it
           is the same as the version for which mysql_upgrade was built. If not, mysql_upgrade
           exits. This option is enabled by default; to disable the check, use
           --skip-version-check.

       ·   --write-binlog

           By default, binary logging by mysql_upgrade is disabled. Invoke the program with
           --write-binlog if you want its actions to be written to the binary log.

           When the server is running with global transaction identifiers (GTIDs) enabled
           (gtid_mode=ON), do not enable binary logging by mysql_upgrade.

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright © 1997, 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

       This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it only under
       the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation;
       version 2 of the License.

       This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
       WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
       PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with the program;
       if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor,
       Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

SEE ALSO

       For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which may already be
       installed locally and which is also available online at http://dev.mysql.com/doc/.

AUTHOR

       Oracle Corporation (http://dev.mysql.com/).