Provided by: cvc4_1.6-2build1_amd64

**NAME**

cvc4, pcvc4 - an automated theorem prover

**SYNOPSIS**

cvc4[options][file]pcvc4[options][file]

**DESCRIPTION**

cvc4is an automated theorem prover for first-order formulas with respect to background theories of interest.pcvc4is CVC4's "portfolio" variant, which is capable of running multiple CVC4 instances in parallel, configured differently. Withfile, commands are read fromfileand executed. CVC4 supports the SMT-LIB (versions 1.2 and 2.0) input format, as well as its own native “presentation language” , which is similar in many respects to CVC3's presentation language, but not identical. Iffileis unspecified, standard input is read (and theCVC4presentation language is assumed). Iffileis unspecified andCVC4is connected to a terminal, interactive mode is assumed.

**COMMON** **OPTIONS**

Each option marked with [*] has a --no-OPTIONNAME variant, which reverses the sense of the option. --lang=LANG | -L LANG force input language (default is "auto"; see --lang help) --output-lang=LANG force output language (default is "auto"; see --output-lang help) --quiet | -q decrease verbosity (may be repeated) --stats give statistics on exit [*] --verbose | -v increase verbosity (may be repeated) --copyright show CVC4 copyright information --help | -h full command line reference --seed | -s seed for random number generator --show-config show CVC4 static configuration --version | -V identify this CVC4 binary --strict-parsing be less tolerant of non-conforming inputs [*] --cpu-time measures CPU time if set to true and wall time if false (default false) [*] --dump-to=FILE all dumping goes to FILE (instead of stdout) --dump=MODE dump preprocessed assertions, etc., see --dump=help --hard-limit the resource limit is hard potentially leaving the smtEngine in an unsafe state (should be destroyed and rebuild after resourcing out) [*] --incremental | -i enable incremental solving [*] --produce-assertions keep an assertions list (enables get-assertions command) [*] --produce-models | -m support the get-value and get-model commands [*] --rlimit-per=N enable resource limiting per query --rlimit=N enable resource limiting (currently, roughly the number of SAT conflicts) --tlimit-per=MS enable time limiting per query (give milliseconds) --tlimit=MS enable time limiting (give milliseconds)

**ARITHMETIC** **THEORY** **OPTIONS**

--approx-branch-depth maximum branch depth the approximate solver is allowed to take --arith-no-partial-fun do not use partial function semantics for arithmetic (not SMT LIB compliant) [*] --arith-prop-clauses rows shorter than this are propagated as clauses --arith-prop=MODE turns on arithmetic propagation (default is 'old', see --arith-prop=help) --arith-rewrite-equalities turns on the preprocessing rewrite turning equalities into a conjunction of inequalities [*] --collect-pivot-stats collect the pivot history [*] --cut-all-bounded turns on the integer solving step of periodically cutting all integer variables that have both upper and lower bounds [*] --dio-decomps let skolem variables for integer divisibility constraints leak from the dio solver [*] --dio-repeat handle dio solver constraints in mass or one at a time [*] --dio-solver turns on Linear Diophantine Equation solver (Griggio, JSAT 2012) [*] --dio-turns turns in a row dio solver cutting gets --error-selection-rule=RULE change the pivot rule for the basic variable (default is 'min', see --pivot-rule help) --fc-penalties turns on degenerate pivot penalties [*] --heuristic-pivots=N the number of times to apply the heuristic pivot rule; if N < 0, this defaults to the number of variables; if this is unset, this is tuned by the logic selection --lemmas-on-replay-failure attempt to use external lemmas if approximate solve integer failed [*] --maxCutsInContext maximum cuts in a given context before signalling a restart --miplib-trick turns on the preprocessing step of attempting to infer bounds on miplib problems [*] --miplib-trick-subs=N do substitution for miplib 'tmp' vars if defined in <= N eliminated vars --new-prop use the new row propagation system [*] --nl-ext extended approach to non-linear [*] --nl-ext-ent-conf check for entailed conflicts in non-linear solver [*] --nl-ext-factor use factoring inference in non-linear solver [*] --nl-ext-inc-prec whether to increment the precision for irrational function constraints [*] --nl-ext-purify purify non-linear terms at preprocess [*] --nl-ext-rbound use resolution-style inference for inferring new bounds [*] --nl-ext-rewrite do rewrites in non-linear solver [*] --nl-ext-split-zero initial splits on zero for all variables [*] --nl-ext-tf-taylor-deg=N initial degree of polynomials for Taylor approximation --nl-ext-tf-tplanes use non-terminating tangent plane strategy for transcendental functions for non-linear [*] --nl-ext-tplanes use non-terminating tangent plane strategy for non-linear [*] --nl-ext-tplanes-interleave interleave tangent plane strategy for non-linear [*] --pb-rewrites apply pseudo boolean rewrites [*] --pivot-threshold=N sets the number of pivots using --pivot-rule per basic variable per simplex instance before using variable order --pp-assert-max-sub-size threshold for substituting an equality in ppAssert --prop-row-length=N sets the maximum row length to be used in propagation --replay-early-close-depth multiples of the depths to try to close the approx log eagerly --replay-failure-penalty number of solve integer attempts to skips after a numeric failure --replay-lemma-reject-cut maximum complexity of any coefficient while outputting replaying cut lemmas --replay-num-err-penalty number of solve integer attempts to skips after a numeric failure --replay-reject-cut maximum complexity of any coefficient while replaying cuts --replay-soi-major-threshold threshold for a major tolerance failure by the approximate solver --replay-soi-major-threshold-pen threshold for a major tolerance failure by the approximate solver --replay-soi-minor-threshold threshold for a minor tolerance failure by the approximate solver --replay-soi-minor-threshold-pen threshold for a minor tolerance failure by the approximate solver --restrict-pivots have a pivot cap for simplex at effort levels below fullEffort [*] --revert-arith-models-on-unsat revert the arithmetic model to a known safe model on unsat if one is cached [*] --rewrite-divk rewrite division and mod when by a constant into linear terms [*] --rr-turns round robin turn --se-solve-int attempt to use the approximate solve integer method on standard effort [*] --simplex-check-period=N the number of pivots to do in simplex before rechecking for a conflict on all variables --snorm-infer-eq infer equalities based on Shostak normalization [*] --soi-qe use quick explain to minimize the sum of infeasibility conflicts [*] --standard-effort-variable-order-pivots=N limits the number of pivots in a single invocation of check() at a non-full effort level using Bland's pivot rule (EXPERTS only) --unate-lemmas=MODE determines which lemmas to add before solving (default is 'all', see --unate-lemmas=help) --use-approx attempt to use an approximate solver [*] --use-fcsimplex use focusing and converging simplex (FMCAD 2013 submission) [*] --use-soi use sum of infeasibility simplex (FMCAD 2013 submission) [*]

**ARRAYS** **THEORY** **OPTIONS**

--arrays-config set different array option configurations - for developers only --arrays-eager-index turn on eager index splitting for generated array lemmas [*] --arrays-eager-lemmas turn on eager lemma generation for arrays [*] --arrays-lazy-rintro1 turn on optimization to only perform RIntro1 rule lazily (see Jovanovic/Barrett 2012: Being Careful with Theory Combination) [*] --arrays-model-based turn on model-based array solver [*] --arrays-optimize-linear turn on optimization for linear array terms (see de Moura FMCAD 09 arrays paper) [*] --arrays-prop propagation effort for arrays: 0 is none, 1 is some, 2 is full --arrays-reduce-sharing use model information to reduce size of care graph for arrays [*] --arrays-weak-equiv use algorithm from Christ/Hoenicke (SMT 2014) [*]

**BASE** **OPTIONS**

--debug=TAG | -d TAG debug something (e.g. -d arith), can repeat --parse-only exit after parsing input [*] --preprocess-only exit after preprocessing input [*] --print-success print the "success" output required of SMT-LIBv2 [*] --stats-every-query in incremental mode, print stats after every satisfiability or validity query [*] --stats-hide-zeros hide statistics which are zero [*] --trace=TAG | -t TAG trace something (e.g. -t pushpop), can repeat --smtlib-strict SMT-LIBv2 compliance mode (implies other options)

**BITVECTOR** **THEORY** **OPTIONS**

--bitblast-aig bitblast by first converting to AIG (implies --bitblast=eager) [*] --bitblast=MODE choose bitblasting mode, see --bitblast=help --bool-to-bv convert booleans to bit-vectors of size 1 when possible [*] --bv-abstraction mcm benchmark abstraction (EXPERTS only) [*] --bv-aig-simp=COMMAND abc command to run AIG simplifications (implies --bitblast-aig, default is "balance;drw") (EXPERTS only) --bv-alg-extf algebraic inferences for extended functions [*] --bv-algebraic-budget the budget allowed for the algebraic solver in number of SAT conflicts (EXPERTS only) --bv-algebraic-solver turn on the algebraic solver for the bit-vector theory (only if --bitblast=lazy) [*] --bv-div-zero-const always return -1 on division by zero [*] --bv-eager-explanations compute bit-blasting propagation explanations eagerly (EXPERTS only) [*] --bv-eq-slicer=MODE turn on the slicing equality solver for the bit-vector theory (only if --bitblast=lazy) --bv-eq-solver use the equality engine for the bit-vector theory (only if --bitblast=lazy) [*] --bv-extract-arith enable rewrite pushing extract [i:0] over arithmetic operations (can blow up) (EXPERTS only) [*] --bv-gauss-elim simplify formula via Gaussian Elimination if applicable (EXPERTS only) [*] --bv-inequality-solver turn on the inequality solver for the bit-vector theory (only if --bitblast=lazy) [*] --bv-intro-pow2 introduce bitvector powers of two as a preprocessing pass (EXPERTS only) [*] --bv-lazy-reduce-extf reduce extended functions like bv2nat and int2bv at last call instead of full effort [*] --bv-lazy-rewrite-extf lazily rewrite extended functions like bv2nat and int2bv [*] --bv-num-func=NUM number of function symbols in conflicts that are generalized (EXPERTS only) --bv-propagate use bit-vector propagation in the bit-blaster [*] --bv-quick-xplain minimize bv conflicts using the QuickXplain algorithm (EXPERTS only) [*] --bv-sat-solver=MODE choose which sat solver to use, see --bv-sat-solver=help (EXPERTS only) --bv-skolemize skolemize arguments for bv abstraction (only does something if --bv-abstraction is on) (EXPERTS only) [*] --bv-to-bool lift bit-vectors of size 1 to booleans when possible [*]

**DATATYPES** **THEORY** **OPTIONS**

--cdt-bisimilar do bisimilarity check for co-datatypes [*] --dt-binary-split do binary splits for datatype constructor types [*] --dt-blast-splits when applicable, blast splitting lemmas for all variables at once [*] --dt-cyclic do cyclicity check for datatypes [*] --dt-force-assignment force the datatypes solver to give specific values to all datatypes terms before answering sat [*] --dt-infer-as-lemmas always send lemmas out instead of making internal inferences [*] --dt-ref-sk-intro introduce reference skolems for shorter explanations [*] --dt-rewrite-error-sel rewrite incorrectly applied selectors to arbitrary ground term (EXPERTS only) [*] --dt-share-sel internally use shared selectors across multiple constructors [*] --dt-use-testers do not preprocess away tester predicates [*] --sygus-abort-size=N tells enumerative sygus to only consider solutions up to term size N (-1 == no limit, default) --sygus-eval-builtin use builtin kind for evaluation functions in sygus [*] --sygus-fair-max use max instead of sum for multi-function sygus conjectures [*] --sygus-fair=MODE if and how to apply fairness for sygus --sygus-opt1 sygus experimental option [*] --sygus-sym-break simple sygus sym break lemmas [*] --sygus-sym-break-dynamic dynamic sygus sym break lemmas [*] --sygus-sym-break-lazy lazily add symmetry breaking lemmas for terms [*] --sygus-sym-break-pbe sygus sym break lemmas based on pbe conjectures [*] --sygus-sym-break-rlv add relevancy conditions to symmetry breaking lemmas [*]

**DECISION** **HEURISTICS** **OPTIONS**

--decision-random-weight=N assign random weights to nodes between 0 and N-1 (0: disable) (EXPERTS only) --decision-threshold=N ignore all nodes greater than threshold in first attempt to pick decision (EXPERTS only) --decision-use-weight use the weight nodes (locally, by looking at children) to direct recursive search (EXPERTS only) [*] --decision-weight-internal=HOW computer weights of internal nodes using children: off, max, sum, usr1 (meaning evolving) (EXPERTS only) --decision=MODE choose decision mode, see --decision=help

**EXPRESSION** **PACKAGE** **OPTIONS**

--default-dag-thresh=N dagify common subexprs appearing > N times (1 == default, 0 == don't dagify) --default-expr-depth=N print exprs to depth N (0 == default, -1 == no limit) --eager-type-checking type check expressions immediately on creation (debug builds only) [*] --print-expr-types print types with variables when printing exprs [*] --type-checking never type check expressions

**IDL** **OPTIONS**

--idl-rewrite-equalities enable rewriting equalities into two inequalities in IDL solver (default is disabled) [*]

**DRIVER** **OPTIONS**

--continued-execution continue executing commands, even on error [*] --early-exit do not run destructors at exit; default on except in debug builds (EXPERTS only) [*] --fallback-sequential Switch to sequential mode (instead of printing an error) if it can't be solved in portfolio mode [*] --filter-lemma-length=N don't share (among portfolio threads) lemmas strictly longer than N --incremental-parallel Use parallel solver even in incremental mode (may print 'unknown's at times) [*] --interactive force interactive/non-interactive mode [*] --segv-spin spin on segfault/other crash waiting for gdb [*] --show-debug-tags show all available tags for debugging --show-trace-tags show all available tags for tracing --tear-down-incremental=N implement PUSH/POP/multi-query by destroying and recreating SmtEngine every N queries (EXPERTS only) --thread-stack=N stack size for worker threads in MB (0 means use Boost/thread lib default) --threadN=string configures portfolio thread N (0..#threads-1) --threads=N Total number of threads for portfolio --wait-to-join wait for other threads to join before quitting (EXPERTS only) [*]

**PARSER** **OPTIONS**

--mmap memory map file input [*]

**PRINTING** **OPTIONS**

--inst-format=MODE print format mode for instantiations, see --inst-format=help --model-format=MODE print format mode for models, see --model-format=help

**PROOF** **OPTIONS**

--aggressive-core-min turns on aggressive unsat core minimization (experimental) [*] --allow-empty-dependencies if unable to track the dependencies of a rewritten/preprocessed assertion, fail silently [*] --fewer-preprocessing-holes try to eliminate preprocessing holes in proofs [*] --lfsc-letification turns on global letification in LFSC proofs [*]

**SAT** **LAYER** **OPTIONS**

--minisat-dump-dimacs instead of solving minisat dumps the asserted clauses in Dimacs format [*] --minisat-elimination use Minisat elimination [*] --random-freq=P sets the frequency of random decisions in the sat solver (P=0.0 by default) --random-seed=S sets the random seed for the sat solver --refine-conflicts refine theory conflict clauses (default false) [*] --restart-int-base=N sets the base restart interval for the sat solver (N=25 by default) --restart-int-inc=F sets the restart interval increase factor for the sat solver (F=3.0 by default)

**QUANTIFIERS** **OPTIONS**

--ag-miniscope-quant perform aggressive miniscoping for quantifiers [*] --cbqi turns on counterexample-based quantifier instantiation [*] --cbqi-all apply counterexample-based instantiation to all quantified formulas [*] --cbqi-bv use word-level inversion approach for counterexample-guided quantifier instantiation for bit-vectors [*] --cbqi-bv-concat-inv compute inverse for concat over equalities rather than producing an invertibility condition [*] --cbqi-bv-ineq=MODE choose mode for handling bit-vector inequalities with counterexample-guided instantiation --cbqi-bv-interleave-value interleave model value instantiation with word-level inversion approach [*] --cbqi-bv-linear linearize adder chains for variables [*] --cbqi-bv-rm-extract replaces extract terms with variables for counterexample-guided instantiation for bit-vectors [*] --cbqi-bv-solve-nl try to solve non-linear bv literals using model value projections [*] --cbqi-full turns on full effort counterexample-based quantifier instantiation, which may resort to model-value instantiation [*] --cbqi-innermost only process innermost quantified formulas in counterexample-based quantifier instantiation [*] --cbqi-lit-dep dependency lemmas for quantifier alternation in counterexample-based quantifier instantiation [*] --cbqi-midpoint choose substitutions based on midpoints of lower and upper bounds for counterexample-based quantifier instantiation [*] --cbqi-min-bounds use minimally constrained lower/upper bound for counterexample-based quantifier instantiation [*] --cbqi-model guide instantiations by model values for counterexample-based quantifier instantiation [*] --cbqi-multi-inst when applicable, do multi instantiations per quantifier per round in counterexample-based quantifier instantiation [*] --cbqi-nested-qe process nested quantified formulas with quantifier elimination in counterexample-based quantifier instantiation [*] --cbqi-nopt non-optimal bounds for counterexample-based quantifier instantiation [*] --cbqi-prereg-inst preregister ground instantiations in counterexample-based quantifier instantiation [*] --cbqi-recurse turns on recursive counterexample-based quantifier instantiation [*] --cbqi-repeat-lit solve literals more than once in counterexample-based quantifier instantiation [*] --cbqi-round-up-lia round up integer lower bounds in substitutions for counterexample-based quantifier instantiation [*] --cbqi-sat answer sat when quantifiers are asserted with counterexample-based quantifier instantiation [*] --cbqi-use-inf-int use integer infinity for vts in counterexample-based quantifier instantiation [*] --cbqi-use-inf-real use real infinity for vts in counterexample-based quantifier instantiation [*] --cegis-sample=MODE mode for using samples in the counterexample-guided inductive synthesis loop --cegqi counterexample-guided quantifier instantiation for sygus [*] --cegqi-si-abort abort if synthesis conjecture is not single invocation [*] --cegqi-si-partial combined techniques for synthesis conjectures that are partially single invocation [*] --cegqi-si-reconstruct reconstruct solutions for single invocation conjectures in original grammar [*] --cegqi-si-reconstruct-const include constants when reconstruct solutions for single invocation conjectures in original grammar [*] --cegqi-si-sol-min-core minimize solutions for single invocation conjectures based on unsat core [*] --cegqi-si-sol-min-inst minimize individual instantiations for single invocation conjectures based on unsat core [*] --cegqi-si=MODE mode for processing single invocation synthesis conjectures --cond-rewrite-quant conditional rewriting of quantified formulas [*] --cond-var-split-agg-quant aggressive split quantified formulas that lead to variable eliminations [*] --cond-var-split-quant split quantified formulas that lead to variable eliminations [*] --conjecture-filter-active-terms filter based on active terms [*] --conjecture-filter-canonical filter based on canonicity [*] --conjecture-filter-model filter based on model [*] --conjecture-gen generate candidate conjectures for inductive proofs [*] --conjecture-gen-gt-enum=N number of ground terms to generate for model filtering --conjecture-gen-max-depth=N maximum depth of terms to consider for conjectures --conjecture-gen-per-round=N number of conjectures to generate per instantiation round --conjecture-gen-uee-intro more aggressive merging for universal equality engine, introduces terms [*] --conjecture-no-filter do not filter conjectures [*] --dt-stc-ind apply strengthening for existential quantification over datatypes based on structural induction [*] --dt-var-exp-quant expand datatype variables bound to one constructor in quantifiers [*] --e-matching whether to do heuristic E-matching [*] --elim-ext-arith-quant eliminate extended arithmetic symbols in quantified formulas [*] --elim-taut-quant eliminate tautological disjuncts of quantified formulas [*] --finite-model-find use finite model finding heuristic for quantifier instantiation [*] --fmf-bound finite model finding on bounded quantification [*] --fmf-bound-int finite model finding on bounded integer quantification [*] --fmf-bound-lazy enforce bounds for bounded quantification lazily via use of proxy variables [*] --fmf-bound-min-mode=MODE mode for which types of bounds to minimize via first decision heuristics --fmf-empty-sorts allow finite model finding to assume sorts that do not occur in ground assertions are empty [*] --fmf-fmc-simple simple models in full model check for finite model finding [*] --fmf-fresh-dc use fresh distinguished representative when applying Inst-Gen techniques [*] --fmf-fun find models for recursively defined functions, assumes functions are admissible [*] --fmf-fun-rlv find models for recursively defined functions, assumes functions are admissible, allows empty type when function is irrelevant [*] --fmf-inst-engine use instantiation engine in conjunction with finite model finding [*] --fmf-inst-gen enable Inst-Gen instantiation techniques for finite model finding [*] --fmf-inst-gen-one-quant-per-round only perform Inst-Gen instantiation techniques on one quantifier per round [*] --fs-interleave interleave full saturate instantiation with other techniques [*] --full-saturate-quant when all other quantifier instantiation strategies fail, instantiate with ground terms from relevant domain, then arbitrary ground terms before answering unknown [*] --full-saturate-quant-rd whether to use relevant domain first for full saturation instantiation strategy [*] --global-negate do global negation of input formula [*] --ho-matching do higher-order matching algorithm for triggers with variable operators [*] --ho-matching-var-priority give priority to variable arguments over constant arguments [*] --ho-merge-term-db merge term indices modulo equality [*] --increment-triggers generate additional triggers as needed during search [*] --infer-arith-trigger-eq infer equalities for trigger terms based on solving arithmetic equalities [*] --infer-arith-trigger-eq-exp record explanations for inferArithTriggerEq [*] --inst-level-input-only only input terms are assigned instantiation level zero [*] --inst-max-level=N maximum inst level of terms used to instantiate quantified formulas with (-1 == no limit, default) --inst-no-entail do not consider instances of quantified formulas that are currently entailed [*] --inst-no-model-true do not consider instances of quantified formulas that are currently true in model, if it is available [*] --inst-prop internal propagation for instantiations for selecting relevant instances [*] --inst-when-phase=N instantiation rounds quantifiers takes (>=1) before allowing theory combination to happen --inst-when-strict-interleave ensure theory combination and standard quantifier effort strategies take turns [*] --inst-when-tc-first allow theory combination to happen once initially, before quantifier strategies are run [*] --inst-when=MODE when to apply instantiation --int-wf-ind apply strengthening for integers based on well-founded induction [*] --ite-dtt-split-quant split ites with dt testers as conditions [*] --ite-lift-quant=MODE ite lifting mode for quantified formulas --literal-matching=MODE choose literal matching mode --local-t-ext do instantiation based on local theory extensions [*] --lte-partial-inst partially instantiate local theory quantifiers [*] --lte-restrict-inst-closure treat arguments of inst closure as restricted terms for instantiation [*] --macros-quant perform quantifiers macro expansion [*] --macros-quant-mode=MODE mode for quantifiers macro expansion --mbqi-interleave interleave model-based quantifier instantiation with other techniques [*] --mbqi-one-inst-per-round only add one instantiation per quantifier per round for mbqi [*] --mbqi-one-quant-per-round only add instantiations for one quantifier per round for mbqi [*] --mbqi=MODE choose mode for model-based quantifier instantiation --miniscope-quant miniscope quantifiers [*] --miniscope-quant-fv miniscope quantifiers for ground subformulas [*] --multi-trigger-cache caching version of multi triggers [*] --multi-trigger-linear implementation of multi triggers where maximum number of instantiations is linear wrt number of ground terms [*] --multi-trigger-priority only try multi triggers if single triggers give no instantiations [*] --multi-trigger-when-single select multi triggers when single triggers exist [*] --partial-triggers use triggers that do not contain all free variables [*] --pre-skolem-quant apply skolemization eagerly to bodies of quantified formulas [*] --pre-skolem-quant-agg apply skolemization to quantified formulas aggressively [*] --pre-skolem-quant-nested apply skolemization to nested quantified formulas [*] --prenex-quant-user prenex quantified formulas with user patterns [*] --prenex-quant=MODE prenex mode for quantified formulas --pure-th-triggers use pure theory terms as single triggers [*] --purify-dt-triggers purify dt triggers, match all constructors of correct form instead of selectors [*] --purify-triggers purify triggers, e.g. f( x+1 ) becomes f( y ), x mapsto y-1 [*] --qcf-all-conflict add all available conflicting instances during conflict-based instantiation [*] --qcf-eager-check-rd optimization, eagerly check relevant domain of matched position [*] --qcf-eager-test optimization, test qcf instances eagerly [*] --qcf-nested-conflict consider conflicts for nested quantifiers [*] --qcf-skip-rd optimization, skip instances based on possibly irrelevant portions of quantified formulas [*] --qcf-tconstraint enable entailment checks for t-constraints in qcf algorithm [*] --qcf-vo-exp qcf experimental variable ordering [*] --quant-alpha-equiv infer alpha equivalence between quantified formulas [*] --quant-anti-skolem perform anti-skolemization for quantified formulas [*] --quant-cf enable conflict find mechanism for quantifiers [*] --quant-cf-mode=MODE what effort to apply conflict find mechanism --quant-cf-when=MODE when to invoke conflict find mechanism for quantifiers --quant-dsplit-mode=MODE mode for dynamic quantifiers splitting --quant-epr infer whether in effectively propositional fragment, use for cbqi [*] --quant-epr-match use matching heuristics for EPR instantiation [*] --quant-fun-wd assume that function defined by quantifiers are well defined [*] --quant-ind use all available techniques for inductive reasoning [*] --quant-model-ee use equality engine of model for last call effort [*] --quant-rep-mode=MODE selection mode for representatives in quantifiers engine --quant-split apply splitting to quantified formulas based on variable disjoint disjuncts [*] --register-quant-body-terms consider ground terms within bodies of quantified formulas for matching [*] --relational-triggers choose relational triggers such as x = f(y), x >= f(y) [*] --relevant-triggers prefer triggers that are more relevant based on SInE style analysis [*] --rewrite-rules use rewrite rules module [*] --rr-one-inst-per-round add one instance of rewrite rule per round [*] --strict-triggers only instantiate quantifiers with user patterns based on triggers [*] --sygus-add-const-grammar statically add constants appearing in conjecture to grammars [*] --sygus-auto-unfold enable approach which automatically unfolds transition systems for directly solving invariant synthesis problems [*] --sygus-bool-ite-return-const Only use Boolean constants for return values in unification-based function synthesis [*] --sygus-eval-unfold do unfolding of sygus evaluation functions [*] --sygus-eval-unfold-bool do unfolding of Boolean evaluation functions that appear in refinement lemmas [*] --sygus-ext-rew use extended rewriter for sygus [*] --sygus-grammar-norm statically normalize sygus grammars based on flattening (linearization) [*] --sygus-inference attempt to preprocess arbitrary inputs to sygus conjectures [*] --sygus-inv-templ-when-sg use invariant templates (with solution reconstruction) for syntax guided problems [*] --sygus-inv-templ=MODE template mode for sygus invariant synthesis (weaken pre-condition, strengthen post-condition, or none) --sygus-min-grammar statically minimize sygus grammars [*] --sygus-pbe enable approach which unifies conditional solutions, specialized for programming-by-examples (pbe) conjectures [*] --sygus-qe-preproc use quantifier elimination as a preprocessing step for sygus [*] --sygus-ref-eval direct evaluation of refinement lemmas for conflict analysis [*] --sygus-repair-const use approach to repair constants in sygus candidate solutions [*] --sygus-rr use sygus to enumerate and verify correctness of rewrite rules via sampling [*] --sygus-rr-synth use sygus to enumerate candidate rewrite rules via sampling [*] --sygus-rr-synth-accel add dynamic symmetry breaking clauses based on candidate rewrites [*] --sygus-rr-synth-check use satisfiability check to verify correctness of candidate rewrites [*] --sygus-rr-synth-filter-cong filter candidate rewrites based on congruence [*] --sygus-rr-synth-filter-match filter candidate rewrites based on matching [*] --sygus-rr-synth-filter-order filter candidate rewrites based on variable ordering [*] --sygus-rr-verify use sygus to verify the correctness of rewrite rules via sampling [*] --sygus-rr-verify-abort abort when sygus-rr-verify finds an instance of unsoundness [*] --sygus-sample-grammar when applicable, use grammar for choosing sample points [*] --sygus-samples=N number of points to consider when doing sygus rewriter sample testing --sygus-stream enumerate a stream of solutions instead of terminating after the first one [*] --sygus-templ-embed-grammar embed sygus templates into grammars [*] --sygus-unif Unification-based function synthesis [*] --term-db-mode which ground terms to consider for instantiation --track-inst-lemmas track instantiation lemmas (for proofs, unsat cores, qe and synthesis minimization) [*] --trigger-active-sel selection mode to activate triggers --trigger-sel selection mode for triggers --user-pat=MODE policy for handling user-provided patterns for quantifier instantiation --var-elim-quant enable simple variable elimination for quantified formulas [*] --var-ineq-elim-quant enable variable elimination based on infinite projection of unbound arithmetic variables [*]

**SEP** **OPTIONS**

--sep-check-neg check negated spatial assertions [*] --sep-child-refine child-specific refinements of negated star, positive wand [*] --sep-deq-c assume cardinality elements are distinct [*] --sep-exp experimental flag for sep [*] --sep-min-refine only add refinement lemmas for minimal (innermost) assertions [*] --sep-pre-skolem-emp eliminate emp constraint at preprocess time [*]

**SETS** **OPTIONS**

--sets-ext enable extended symbols such as complement and universe in theory of sets [*] --sets-infer-as-lemmas send inferences as lemmas [*] --sets-proxy-lemmas introduce proxy variables eagerly to shorten lemmas [*] --sets-rel-eager standard effort checks for relations [*]

**SMT** **LAYER** **OPTIONS**

--abstract-values in models, output arrays (and in future, maybe others) using abstract values, as required by the SMT-LIB standard [*] --bitblast-step amount of resources spent for each bitblast step (EXPERTS only) --bv-sat-conflict-step amount of resources spent for each sat conflict (bitvectors) (EXPERTS only) --check-models after SAT/INVALID/UNKNOWN, check that the generated model satisfies user assertions [*] --check-proofs after UNSAT/VALID, machine-check the generated proof [*] --check-synth-sol checks whether produced solutions to functions-to-synthesize satisfy the conjecture [*] --check-unsat-cores after UNSAT/VALID, produce and check an unsat core (expensive) [*] --cnf-step amount of resources spent for each call to cnf conversion (EXPERTS only) --decision-step amount of getNext decision calls in the decision engine (EXPERTS only) --dump-instantiations output instantiations of quantified formulas after every UNSAT/VALID response [*] --dump-models output models after every SAT/INVALID/UNKNOWN response [*] --dump-proofs output proofs after every UNSAT/VALID response [*] --dump-synth output solution for synthesis conjectures after every UNSAT/VALID response [*] --dump-unsat-cores output unsat cores after every UNSAT/VALID response [*] --dump-unsat-cores-full dump the full unsat core, including unlabeled assertions [*] --ext-rew-prep use extended rewriter as a preprocessing pass [*] --ext-rew-prep-agg use aggressive extended rewriter as a preprocessing pass [*] --force-logic=LOGIC set the logic, and override all further user attempts to change it (EXPERTS only) --force-no-limit-cpu-while-dump Force no CPU limit when dumping models and proofs [*] --ite-simp turn on ite simplification (Kim (and Somenzi) et al., SAT 2009) [*] --lemma-step amount of resources spent when adding lemmas (EXPERTS only) --model-u-dt-enum in models, output uninterpreted sorts as datatype enumerations [*] --omit-dont-cares When producing a model, omit variables whose value does not matter [*] --on-repeat-ite-simp do the ite simplification pass again if repeating simplification [*] --parse-step amount of resources spent for each command/expression parsing (EXPERTS only) --preprocess-step amount of resources spent for each preprocessing step in SmtEngine (EXPERTS only) --produce-assignments support the get-assignment command [*] --produce-unsat-assumptions turn on unsat assumptions generation [*] --produce-unsat-cores turn on unsat core generation [*] --proof turn on proof generation [*] --quantifier-step amount of resources spent for quantifier instantiations (EXPERTS only) --repeat-simp make multiple passes with nonclausal simplifier [*] --restart-step amount of resources spent for each theory restart (EXPERTS only) --rewrite-apply-to-const eliminate function applications, rewriting e.g. f(5) to a new symbol f_5 (EXPERTS only) [*] --rewrite-step amount of resources spent for each rewrite step (EXPERTS only) --sat-conflict-step amount of resources spent for each sat conflict (main sat solver) (EXPERTS only) --simp-ite-compress enables compressing ites after ite simplification [*] --simp-ite-hunt-zombies post ite compression enables zombie removal while the number of nodes is above this threshold --simp-with-care enables simplifyWithCare in ite simplificiation [*] --simplification=MODE choose simplification mode, see --simplification=help --sort-inference calculate sort inference of input problem, convert the input based on monotonic sorts [*] --static-learning use static learning (on by default) [*] --sygus-out=MODE output mode for sygus --sygus-print-callbacks use sygus print callbacks to print sygus terms in the user-provided form (disable for debugging) [*] --symmetry-breaker-exp generate symmetry breaking constraints after symmetry detection [*] --theory-check-step amount of resources spent for each theory check call (EXPERTS only) --unconstrained-simp turn on unconstrained simplification (see Bruttomesso/Brummayer PhD thesis) [*] --no-simplification turn off all simplification (same as --simplification=none)

**STRINGS** **THEORY** **OPTIONS**

--strings-abort-loop abort when a looping word equation is encountered [*] --strings-binary-csp use binary search when splitting strings [*] --strings-check-entail-len check entailment between length terms to reduce splitting [*] --strings-eager strings eager check [*] --strings-eager-len strings eager length lemmas [*] --strings-eit the eager intersection used by the theory of strings [*] --strings-exp experimental features in the theory of strings [*] --strings-fmf the finite model finding used by the theory of strings [*] --strings-guess-model use model guessing to avoid string extended function reductions [*] --strings-infer-as-lemmas always send lemmas out instead of making internal inferences [*] --strings-infer-sym strings split on empty string [*] --strings-inm internal for strings: ignore negative membership constraints (fragment checking is needed, left to users for now) [*] --strings-lazy-pp perform string preprocessing lazily [*] --strings-lb=N the strategy of LB rule application: 0-lazy, 1-eager, 2-no --strings-len-geqz strings length greater than zero lemmas [*] --strings-len-norm strings length normalization lemma [*] --strings-lprop-csp do length propagation based on constant splits [*] --strings-min-prefix-explain minimize explanations for prefix of normal forms in strings [*] --strings-opt1 internal option1 for strings: normal form [*] --strings-opt2 internal option2 for strings: constant regexp splitting [*] --strings-print-ascii the alphabet contains only printable characters from the standard extended ASCII [*] --strings-process-loop reduce looping word equations to regular expressions [*] --strings-rexplain-lemmas regression explanations for string lemmas [*] --strings-sp-emp strings split on empty string [*] --strings-uf-reduct use uninterpreted functions when applying extended function reductions [*]

**THEORY** **LAYER** **OPTIONS**

--assign-function-values assign values for uninterpreted functions in models [*] --condense-function-values condense values for functions in models rather than explicitly representing them [*] --theoryof-mode=MODE mode for Theory::theoryof() (EXPERTS only) --use-theory=NAME use alternate theory implementation NAME (--use-theory=help for a list). This option may be repeated or a comma separated list.

**UNINTERPRETED** **FUNCTIONS** **THEORY** **OPTIONS**

--symmetry-breaker use UF symmetry breaker (Deharbe et al., CADE 2011) [*] --uf-ho enable support for higher-order reasoning [*] --uf-ho-ext apply extensionality on function symbols [*] --uf-ss-abort-card=N tells the uf strong solver to only consider models that interpret uninterpreted sorts of cardinality at most N (-1 == no limit, default) --uf-ss-clique-splits use cliques instead of splitting on demand to shrink model [*] --uf-ss-eager-split add splits eagerly for uf strong solver [*] --uf-ss-fair use fair strategy for finite model finding multiple sorts [*] --uf-ss-fair-monotone group monotone sorts when enforcing fairness for finite model finding [*] --uf-ss-regions disable region-based method for discovering cliques and splits in uf strong solver [*] --uf-ss-totality always use totality axioms for enforcing cardinality constraints [*] --uf-ss-totality-limited=N apply totality axioms, but only up to cardinality N (-1 == do not apply totality axioms, default) --uf-ss-totality-sym-break apply symmetry breaking for totality axioms [*] --uf-ss=MODE mode of operation for uf strong solver. Each option marked with [*] has a --no-OPTIONNAME variant, which reverses the sense of the option.

**DIAGNOSTICS**

CVC4reports all syntactic and semantic errors on standard error.

**HISTORY**

TheCVC4effort is the culmination of fifteen years of theorem proving research, starting with theStanfordValidityChecker(SVC)in 1996. SVC's successor, theCooperatingValidityChecker(CVC),had a more optimized internal design, produced proofs, used theChaffSAT solver, and featured a number of usability enhancements. Its name comes from the cooperative nature of decision procedures in Nelson-Oppen theory combination, which share amongst each other equalities between shared terms. CVC Lite, first made available in 2003, was a rewrite of CVC that attempted to make CVC more flexible (hence the “lite”) while extending the feature set: CVCLite supported quantifiers where its predecessors did not. CVC3 was a major overhaul of portions of CVC Lite: it added better decision procedure implementations, added support for using MiniSat in the core, and had generally better performance. CVC4 is the new version, the fifth generation of this validity checker line that is now celebrating fifteen years of heritage. It represents a complete re-evaluation of the core architecture to be both performant and to serve as a cutting-edge research vehicle for the next several years. Rather than taking CVC3 and redesigning problem parts, we've taken a clean-room approach, starting from scratch. Before using any designs from CVC3, we have thoroughly scrutinized, vetted, and updated them. Many parts of CVC4 bear only a superficial resemblance, if any, to their correspondent in CVC3. However, CVC4 is fundamentally similar to CVC3 and many other modern SMT solvers: it is a DPLL(T) solver, with a SAT solver at its core and a delegation path to different decision procedure implementations, each in charge of solving formulas in some background theory. The re-evaluation and ground-up rewrite was necessitated, we felt, by the performance characteristics of CVC3. CVC3 has many useful features, but some core aspects of the design led to high memory use, and the use of heavyweight computation (where more nimble engineering approaches could suffice) makes CVC3 a much slower prover than other tools. As these designs are central to CVC3, a new version was preferable to a selective re- engineering, which would have ballooned in short order.

**VERSION**

This manual page refers toCVC4version 1.6.

**BUGS**

An issue tracker for the CVC4 project is maintained athttps://github.com/CVC4/CVC4/issues.

**AUTHORS**

CVC4is developed by a team of researchers at Stanford University and the University of Iowa. See the AUTHORS file in the distribution for a full list of contributors.

**SEE** **ALSO**

The CVC4 wiki contains useful information about the design and internals of CVC4. It is maintained athttp://cvc4.cs.stanford.edu/wiki/.