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       r.sun  - Solar irradiance and irradiation model.
       Computes direct (beam), diffuse and reflected solar irradiation raster maps for given day,
       latitude, surface and atmospheric  conditions.  Solar  parameters  (e.g.  sunrise,  sunset
       times,  declination,  extraterrestrial  irradiance,  daylight length) are saved in the map
       history file. Alternatively, a local time can be  specified  to  compute  solar  incidence
       angle  and/or irradiance raster maps. The shadowing effect of the topography is optionally


       raster, solar, sun energy, shadow


       r.sun --help
       r.sun  [-pm]  elevation=string   [aspect=string]    [aspect_value=float]    [slope=string]
       [slope_value=float]        [linke=string]        [linke_value=float]       [albedo=string]
       [albedo_value=float]         [lat=string]         [long=string]          [coeff_bh=string]
       [coeff_dh=string]   [horizon_basename=basename]   [horizon_step=float]   [incidout=string]
       [beam_rad=string]       [diff_rad=string]       [refl_rad=string]        [glob_rad=string]
       [insol_time=string]    day=integer    [step=float]     [declination=float]    [time=float]
       [nprocs=integer]    [distance_step=float]     [npartitions=integer]     [civil_time=float]
       [--overwrite]  [--help]  [--verbose]  [--quiet]  [--ui]

           Do not incorporate the shadowing effect of terrain

           Use the low-memory version of the program

           Allow output files to overwrite existing files

           Print usage summary

           Verbose module output

           Quiet module output

           Force launching GUI dialog

       elevation=string [required]
           Name of the input elevation raster map [meters]

           Name  of  the input aspect map (terrain aspect or azimuth of the solar panel) [decimal

           A single value of the orientation (aspect), 270 is south
           Default: 270

           Name of the input slope raster map (terrain slope or solar panel inclination) [decimal

           A single value of inclination (slope)
           Default: 0.0

           Name of the Linke atmospheric turbidity coefficient input raster map [-]

           A single value of the Linke atmospheric turbidity coefficient [-]
           Default: 3.0

           Name of the ground albedo coefficient input raster map [-]

           A single value of the ground albedo coefficient [-]
           Default: 0.2

           Name of input raster map containing latitudes [decimal degrees]

           Name of input raster map containing longitudes [decimal degrees]

           Name of real-sky beam radiation coefficient (thick cloud) input raster map [0-1]

           Name of real-sky diffuse radiation coefficient (haze) input raster map [0-1]

           The horizon information input map basename

           Angle step size for multidirectional horizon [degrees]

           Output incidence angle raster map (mode 1 only)

           Output beam irradiance [W.m-2] (mode 1) or irradiation raster map [] (mode

           Output diffuse irradiance [W.m-2] (mode 1) or irradiation  raster  map  []
           (mode 2)

           Output  ground  reflected  irradiance  [W.m-2]  (mode  1)  or  irradiation  raster map
           [] (mode 2)

           Output    global    (total)    irradiance/irradiation    [W.m-2]    (mode    1)     or
           irradiance/irradiation raster map [] (mode 2)

           Output insolation time raster map [h] (mode 2 only)

       day=integer [required]
           No. of day of the year (1-365)
           Options: 1-365

           Time step when computing all-day radiation sums [decimal hours]
           Default: 0.5

           Declination value (overriding the internally computed value) [radians]

           Local (solar) time (to be set for mode 1 only) [decimal hours]
           Options: 0-24

           Number of threads which will be used for parallel computing
           Options: 1-1000
           Default: 1

           Sampling distance step coefficient (0.5-1.5)
           Default: 1.0

           Read the input files in this number of chunks
           Default: 1

           Civil time zone value, if none, the time will be local solar time


       r.sun  computes  beam (direct), diffuse and ground reflected solar irradiation raster maps
       for given day, latitude, surface and atmospheric conditions. Solar parameters  (e.g.  time
       of  sunrise  and  sunset,  declination,  extraterrestrial irradiance, daylight length) are
       stored in the resultant  maps’  history  files.  Alternatively,  the  local  time  can  be
       specified  to  compute  solar incidence angle and/or irradiance raster maps. The shadowing
       effect of the topography is incorporated by default. This can be done either internally by
       calculatoion  of  the  shadowing  effect  directly  from the digital elevation model or by
       specifying raster maps of the horizon height which is much faster.  These  horizon  raster
       maps can be calculated using r.horizon.

       For  latitude-longitude  coordinates it requires that the elevation map is in meters.  The
       rules are:

           ·   lat/lon coordinates: elevation in meters;

           ·   Other coordinates: elevation in the same unit as the easting-northing coordinates.
       The solar geometry of the model is based on the works of Krcho (1990), later  improved  by
       Jenco  (1992). The equations describing Sun -- Earth position as well as an interaction of
       the solar radiation with atmosphere were originally based on  the  formulas  suggested  by
       Kitler  and  Mikler  (1986).  This  component  was considerably updated by the results and
       suggestions of the working group co-ordinated by Scharmer and Greif (2000) (this algorithm
       might be replaced by SOLPOS algorithm-library included in GRASS within r.sunmask command).
       The model computes all three components of global radiation (beam, diffuse and  reflected)
       for  the clear sky conditions, i.e. not taking into consideration the spatial and temporal
       variation of clouds. The extent and spatial resolution of the modelled area,  as  well  as
       integration  over  time,  are  limited  only by the memory and data storage resources. The
       model is built to fulfil user needs in various fields of science (hydrology,  climatology,
       ecology  and  environmental  sciences,  photovoltaics, engineering, etc.) for continental,
       regional up to the landscape scales.

       The model considers a shadowing effect of the local topography unless  switched  off  with
       the  -p flag.  r.sun works in two modes: In the first mode it calculates for the set local
       time a solar incidence angle [degrees] and solar irradiance values [W.m-2].  In the second
       mode  daily  sums  of  solar  radiation [] are computed within a set day. By a
       scripting the two modes can be used separately or in a combination  to  provide  estimates
       for  any  desired  time  interval.  The model accounts for sky obstruction by local relief
       features. Several solar parameters are saved in the resultant maps’ history  files,  which
       may be viewed with the command.

       The  solar incidence angle raster map incidout is computed specifying elevation raster map
       elevation, aspect raster map aspect, slope steepness raster map slope, given the  day  day
       and  local  time  time.  There  is no need to define latitude for locations with known and
       defined projection/coordinate system (check it with  the  g.proj  command).  If  you  have
       undefined  projection,  (x,y) system, etc. then the latitude can be defined explicitly for
       large areas by input raster map lat_in with interpolated latitude values. All input raster
       maps  must  be floating point (FCELL) raster maps. Null data in maps are excluded from the
       computation (and also speeding-up the computation), so each output raster map will contain
       null  data in cells according to all input raster maps. The user can use r.null command to
       create/reset null file for your input raster maps.
       The specified day day is the number of the day of the general year where January 1 is  day
       no.1 and December 31 is 365. Time time must be a local (solar) time (i.e. NOT a zone time,
       e.g. GMT, CET) in decimal system, e.g. 7.5 (= 7h 30m A.M.), 16.1 = 4h 6m P.M..

       The solar declination parameter is an  option  to  override  the  value  computed  by  the
       internal routine for the day of the year. The value of geographical latitude can be set as
       a constant for the whole computed region or, as an option, a grid  representing  spatially
       distributed  values over a large region. The geographical latitude must be also in decimal
       system with positive values for northern hemisphere and negative  for  southern  one.   In
       similar principle the Linke turbidity factor (linke, lin ) and ground albedo (albedo, alb)
       can be set.

       Besides clear-sky radiations, the user can compute a real-sky  radiation  (beam,  diffuse)
       using  coeff_bh  and  coeff_dh  input  raster maps defining the fraction of the respective
       clear-sky radiations reduced by  atmospheric  factors  (e.g.  cloudiness).  The  value  is
       between  0-1.  Usually these coefficients can be obtained from a long-terms meteorological
       measurements provided as raster maps  with  spatial  distribution  of  these  coefficients
       separately for beam and diffuse radiation (see Suri and Hofierka, 2004, section 3.2).

       The  solar irradiation or irradiance raster maps beam_rad, diff_rad, refl_rad are computed
       for a given day day, latitude lat_in, elevation elevation, slope slope and  aspect  aspect
       raster  maps.  For convenience, the output raster given as glob_rad will output the sum of
       the three radiation components. The program uses the Linke atmosphere turbidity factor and
       ground albedo coefficient.  A default, single value of Linke factor is lin=3.0 and is near
       the annual average for  rural-city  areas.  The  Linke  factor  for  an  absolutely  clear
       atmosphere  is  lin=1.0.  See  notes  below to learn more about this factor. The incidence
       solar angle is the angle between horizon and solar beam vector.

       The solar radiation maps for  a  given  day  are  computed  by  integrating  the  relevant
       irradiance  between  sunrise  and  sunset  times for that day. The user can set a finer or
       coarser time step used for all-day  radiation  calculations  with  the  step  option.  The
       default  value  of step is 0.5 hour. Larger steps (e.g. 1.0-2.0) can speed-up calculations
       but produce less reliable (and more jagged) results. As the sun moves through approx.  15°
       of  the  sky  in  an hour, the default step of half an hour will produce 7.5° steps in the
       data. For relatively smooth output with the sun placed for every degree of movement in the
       sky  you  should  set  the  step  to 4 minutes or less. step=0.05 is equivalent to every 3
       minutes. Of course setting the time step to be  very  fine  proportionally  increases  the
       module’s running time.

       The  output  units are in Wh per squared meter per given day [Wh/(m*m)/day]. The incidence
       angle and irradiance/irradiation maps are computed with the shadowing influence of  relief
       by  default.  It is also possible for them to be computed without this influence using the
       planar flag (-p).  In mountainous areas this can lead to very different results! The  user
       should  be aware that taking into account the shadowing effect of relief can slow down the
       speed of computation, especially when the sun altitude is low.

       When considering  the  shadowing  effect,  speed  and  precision  of  computation  can  be
       controlled by the distance_step parameter, which defines the sampling density at which the
       visibility of a grid cell is computed in the direction of a path of  the  solar  flow.  It
       also  defines  the  method  by  which the obstacle’s altitude is computed. When choosing a
       distance_step less than 1.0 (i.e. sampling points will  be  computed  at  distance_step  *
       cellsize distance), r.sun takes the altitude from the nearest grid point. Values above 1.0
       will use the maximum altitude value found in the nearest 4 surrounding  grid  points.  The
       default  value  distance_step=1.0  should give reasonable results for most cases (e.g.  on
       DEM). The distance_step value defines a multiplying  coefficient  for  sampling  distance.
       This  basic  sampling  distance  equals  to the arithmetic average of both cell sizes. The
       reasonable values are in the range 0.5-1.5.  The values below 0.5 will decrease and values
       above 1.0 will increase the computing speed. Values greater than 2.0 may produce estimates
       with lower accuracy in highly dissected relief. The fully shadowed areas  are  written  to
       the  output  maps  as  zero values. Areas with NULL data are considered as no barrier with
       shadowing effect.

       The maps’ history files are generated containing the following listed parameters  used  in
       the computation:
       - Solar constant 1367 W.m-2
       - Extraterrestrial irradiance on a plane perpendicular to the solar beam [W.m-2]
       - Day of the year
       - Declination [radians]
       - Decimal hour (Alternative 1 only)
       - Sunrise and sunset (min-max) over a horizontal plane
       - Daylight lengths
       - Geographical latitude (min-max)
       - Linke turbidity factor (min-max)
       - Ground albedo (min-max)

       The  user  can  use a nice shellcript with variable day to compute radiation for some time
       interval within the year (e.g. vegetation or winter period). Elevation, aspect  and  slope
       input  values  should  not  be  reclassified  into  coarser categories. This could lead to
       incorrect results.


       Currently, there are two modes of r.sun.  In the first mode it calculates solar  incidence
       angle  and solar irradiance raster maps using the set local time. In the second mode daily
       sums of solar irradiation [] are computed for a specified day.


       Solar energy is an  important  input  parameter  in  different  models  concerning  energy
       industry,  landscape,  vegetation,  evapotranspiration,  snowmelt or remote sensing. Solar
       rays incidence  angle  maps  can  be  effectively  used  in  radiometric  and  topographic
       corrections  in mountainous and hilly terrain where very accurate investigations should be

       The clear-sky solar radiation model applied in the r.sun is based on the  work  undertaken
       for  development  of  European Solar Radiation Atlas (Scharmer and Greif 2000, Page et al.
       2001, Rigollier 2001). The clear sky model estimates the global radiation from the sum  of
       its  beam,  diffuse and reflected components.  The main difference between solar radiation
       models for inclined surfaces in Europe is the treatment of the diffuse component.  In  the
       European  climate  this  component is often the largest source of estimation error. Taking
       into consideration the existing models and their limitation the European  Solar  Radiation
       Atlas  team  selected the Muneer (1990) model as it has a sound theoretical basis and thus
       more potential for later improvement.

       Details of underlying equations used in  this  program  can  be  found  in  the  reference
       literature cited below or book published by Neteler and Mitasova: Open Source GIS: A GRASS
       GIS Approach (published in Kluwer Academic Publishers in 2002).

       Average monthly values of the Linke turbidity  coefficient  for  a  mild  climate  in  the
       northern hemisphere (see reference literature for your study area):

       Month                                                        Jan                                                          Feb                                                          Mar                                                          Apr                                                          May                                                          Jun                                                          Jul                                                          Aug                                                          Sep                                                          Oct                                                          Nov                                                          Dec                                                          annual

       mountains                                                    1.5                                                          1.6                                                          1.8                                                          1.9                                                          2.0                                                          2.3                                                          2.3                                                          2.3                                                          2.1                                                          1.8                                                          1.6                                                          1.5                                                          1.90

       rural                                                        2.1                                                          2.2                                                          2.5                                                          2.9                                                          3.2                                                          3.4                                                          3.5                                                          3.3                                                          2.9                                                          2.6                                                          2.3                                                          2.2                                                          2.75

       city                                                         3.1                                                          3.2                                                          3.5                                                          4.0                                                          4.2                                                          4.3                                                          4.4                                                          4.3                                                          4.0                                                          3.6                                                          3.3                                                          3.1                                                          3.75

       industrial                                                   4.1                                                          4.3                                                          4.7                                                          5.3                                                          5.5                                                          5.7                                                          5.8                                                          5.7                                                          5.3                                                          4.9                                                          4.5                                                          4.2                                                          5.00

       Planned  improvements  include  the  use  of  the  SOLPOS  algorithm  for  solar  geometry
       calculations and internal computation of aspect and slope.

   Solar time
       By default r.sun calculates times as true solar time, whereby solar noon is always exactly
       12  o’clock  everywhere  in the current region. Depending on where the zone of interest is
       located in the related time zone, this may cause differences of up to  an  hour,  in  some
       cases  (like  Western Spain) even more.  On top of this, the offset varies during the year
       according to the Equation of Time.

       To overcome this problem, the user can  use  the  option  civil_time=<timezone_offset>  in
       r.sun  to  make  it  use real-world (wall clock) time. For example, for Central Europe the
       timezone offset is +1, +2 when daylight saving time is in effect.

   Extraction of shadow maps
       A map of shadows can be extracted from the solar incidence  angle  map  (incidout).  Areas
       with NULL values are shadowed. This will not work if the -p flag has been used.

   Large maps and out of memory problems
       With  a  large number or columns and rows, r.sun can consume significant amount of memory.
       While output raster maps are not partitionable,  the  input  raster  maps  are  using  the
       npartitions  parameter.   In case of out of memory error (ERROR: G_malloc: out of memory),
       the npartitions parameter can be used to run a segmented calculation which  consumes  less
       memory during the computations.  The amount of memory by r.sun is estimated as follows:
       # without input raster map partitioning:
       #  memory requirements: 4 bytes per raster cell
       #  rows,cols: rows and columns of current region (find out with g.region)
       #  IR: number of input raster maps without horizon maps
       #  OR: number of output raster maps
       memory_bytes = rows*cols*(IR*4 + horizon_steps + OR*4)
       # with input raster map partitioning:
       memory_bytes = rows*cols*((IR*4+horizon_steps)/npartitions  + OR*4)


       North Carolina example (considering also cast shadows):
       g.region raster=elevation -p
       # calculate horizon angles (to speed up the subsequent r.sun calculation)
       r.horizon elevation=elevation step=30 bufferzone=200 output=horangle \
       # slope + aspect
       r.slope.aspect elevation=elevation aspect=aspect.dem slope=slope.dem
       # calculate global radiation for day 180 at 2p.m., using r.horizon output
       r.sun elevation=elevation horizon_basename=horangle horizon_step=30 \
             aspect=aspect.dem slope=slope.dem glob_rad=global_rad day=180 time=14
       # result: output global (total) irradiance/irradiation [W.m-2] for given day/time
       r.univar global_rad

       Calculation of the integrated daily irradiation for a region in North-Carolina for a given
       day of the year at 30m resolution. Here day 172 (i.e., 21 June in non-leap years):
       g.region raster=elev_ned_30m -p
       # considering cast shadows
       r.sun elevation=elev_ned_30m linke_value=2.5 albedo_value=0.2 day=172 \
             beam_rad=b172 diff_rad=d172 \
             refl_rad=r172 insol_time=it172
       d.mon wx0
       # show irradiation raster map []
       d.rast.leg b172
       # show insolation time raster map [h]
       d.rast.leg it172
       We can compute the day of year from a specific date in Python:
       >>> import datetime
       >>> datetime.datetime(2014, 6, 21).timetuple().tm_yday


        r.horizon, r.slope.aspect, r.sunhours, r.sunmask, g.proj, r.null,


           ·   Hofierka, J., Suri, M. (2002): The solar radiation  model  for  Open  source  GIS:
               implementation  and  applications. International GRASS users conference in Trento,
               Italy, September 2002.  (PDF)

           ·   Hofierka,  J.  (1997).  Direct  solar  radiation  modelling  within  an  open  GIS
               environment.  Proceedings  of  JEC-GI’97  conference in Vienna, Austria, IOS Press
               Amsterdam, 575-584.

           ·   Jenco, M. (1992). Distribution of direct solar  radiation  on  georelief  and  its
               modelling  by  means  of complex digital model of terrain (in Slovak). Geograficky
               casopis, 44, 342-355.

           ·   Kasten, F. (1996). The Linke turbidity factor based  on  improved  values  of  the
               integral Rayleigh optical thickness. Solar Energy, 56 (3), 239-244.

           ·   Kasten, F., Young, A. T. (1989). Revised optical air mass tables and approximation
               formula. Applied Optics, 28, 4735-4738.

           ·   Kittler, R., Mikler, J. (1986): Basis of the utilization of  solar  radiation  (in
               Slovak). VEDA, Bratislava, p. 150.

           ·   Krcho, J. (1990). Morfometrická analza a digitálne modely georeliéfu (Morphometric
               analysis and digital models of georelief, in Slovak).  VEDA, Bratislava.

           ·   Muneer, T. (1990). Solar radiation model for Europe. Building services engineering
               research and technology, 11, 4, 153-163.

           ·   Neteler,  M.,  Mitasova,  H. (2002): Open Source GIS: A GRASS GIS Approach, Kluwer
               Academic Publishers. (Appendix explains formula; r.sun script download)

           ·   Page, J. ed. (1986). Prediction of solar radiation  on  inclined  surfaces.  Solar
               energy  R&D  in the European Community, series F - Solar radiation data, Dordrecht
               (D. Reidel), 3, 71, 81-83.

           ·   Page, J., Albuisson, M., Wald, L. (2001). The European solar  radiation  atlas:  a
               valuable digital tool. Solar Energy, 71, 81-83.

           ·   Rigollier,  Ch.,  Bauer, O., Wald, L. (2000). On the clear sky model of the ESRA -
               European Solar radiation Atlas - with  respect  to  the  Heliosat  method.   Solar
               energy, 68, 33-48.

           ·   Scharmer, K., Greif, J., eds., (2000). The European solar radiation atlas, Vol. 2:
               Database and exploitation software. Paris (Les Presses de l’École des Mines).

           ·   Joint Research Centre: GIS solar radiation database for Europe and Solar radiation
               and GIS


       Jaroslav Hofierka, GeoModel, s.r.o. Bratislava, Slovakia
       Marcel Suri, GeoModel, s.r.o. Bratislava, Slovakia
       Thomas Huld, JRC, Italy
       ©  2007,  Jaroslav  Hofierka,  Marcel  Suri.  This  program is free software under the GNU
       General Public License (>=v2)

       Last changed: $Date: 2018-01-22 15:17:21 +0100 (Mon, 22 Jan 2018) $


       Available at: r.sun source code (history)

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