Provided by: xorriso_1.5.0-1build1_amd64 bug

NAME

       xorrisofs -  Emulation of ISO 9660 program mkisofs by program xorriso

SYNOPSIS

       xorrisofs [ options ] [-o filename ] pathspec [pathspecs ...]

DESCRIPTION

       xorrisofs  produces  Rock  Ridge enhanced ISO 9660 filesystems and add-on sessions to such
       filesystems. Optionally it can produce Joliet directory trees too.

       xorrisofs understands options of program mkisofs from cdrtools by  Joerg  Schilling.   Its
       implementation is part of program xorriso which shares no source code with cdrtools.

   ISO 9660, Rock Ridge, Joliet, HFS+:
       ISO  9660  (aka  ECMA-119) is a read-only filesystem that is mainly used for optical media
       CD, DVD, BD, but may also reside on other storage devices like disk files, USB  sticks  or
       disk partitions. It is widely readable by many operating systems and by boot facilities of
       personal computers.
       ISO 9660 describes directories and  data  files  by  very  restricted  filenames  with  no
       distinction of upper case and lower case.  Its metadata do not comply to fundamental POSIX
       specifications.
       Rock Ridge is the name of a set of  additional  information  which  enhance  an  ISO  9660
       filesystem  so  that  it can represent a POSIX compliant filesystem with ownership, access
       permissions, symbolic links, and other attributes.  Rock Ridge allows filenames of  up  to
       255 bytes and paths of up to 1024 bytes.
       xorrisofs  produces  Rock  Ridge  information  by  default.  It is strongly discouraged to
       disable this feature.
       Joliet is the name of an additional directory tree  which  provides  filenames  up  to  64
       characters  encoded  as  UTF-16.   A Joliet tree is mainly interesting for reading the ISO
       image by operating systems of Microsoft Corporation.  Production of  this  directory  tree
       may be enabled by option -J.
       ISO 9660:1999 is the name of an additional directory tree which provides longer filenames.
       It allows single file names to have up to 207 characters.  It might be of  use  with  some
       older  computer  system  boot facilities which read neither Rock Ridge nor Joliet but need
       longer filenames nevertheless.  Production of this directory tree may be enabled by option
       -iso-level 4.
       HFS+  is  the  name of a filesystem which is normally used for writing and reading on hard
       disks and similar devices. It is possible to embed a HFS+ partition into the emerging  ISO
       9660  image  and  to  mark it by Apple Partition Map entries. This interferes with options
       which copy data into the first 32 KiB of the ISO image, like  -G  or  -isohybrid-mbr.  See
       option -hfsplus.
       The  main  purpose  for  having an embedded HFS+ partition is booting of certain models of
       Apple computers.

   Inserting files into the ISO image:
       xorrisofs deals with two kinds of file addresses:
       disk_path is a path to an object in the local filesystem tree.
       iso_rr_path is the Rock Ridge address of a file object in the ISO image.  If no Rock Ridge
       information shall be stored in an emerging ISO, then the names will get mapped to ISO 9660
       names of limited length and character set.

       A program argument is handled as a pathspec, if it is not recognized as  original  mkisofs
       option  or  additional  xorrisofs  option.   A  pathspec depicts an input file object by a
       disk_path.  If option -graft-points is not present, then the behavior depends on the  file
       type  of disk_path. Directories get merged with the /-directory of the ISO image. Files of
       other types get copied into the /-directory.
       If -graft-points is present then each pathspec gets split at the first occurrence  of  the
       =-character.   The part before the = is taken as target, i.e. the iso_rr_path for the file
       object in the ISO image. The part after the first = is taken as source, i.e. the disk_path
       of the input object.
       It  is  possible  to  make  =-characters  part of the iso_rr_path by preceding them with a
       \-character. The  same  must  be  done  for  \-characters  which  shall  be  part  of  the
       iso_rr_path.

       If  the  source  part of the pathspec leads to a directory, then all files underneath this
       directory get inserted into the image, too.  It is possible to  exclude  particular  files
       from being inserted by help of option -m.
       In case that target already exists, the following rules apply: Directories and other files
       may overwrite existing non-directories.  Directories get merged with existing directories.
       Non-directories may not overwrite existing directories.

   Relation to program xorriso:
       xorrisofs  is  actually  a  command  mode of program xorriso, which gets entered either by
       xorriso command "-as mkisofs" or by starting the program by one of the names  "xorrisofs",
       "mkisofs", "genisoimage", or "genisofs".
       This  command  mode  can  be  left by argument "--" which leads to generic xorriso command
       mode. See man xorriso for its description.

       xorriso performs image reading and writing by help of libburn, which  is  mainly  intended
       for optical drives, but also operates on all POSIX file types except directories.
       The program messages call any image file a "drive". File types which are not supported for
       reading are reported as "blank". The reported free media space may be quite fictional.
       Nevertheless xorrisofs does not operate directly on  optical  drives,  but  rather  forces
       libburn  to  regard  them  as  general device files.  So for writing of sequential optical
       media (CD, DVD-R, DVD+R, BD-R) one will have to use  a  burn  program.  E.g  the  cdrecord
       emulation of xorriso.  See EXAMPLES.

OPTIONS

       Image loading:

       The  following  options  control  loading  of  an  existing  ISO  image for the purpose of
       preparing a suitable add-on session.  If they are missing then a  new  image  is  composed
       from scratch.

       -M disk_path
              Set  the  path from which to load the existing ISO image directory tree on which to
              base the upcomming directory tree as add-on session.   The  path  must  lead  to  a
              random-access  readable  file  object.   On  GNU/Linux: regular data files or block
              device files.
              A special kind of pseudo disk_path has the form "/dev/fd/"number.  It  depicts  the
              open file descriptor with the given number, regardless whether the operating system
              supports this feature by file nodes in /dev/fd or  not.   E.g.  /dev/fd/3  is  file
              descriptor 3 which was opened by the program that later started xorriso.

       -prev-session disk_path
              Alias of -M.

       -dev disk_path
              Alias of -M.

       -C last_session_start,next_writeable_address
              Set the 2 KiB block address last_session_start from where to read the ISO image out
              of the file given by option -M.
              Separated by a comma, set the next_writeable_address to which  the  add-on  session
              will  finally be written. Decisive is actually the block address which the intended
              readers will have to use as superblock address on the intended medium.
              Both values can be inquired from  optical  media  by  help  of  burn  programs  and
              cdrecord option -msinfo. xorriso itself can obtain it in its cdrecord emulation. Do
              not let it load the drive, but rather do this manually or  by  a  program  like  dd
              which reads a few bytes. Only then it is sure that the device driver knows the true
              readable size of the medium.
                dd if=/dev/... count=1 >/dev/null 2>&1
                values=$(xorriso -as cdrecord dev=/dev/... -msinfo)
                echo $values
              Option -C may be used without option -M to create an ISO  image  from  scratch  and
              prepare  it  for  being  finally written to a block address other than 0. Parameter
              last_session_start must then be set to 0.

       -cdrecord-params last_session_start,next_writeable_address
              Alias of -C.

       Settings for file insertion:

       -path-list disk_path
              Read pathspecs line-by-line from disk_file and insert  the  depicted  file  objects
              into  the  ISO  image.  If  disk_path  is "-" then read the pathspecs from standard
              input.

       --quoted_path_list disk_path
              Like  option  -path-list  but  reading  quoted  words  rather  than  plain   lines.
              Whitespace outside of quotes will be discarded. On the other hand it is possible to
              represent pathspecs which contain newline characters.
              The double quotation mark " and the single quotation mark ' can be used to  enclose
              whitespace  and  make it part of pathspecs. Each mark type can enclose the marks of
              the other type. A trailing backslash \ outside  quotations  or  an  open  quotation
              cause the next input line to be appended.

       -f
              Resolve  symbolic  links  on disk rather than storing them as symbolic links in the
              ISO image.

       -follow-links
              Alias of -f.

       -graft-points
              Enable interpretation of input file pathspecs as  combination  of  iso_rr_path  and
              disk_path, separated by a =-character.

       -m disk_pattern
              Exclude  files from being inserted into the image. Silently ignored are those files
              of which the disk_path matches the given shell parser pattern.  If  no  /-character
              is  part  of  the  pattern,  then it gets matched against the leaf name of the disk
              file.
              It is possible to give more than one -m option.

       -exclude
              Alias of -m.

       -x
              Alias of -m.

       -old-exclude
              Alias of -m.

       -exclude-list disk_path
              Perform -m using each line out of file disk_path as argument disk_pattern.

       -z
              Enable recognition and proper processing of zisofs compressed files as produced  by
              program  mkzftree.  These  files  will get equipped with the necessary meta data so
              that a Linux kernel will recognize them and deliver their content  in  uncompressed
              form.

       -transparent-compression
              Alias of -z.

       -root iso_rr_path
              Insert  all  files  under  the given iso_rr_path. If option -graft-points is given,
              then iso_rr_path is prepended to each target part of a pathspec.
              The default for -root is "/".

       -old-root iso_rr_path
              Enable incremental insertion of files into the loaded image.  The effective  target
              and  source  addresses  of  given pathspecs get compared whether the target already
              exists in the ISO image and is still identical to the source on disk.  Metadata  in
              the  ISO image will get adjusted, if they differ from those on disk.  New files and
              files with changed content will get newly added.  Target files which do  not  exist
              in  any  of  the according pathspec sources will get removed from the ISO directory
              tree.
              If the  effective  setting  of  -root  differs  from  the  iso_rr_path  given  with
              -old-root,  then the files underneath the -old-root directory get cloned underneath
              the -root directory. Cloning happens before file comparison.

       --old-root-no-ino
              Disable recording and use of disk inode numbers.  If  no  disk  inode  numbers  are
              recorded,  then option -old-root will have to read disk file content and compare it
              with the MD5 checksum that is recorded in the ISO image.
              With recorded disk inode numbers and with credible ctime and mtime, it is  possible
              to detect potential changes in the content without actually reading it.  A loophole
              remains if multiple different filesystems may get mounted at  the  same  directory,
              like it is habit with /mnt.  In this case one has to use option --old-root-devno or
              disable the inode number shortcut by --old-root-no-ino.

       --old-root-devno
              Enable comparison of recorded device numbers together with recorded inode  numbers.
              This  works  only  with  good  old  stable device numbers which get out of fashion,
              regrettably. If the hard disk has a different device number after each reboot, then
              this comparison will see all files as changed and thus prevent any incremental size
              saving.

       --old-root-no-md5
              Disable recording and use of MD5 checksums  for  data  file  content.   If  neither
              checksums  and nor disk inode numbers are recorded, then option -old-root will have
              to read ISO image file content when comparing it with disk file content.

       Settings for image production:

       -o disk_path
              Set the output file address for the emerging ISO image.  If the address  exists  as
              regular file, it will be truncated to length 0 when image production begins. It may
              not already exist as directory.  If it does not exist yet then its parent directory
              must exist and a regular file will get created.
              A  special  kind of pseudo disk_path has the form "/dev/fd/"number.  It depicts the
              open file descriptor with the given number, regardless whether the operating system
              supports  this  feature  by  file  nodes in /dev/fd or not.  E.g. /dev/fd/4 is file
              descriptor 4 which was opened by the program that later started xorriso.
              Default is standard output (/dev/fd/1) which may also be set by disk_path "-".

       -output disk_path
              Alias of -o.

       --stdio_sync "on"|"off"|"end"|number
              Set the number of bytes after which to force output to disk in order  to  keep  the
              memory  from  being clogged with lots of pending data for slow devices. "on" is the
              same as "16m".  Forced output can be disabled by "off",  or  be  delayed  by  "end"
              until all data are produced. If a number is chosen, then it must be at least 64k.
              The default with xorriso mkisofs emulation is --stdio_sync "off".
              xorriso uses an inner fifo buffer with default size 4 MiB. So forcing the operating
              system i/o cache to disk does not necessarily block the simultaneous production  of
              more image content.

       --emul-toc
              Write  a  second  superblock  with  the  first session into random-access files. If
              further sessions get appended and the  first  superblock  gets  updated,  then  the
              second  superblock  will  not  be overwritten. So it is still possible to mount the
              first session and to find the start blocks of the further sessions.
              The price is 64 KiB extra space consumption. If -partition_offset is non-zero, then
              it is 128 KiB plus twice the partition setup.

       --no-emul-toc
              Do not write a second superblock with the first session into random-access files.
              This is the default.

       --sort-weight weight_number iso_rr_path
              Attribute a LBA weight number to regular files. If iso_rr_path leads to a directory
              then all regular files underneath will get the weight_number.
              The weight_number may range from -2147483648 to 2147483647.  The higher it is,  the
              lower  will  be  the  block  address  of  the  file data in the emerging ISO image.
              Currently the El Torito boot catalog has a hardcoded weight of 1 billion.  Normally
              it  should occupy the block with the lowest possible address.  Data files get added
              or loaded with initial weight 0. Boot image files have a default weight of 2.

       --sort-weight-list disk_path
              Read pairs of weight number and iso_rr_path from a file of  the  local  filesystem.
              Apply each pair like with --sort-weight.
              Only  the last --sort-weight-list or --sort-weight-patterns of a xorrisofs run gets
              into effect.
              The weight number is read from the start of the line.  The iso_rr_path part  of  an
              input line begins immediately after the first blank or tab character of the line.
              Notes  for  the case that this feature is used within a sequence of generic xorriso
              commands (not an issue with a pure mkisofs emulation run):
              The addressed files must already be in the ISO image model when you execute
                -as mkisofs --sort-weight-list disk_path --
              Several such commands may be used to apply more than one weight file.
              Data files which are loaded by -indev or -dev get a weight between 1 and 2 exp 28 =
              268,435,456,  depending on their block address. This shall keep them roughly in the
              same order if the write method of modifying is applied.

       --sort-weight-patterns disk_path
              Like --sort-weight-list , but expanding the iso_rr_paths as shell  parser  patterns
              and applying --sort-weight to each matching file.

       -uid number|name
              Use  the  given  number  or locally existing user name as owner id of all files and
              directories in the emerging  filesystem.   Empty  name  or  name  "-"  revoke  this
              feature.

       -gid number|name
              Use  the  given  number or locally existing group name as group id of all files and
              directories in the emerging  filesystem.   Empty  name  or  name  "-"  revoke  this
              feature.

       -dir-mode mode
              Set the access permissions for all directories in the image to the given mode which
              is either an octal  number  beginning  with  "0"  or  a  comma  separated  list  of
              statements of the form [ugoa]*[+-=][rwxst]* . E.g. ug=rx,a-rwx

       -file-mode mode
              Like -dir-mode but for all regular data files in the image.

       -pad
              Add  300  KiB  to the end of the produced ISO image. This circumvents possible read
              errors from ISO images which have been written  to  CD  media  in  TAO  mode.   The
              additional bytes are claimed as part of the ISO image if not --emul-toc is given.
              Option -pad is the default.

       -no-pad
              Disable  padding  of 300 KiB to the end of the produced ISO image.  This is safe if
              the image is not meant to be written on CD or if it gets  written  to  CD  as  only
              track in write mode SAO.

       --old-empty
              Use  the  old way of of giving block addresses in the range of [0,31] to files with
              no own data content. The new way is to have a dedicated block  to  which  all  such
              files will point.

       Settings for standards compliance:

       -iso-level number
              Specify  the ISO 9660 version which defines the limitations of file naming and data
              file size. The naming restrictions do not apply to the Rock Ridge names but only to
              the low-level ISO 9660 names.  There are three conformance levels:
              Level 1 allows ISO names of the form 8.3 and file size up to 4 GiB - 1.
              Level 2 allows ISO names with up to 32 characters and file size up to 4 GiB - 1.
              Level 3  allows ISO names with up to 32 characters and file size of up to 400 GiB -
              200 KiB. (This size limitation is set by the xorriso implementation and not by  ISO
              9660 which would allow nearly 8 TiB.)
              Pseudo-level 4 enables production of an additional ISO 9660:1999 directory tree.

       -disallow_dir_id_ext
              Do  not  follow  a  bad  habit  of  mkisofs  which  allows dots in the ISO names of
              directories. On the other hand, some bootable GNU/Linux images depend on  this  bad
              habit.

       -U
              This  option  allows  ISO  file names without dot and up to 37 characters, ISO file
              paths longer than 255 characters, and all ASCII characters in file  names.  Further
              it omits the semicolon and the version numbers at the end of ISO names.
              This all violates ISO 9660 specs.

       -untranslated-filenames
              Alias of -U.

       -untranslated_name_len number
              Allow  ISO  file  names  up to the given number of characters without any character
              conversion. The maximum number is 96.  If a file name  has  more  characters,  then
              image production will fail deliberately.
              This violates ISO 9660 specs.

       -allow-lowercase
              Allow lowercase character in ISO file names.
              This violates ISO 9660 specs.

       -relaxed-filenames
              Allow  nearly all 7-bit characters in ISO file names.  Not allowed are 0x0 and '/'.
              If not option -allow-lowercase is given, then lowercase letters  get  converted  to
              uppercase.
              This violates ISO 9660 specs.

       -d
              Do not add trailing dot to ISO file names without dot.
              This violates ISO 9660 specs.

       -omit-period
              Alias of -d.

       -l
              Allow up to 31 characters in ISO file names.

       -full-iso9660-filenames
              Alias of -l.

       -max-iso9660-filenames
              Allow up to 37 characters in ISO file names.
              This violates ISO 9660 specs.

       -N
              Omit the semicolon and the version numbers at the end of ISO names.
              This violates ISO 9660 specs.

       -omit-version-number
              Alias of -N.

       Settings for standards extensions:

       -R
              With  mkisofs this option enables Rock Ridge extensions. xorrisofs produces them by
              default. It is strongly discouraged to disable them by option --norock.

       -rock
              Alias of -R.

       -r
              Enable Rock Ridge and set user and group id of all files in the  ISO  image  to  0.
              Grant  r-permissions  to  all. Deny all w-permissions.  If any x-permission is set,
              grant x-permission to all.  Remove s-bit and t-bit.
              These attribute changes stay delayed until mkisofs emulation ends. Within the  same
              -as  mkisofs emulation command they can be revoked by a subsequent option --norock.
              For compatibility reasons, option -R does not revoke the changes ordered by -r.

       -rational-rock
              Alias of -r.

       --norock
              This option disables the production of Rock Ridge extensions for the ISO 9660  file
              objects.  The  multi-session  capabilities  of  xorrisofs depend much on the naming
              fidelity of Rock Ridge. So it is strongly discouraged to disable it by this option,
              except for the special use case to revoke the effect of -r by:
               --norock -R

       --set_all_file_dates timestring
              Set mtime, atime, and ctime of all files and directories to the given time.
              Valid   timestring  formats  are:  'Nov  8  14:51:13  CET  2007',  110814512007.13,
              2007110814511300. See also --modification-date= and man xorriso, Examples of  input
              timestrings.
              If  the  timestring  is  "set_to_mtime",  then the atime and ctime of each file and
              directory get set to the value found in their mtime.
              These actions stay delayed until actual ISO production begins.  Up to then they can
              be revoked by --set_all_file_dates with empty timestring or timestring "default".
              The  timestamps  of  the  El Torito boot catalog file get refreshed when the ISO is
              produced. They can be influenced by --modification-date=.

       -file_name_limit number
              Set the maximum permissible length for file names in the range of 64 to 255.   Path
              components which are longer than the given number will get truncated and have their
              last 33 bytes overwritten by a colon ':' and the hex representation of the  MD5  of
              the  first  4095  bytes  of  the  whole  oversized name. Potential incomplete UTF-8
              characters will get their leading bytes replaced by '_'.
              Linux kernels up to at least 4.1 misrepresent names of length 254 and 255.  If  you
              expect  such  names  in or under disk_paths and plan to mount the ISO by such Linux
              kernels, consider to set -file_name_limit 253.

       -D     The standard ECMA-119 demands that no path in the image shall have more than 8 name
              components  or  255  characters.  Therefore  it  would  be necessary to move deeper
              directory trees to a higher directory. Rock Ridge  offers  an  opportunity  to  let
              these  relocated  directories  appear  at  their  original  deep position, but this
              feature might not be implemented properly by  operating  systems  which  mount  the
              image.
              Option  -D  disables  this  deep  directory  relocation, and thus violates ISO 9660
              specs.
              xorrisofs has -D set by default. If given explicitly then it overrides the  options
              -rr_reloc_dir and -hide-rr-moved.

       -disable-deep-relocation
              Alias of -D.

       -rr_reloc_dir name
              Enable  the  relocation  of  deep directories and thus avoid ECMA-119 file paths of
              more than 8 name components or 255 characters. Directories which lead to such  file
              paths  will  get  moved to a directory in the root directory of the image. Its name
              gets set by this option.  It is permissible to use the root directory itself.
              The overall directory tree will appear originally deep  when  interpreted  as  Rock
              Ridge  tree.  It  will  appear  as  re-arranged  if  only  ECMA-119  information is
              considered.
              If the given  relocation  target  directory  does  not  already  exist  when  image
              production begins, then it will get created and marked for Rock Ridge as relocation
              artefact. At least on GNU/Linux it will not be  displayed  in  mounted  Rock  Ridge
              images.
              The name must not contain a '/' character after its first character and it must not
              be longer than 255 bytes.
              This option has no effect if option -D is present.

       -hide-rr-moved
              Alias of -rr_reloc_dir "/.rr_moved"

       --for_backup
              Enable all options which improve backup fidelity:
              --acl, --xattr-any, --md5, --hardlinks.
              If you later restore a backup with xattr from non-user namespaces, then  make  sure
              that  the  target  operating system and filesystem know what these attributes mean.
              Possibly  you  will  need  administrator  privileges  to  record  or  restore  such
              attributes.  At recording time, xorriso will try to tolerate missing privileges and
              just record what is readable.
              Option -xattr after option -for_backup  excludes  non-user  attributes  from  being
              recorded.

       --acl
              Enable  recording  and  loading of ACLs from GNU/Linux or FreeBSD (see man getfacl,
              man acl).  They will not be in effect with mounted  ISO  images.  But  xorriso  can
              restore them on the same systems when extracting files from the ISO image.

       --xattr
              Enable  recording  and  loading of GNU/Linux or FreeBSD extended attributes in user
              namespace (see man getfattr and  man  attr,  man  getextattr  and  man  9  extattr,
              respectively).  They will not be in effect with mounted ISO images. But xorriso can
              restore them on the same systems when extracting files from the ISO image.

       --xattr-any
              Enable recording and loading of GNU/Linux or FreeBSD  extended  attributes  in  all
              namespaces.  This might need adminstrator privileges, even if the owner of the disk
              file tries to read the attributes.

       --md5
              Enable recording of MD5 checksums for the overall ISO image  and  for  each  single
              data  file  in  the image. xorriso can check the content of an ISO image with these
              sums  and  raise  alert  on  mismatch.   See  man  xorriso,  options  -check_media,
              check_md5_r.  xorriso can print recorded MD5 checksums. E.g. by:
               -find / -exec get_md5

       --hardlinks
              Enable  loading and recording of hardlink relations.  Search for families of iso_rr
              files which stem from the same disk file, have identical content filtering and have
              identical  properties.  The members of each family get the same inode number in the
              ISO image.
              Whether these numbers are respected at mount time depends on the operating  system.
              xorriso can create hardlink families when extracting files from the ISO image.

       --scdbackup_tag disk_path record_name
              Append  a  scdbackup checksum record to the image. This works only if the parameter
              next_writeable_address of option -C is 0 and --md5 is enabled.  If disk_path is not
              an  empty  string, then append a scdbackup checksum record to the end of this file.
              record_name is a word that gets part of tag and record.
              Program scdbackup_verify will recognize and verify tag and file record.
              An empty record_name disables this feature.

       -J
              Enable the production of an additional Joliet directory tree  along  with  the  ISO
              9660 Rock Ridge tree.

       -joliet
              Alias of -J.

       -joliet-long
              Allow  103  characters  in Joliet file names rather than 64 as is prescribed by the
              specification.  Allow  Joliet  paths  longer  than  the  prescribed  limit  of  240
              characters.
              Oversized  names  get  truncated. Without this option, oversized paths get excluded
              from the Joliet tree.

       -joliet-utf16
              Encode Joliet file names in UTF-16BE rather than UCS-2.   The  difference  is  with
              characters  which  are not present in UCS-2 and get encoded in UTF-16 by 2 words of
              16 bit each.  Both words then stem from a reserved subset of UCS-2.

       -hfsplus
              Enable the production of an additional HFS+ filesystem inside the  ISO  9660  image
              and  mark  it by Apple Partition Map (APM) entries in the System Area, the first 32
              KiB of the image.
              This may collide with options like -G or -isohybrid-mbr which submit user data  for
              inclusion  in  the  same  address  range.  The first 8 bytes of the System Area get
              overwritten by { 0x45, 0x52, 0x08 0x00, 0xeb, 0x02,  0xff,  0xff  }  which  can  be
              executed  as x86 machine code without negative effects.  So if an MBR gets combined
              with this feature, then its first 8 bytes should contain no essential commands.
              The next blocks of 2 KiB in the System Area will be occupied by APM  entries.   The
              first one covers the part of the ISO image before the HFS+ filesystem metadata. The
              second one marks the range from HFS+ metadata to the end of file content  data.  If
              more  ISO  image  data  follow,  then  a third partition entry gets produced. Other
              features of xorriso might cause the need for more APM entries.
              Be aware that HFS+ is case-insensitive although  it  can  record  file  names  with
              upper-case  and lower-case letters. Therefore, file names from the iso_rr name tree
              may collide in the HFS+ name  tree.  In  this  case  they  get  changed  by  adding
              underscore characters and counting numbers. In case of very long names, it might be
              necessary to map them to "MANGLED_...".

       -hfsplus-serial-no
              Set a string of 16 digits "0" to "9" and letters "a" to "f", which will be used  as
              unique serial number of an emerging HFS+ filesystem.

       -hfsplus-block-size number
              Set  the  allocation  block  size  to  be  used  when  producing  HFS+ filesystems.
              Permissible are 512, 2048, or 0.  The latter lets the program decide.

       -apm-block-size number
              Set the block size to be used when describing partitions by an Apple Partition Map.
              Permissible are 512, 2048, or 0. The latter lets the program decide.
              Note  that  size  512  is not compatible with production of GPT, and that size 2048
              will not be mountable -t hfsplus at least by older Linux kernels.

       -hfsplus-file-creator-type creator type iso_rr_path
              Set the HFS+ creator and type attributes of a file in the  emerging  image.   These
              are two codes of 4 characters each.

       -hfs-bless-by blessing iso_rr_path
              Issue  a  HFS+  blessing.  They  are  roles  which  can be attributed to up to four
              directories and a data file:
              "ppc_bootdir", "intel_bootfile", "show_folder", "os9_folder", "osx_folder".
              They may be abbreviated as "p", "i", "s", "9", and "x".
              Each such role can be attributed to at most one file  object.  "intel_bootfile"  is
              the  one that would apply to a data file. All others apply to directories.  No file
              object can bear more than one blessing.

       -hfs-bless disk_path
              Issue HFS+ blessing "ppc_bootdir" to the directory which stems from  the  directory
              disk_path in the local filesystem tree.
              This  works  only  if  there  is  at  least one data file underneath the directory.
              disk_path can become ambiguous if files from different local  filesystem  sub-trees
              are put into the same sub-tree of the ISO image.  Consider to use -hfs-bless-by "p"
              for unambiguous addressing via iso_rr_path.

       Settings for file hiding:

       -hide disk_path_pattern
              Make files invisible in the directory tree of ISO 9660 and  Rock  Ridge,  if  their
              disk_path  matches the given shell parser pattern.  The data content of such hidden
              files will be included in the resulting image, even if they do not show up  in  any
              directory.  But you will need own means to find nameless data in the image.
              This command does not apply to the boot catalog.

       -hide-list disk_path
              Perform -hide using each line out of file disk_path as argument disk_path_pattern.

       -hide-joliet disk_path_pattern
              Like  option  -hide  but making files invisible in the directory tree of Joliet, if
              their disk_path matches the given shell parser pattern.

       -hide-joliet-list disk_path
              Perform  -hide-joliet  using  each  line  out  of  file   disk_path   as   argument
              disk_path_pattern.

       -hide-hfsplus disk_path_pattern
              Like  option  -hide  but  making  files invisible in the directory tree of HFS+, if
              their disk_path matches the given shell parser pattern.

       -hide-hfsplus-list disk_path
              Perform  -hide-hfsplus  using  each  line  out  of  file  disk_path   as   argument
              disk_path_pattern.

       ISO image ID strings:

       The  following  strings  and file addresses get stored in the Primary Volume Descriptor of
       the ISO9660 image. The file  addresses  are  ISO  9660  paths.  These  files  should  have
       iso_rr_paths  which  consist  only  of  the characters [A-Z0-9_] and exactly one dot which
       separates at most 8 characters from at most 3 characters.

       -V text
              Set the Volume Id of the ISO image.  xorriso accepts any text up to 32  characters,
              but according to rarely obeyed specs stricter rules apply:
              Conformant are ASCII characters out of [A-Z0-9_]. Like: "IMAGE_23"
              Joliet allows 16 UCS-2 characters. Like: "Windows name"
              Be aware that the volume id might get used automatically as name of the mount point
              when the medium is inserted into a playful computer system.

       -volid text
              Alias of -V.

       -volset text
              Set the Volume Set Id of the ISO image.  Permissible are up to 128 characters.

       -P text
              Set the Publisher Id of the ISO image. This may identify the person or organisation
              who specified what shall be recorded.  Permissible are up to 128 characters.

       -publisher text
              Alias of -P.

       -A text
              Set  the  Application  Id of the ISO image.  This may identify the specification of
              how the data are recorded.  Permissible are up to 128 characters.
              The special text "@xorriso@" gets converted to the id string of  xorriso  which  is
              normally written as Preparer Id. It is a wrong tradition to write the program id as
              Application Id.

       -appid text
              Alias of -A.

       -sysid text
              Set the System Id of the  ISO  image.  This  may  identify  the  system  which  can
              recognize  and  act  upon  the  content of the System Area in image blocks 0 to 15.
              Permissible are up to 32 characters.

       -p text
              Set the Preparer Id of the ISO image. This may identify the person or other  entity
              which  controls  the preparation of the data which shall be recorded. Normally this
              should be the id of xorriso and  not  of  the  person  or  program  which  operates
              xorriso. Please avoid to change it.  Permissible are up to 128 characters.
              The  special  text  "@xorriso@" gets converted to the id string of xorriso which is
              default at program startup.

       -preparer text
              Alias of -p.

       -abstract iso_path
              Set the address of the Abstract File of the ISO image. This should be the ISO  9660
              path  of  a  file in the image which contains an abstract statement about the image
              content.  Permissible are up to 37 characters.

       -biblio iso_path
              Set the address of the Biblio File of the ISO image. This should be  the  ISO  9660
              path  of a file in the image which contains bibliographic records.  Permissible are
              up to 37 characters.

       -copyright iso_path
              Set the address of the Copyright File of the ISO image. This should be the ISO 9660
              path  of a file in the image which contains a copyright statement.  Permissible are
              up to 37 characters.

       --modification-date=YYYYMMDDhhmmsscc
              Set a timestring that overrides ISO  image  creation  and  modification  timestamps
              literally.   It must consist of 16 decimal digits which form YYYYMMDDhhmmsscc, with
              YYYY between 1970 and 2999. Time zone is GMT.  It is supposed to  match  this  GRUB
              line:
               search --fs-uuid --set YYYY-MM-DD-hh-mm-ss-cc
              E.g. 2010040711405800 is 7 Apr 2010 11:40:58 (+0 centiseconds).
              Among the influenced timestamps are: isohybrid MBR id, El Torito boot catalog file,
              HFS+ superblock.

       --application_use character|0xXY|disk_path
              Specify the content of the Application Use field which can take at most 512 bytes.
              If the parameter of this command is empty,  then  the  field  is  filled  with  512
              0-bytes.  If  it  is  a  single  character, then it gets repeated 512 times.  If it
              begins by "0x" followed by two hex digits [0-9a-fA-F], then the digits are read  as
              byte value which gets repeated 512 times.
              Any other parameter text is used as disk_path to open a data file and to read up to
              512 bytes from it. If the file is smaller than 512 bytes, then the remaining  bytes
              in the field get set to binary 0.

       El Torito Bootable ISO images:

       The  precondition for a bootable ISO image is to have in the ISO image the files of a boot
       loader. The boot facilities of computers get directed to such files, which usually execute
       further  program  files  from  the ISO image.  xorrisofs can produce several kinds of boot
       block or boot record, which become part of the ISO  image,  and  get  interpreted  by  the
       according boot facility.

       An  El  Torito boot record points the bootstrapping facility to a boot catalog with one or
       more boot images, which are binary program files stored in the ISO image.  The content  of
       the boot image files is not in the scope of El Torito.
       xorriso  composes  the boot catalog according to the boot image files given and structured
       by options -b, -e, -eltorito-alt-boot, and --efi-boot. Often it contains only one entry.
       Normally the boot images are data  files  inside  the  ISO  filesystem.  By  special  path
       "--interval:appended_partition_NNN:all::"   it   is  possible  to  refer  to  an  appended
       partition. The number NNN gives the partition number as used with the corresponding option
       -append_partition.  E.g.:
         -append_partition 2 0xef /tmp/efi.img
         -e --interval:appended_partition_2:all::
       El  Torito  gets  interpreted by boot facilities PC-BIOS and EFI.  Most bootable GNU/Linux
       CDs are equipped with ISOLINUX or GRUB boot images for PC-BIOS.
       xorrisofs supports the example options out of the ISOLINUX wiki, the options used in  GRUB
       script grub-mkrescue, and the example in the FreeBSD AvgLiveCD wiki.

       For  CD  booting  via boot facilities other than PC-BIOS and EFI, and for booting from USB
       sticks or hard disks, see the next section about the System Area.

       -b iso_rr_path
              Specify the boot image file which shall be mentioned in the current entry of the El
              Torito boot catalog. It will be marked as suitable for PC-BIOS.
              With  boot  images  from  ISOLINUX  and  GRUB  this option should be accompanied by
              options -c , -no-emul-boot , -boot-load-size 4 , -boot-info-table.

       -eltorito-boot iso_rr_path
              Alias of -b.

       -eltorito-alt-boot
              Finalize the current El Torito boot catalog entry and begin  a  new  one.   A  boot
              image  file  and  all  its  necessary  options  shall  be  specified  before option
              -eltorito-alt-boot.  All further El Torito boot options apply to  the  new  catalog
              entry. Up to 32 catalog entries are possible.

       -e iso_rr_path
              Specify the boot image file which shall be mentioned in the current entry of the El
              Torito boot catalog. It will be marked as suitable for EFI.
              Option -e should be followed by option -no-emul-boot and no other El Torito options
              before an eventual -eltorito-alt-boot.

       --efi-boot iso_rr_path
              Perform  -eltorito-alt-boot,  option  -e with the given iso_rr_path, -no-emul-boot,
              and again -eltorito-alt-boot. This gesture is used for achieving EFI-bootability of
              the GRUB2 rescue CD.

       -eltorito-platform "x86"|"PPC"|"Mac"|"efi"|0xnn|nnn
              Set  the  Platform  Id number for the next option -b or -eltorito-boot.  The number
              may be chosen by a platform name or by a number between 0 and 255 (0x00 and  0xFF).
              "x86"  =  0  is for PC-BIOS, "PPC" = 1 for some PowerPC systems, "Mac" = 2 for some
              MacIntosh systems, "efi" = 0xEF for EFI on modern PCs with x86 compatible  CPUs  or
              others.
              If  the  new  platform  id  differs  from the previous one, -eltorito-alt-boot gets
              performed.

       -boot-load-size number|"full"
              Set the number of 512-byte blocks to be loaded at boot time from the boot image  in
              the current catalog entry.
              Non-emulating  BIOS  bootimages  usually  need  a load size of 4.  Nevertheless the
              default setting of mkisofs is to use the full size of the boot image rounded up  to
              a  multiple  of  4  512-byte blocks. This default may be explicitly enforced by the
              word "full" instead of a number.
              EFI boot images usually get set the number of blocks occupied  by  the  boot  image
              file.
              El Torito cannot represent load sizes higher than 65535.

       -hard-disk-boot
              Mark  the  boot  image  in  the  current catalog entry as emulated hard disk.  (Not
              suitable for any known boot loader.)

       -no-emul-boot
              Mark the boot image in the current catalog entry as not emulating  floppy  or  hard
              disk. (This is to be used with all known boot loaders.)
              If  neither -hard-disk-boot nor -no-emul-boot is given, then the boot image will be
              marked as emulating a floppy.  (Not suitable for any known boot loader.)

       -eltorito-id text|56_hexdigits
              Define the ID string of the boot catalog section  where  the  boot  image  will  be
              listed.  If  the  value  consists of 56 characters [0-9A-Fa-f] then it is converted
              into 28 bytes, else the first 28 characters become the ID string.  The ID string of
              the  first  boot  image  becomes  the  overall  catalog  ID.   It  is limited to 24
              characters. Other id_strings become section IDs.

       -eltorito-selcrit hexdigits
              Define the Selection Criteria of the boot image.  Up to 20 bytes get read from  the
              given  characters  [0-9A-Fa-f].  They get attributed to the boot image entry in the
              catalog.

       -boot-info-table
              Overwrite bytes 8 to 63 in the current boot image. The information will be supplied
              by  xorriso  in the course of image production: Block address of the Primary Volume
              Descriptor, block address of the boot image file, size of the boot image file.

       --grub2-boot-info
              Overwrite bytes 2548 to 2555 in the current boot image by the address of that  boot
              image.   The address is written as 64 bit little-endian number. It is the 2KB block
              address of the boot image content, multiplied by 4, and then incremented by 5.

       -c iso_rr_path
              Set the address of the El Torito boot catalog file within  the  image.   This  file
              address is not significant for the booting PC-BIOS or EFI, but it may later be read
              by other programs in order to learn about the available boot images.

       -eltorito-catalog iso_rr_path
              Alias of -c.

       --boot-catalog-hide
              Prevent the El Torito boot catalog from appearing as file in the directory trees of
              the image.

       System Area, MBR, GPT, APM, other boot blocks:

       The  first  16  blocks  of  an  ISO  image are the System Area.  It is reserved for system
       dependent boot software. This may be the boot facilities and partition tables  of  various
       hardware architectures.
       A  MBR  (Master  Boot  Record)  contains  boot  code and a partition table.  It is read by
       PC-BIOS when booting from USB stick or hard  disk,  and  by  PowerPC  CHRP  or  PReP  when
       booting.  An MBR partition with type 0xee indicates the presence of GPT.
       A  GPT  (GUID  Partition  Table) marks partitions in a more modern way.  It is read by EFI
       when booting from USB stick or hard disk, and may be used for finding and mounting a  HFS+
       partition inside the ISO image.
       An APM (Apple Partition Map) marks the HFS+ partition.  It is read by Macs for booting and
       for mounting.
       MBR, GPT and APM are combinable. APM occupies the first 8 bytes  of  MBR  boot  code.  All
       three do not hamper El Torito booting from CDROM.
       xorrisofs  supports  further  boot  facilities:  MIPS Big Endian (SGI), MIPS Little Endian
       (DEC), SUN SPARC, HP-PA, DEC Alpha.  Those  are  mutually  not  combinable  and  also  not
       combinable with MBR, GPT, or APM.

       Several  of  the  following options expect disk paths as input but also accept description
       strings for the libisofs interval reader, which is able to cut out data from disk files or
       -indev   and  to  zeroize  parts  of  the  content:  -G,  -generic-boot,  --embedded-boot,
       --grub2-mbr,   -isohybrid-mbr,   -efi-boot-part,   -prep-boot-part,    -B,    -sparc-boot,
       -append_partition.
       The description string consists of the following components, separated by colon ':'
         "--interval:"Flags":"Interval":"Zeroizers":"Source
       The component "--interval" states that this is not a plain disk path but rather a interval
       reader description string.
       The component Flags modifies the further interpretation:
       "local_fs" demands to read from a file depicted by the path in Source.
       "imported_iso" demands to read from the -indev. This works only if -outdev is not the same
       as -indev. The Source component is ignored.
       "appended_partition_NNN"  with  a decimal number NNN works only for options which announce
       El Torito boot image paths: -b, -e, --efi-boot. The number gives the partition  number  as
       used with the corresponding option -append_partition.
       The component Interval consists of two byte address numbers separated  by a "-" character.
       E.g. "0-429" means to read bytes 0 to 429.
       The component Zeroizers consists of zero or more comma  separated  strings.   They  define
       which  part  of  the  read  data  to  zeroize.  Byte number 0 means the byte read from the
       Interval start address.  Each string may be one of:
       "zero_mbrpt" demands to zeroize the MBR partition table if bytes 510 and 511 bear the  MBR
       signature 0x55 0xaa.
       "zero_gpt"  demands  to check for a GPT header in bytes 512 to 1023, to zeroize it and its
       partition table blocks.
       "zero_apm" demands to check for an APM block 0 and to zeroize its partition table blocks.
       Start_byte"-"End_byte  demands  to  zeroize  the  read-in  bytes  beginning  with   number
       Start_byte and ending after End_byte.
       The  component  Source  is  the  file  path  with  flag  "local_fs", and ignored with flag
       "imported_iso".
       Byte numbers may be scaled by a suffix out  of  {k,m,g,t,s,d}  meaning  multiplication  by
       {1024, 1024k, 1024m, 1024g, 2048, 512}. A scaled value end number depicts the last byte of
       the scaled range.
       E.g. "0d-0d" is "0-511".
       Examples:
         "local_fs:0-32767:zero_mbrpt,zero_gpt,440-443:/tmp/template.iso"
         "imported_iso:45056d-47103d::"

       -G disk_path
              Copy at most 32768 bytes from the given disk file to the  very  start  of  the  ISO
              image.
              Other  than a El Torito boot image, the file disk_path needs not to be added to the
              ISO image. It will not show up as file in the directory trees.
              In multi-session situations, the special disk_path "." prevents reading of  a  disk
              file  but  nevertheless  causes  the  adjustments  in  the existing MBR, which were
              ordered by other options.

       -generic-boot disk_path
              Alias of -G.

       --embedded-boot disk_path
              Alias of -G.

       --grub2-mbr disk_path
              Install disk_path in the System Area and treat it as modern GRUB2 MBR.  The content
              start  address  of the first boot image is converted to a count of 512 byte blocks,
              and an offset of 4 is added.  The result is written as 64 bit little-endian  number
              to byte address 0x1b0.

       -isohybrid-mbr disk_path
              Install  disk_path  as  ISOLINUX  isohybrid MBR which makes the boot image given by
              option -b bootable from USB sticks and hard disks via PC-BIOS.  This preparation is
              normally done by ISOLINUX program isohybrid on the already produced ISO image.
              The  disk path should lead to one of the Syslinux files isohdp[fp]x*.bin .  The MBR
              gets patched according to isohybrid needs. The first partition describes the  range
              of  the  ISO  image.  Its start is at block 0 by default, but may be set to 64 disk
              blocks by option -partition_offset 16.
              For the meaning of special disk_path "." see option -G.

       -isohybrid-gpt-basdat
              Mark the current El Torito boot image (see options -b and -e) in GPT  as  partition
              of  type Basic Data. This works only with -isohybrid-mbr and has the same impact on
              the system area as -efi-boot-part. It cannot be  combined  with  -efi-boot-part  or
              -hfsplus.
              The  first three boot images which are marked by GPT will also show up as partition
              entries of type 0xef in MBR.  The MBR partition for PC-BIOS gets type  0x00  rather
              than  0x17 in this case.  Often the further MBR entries are the ones which actually
              get used by EFI.

       -isohybrid-gpt-hfsplus
              Mark the current El Torito boot image (see options -b and -e) in GPT  as  partition
              of type HFS+.  Impact and restrictions are like with -isohybrid-gpt-basdat.

       -isohybrid-apm-hfsplus
              Mark  the  current  El Torito boot image (see options -b and -e) in Apple Partition
              Map as partition of type HFS+. This  works  only  with  -isohybrid-mbr  and  has  a
              similar  impact  on  the  system  area  as  -hfsplus.  It  cannot  be combined with
              -efi-boot-part or -hfsplus.
              The ISOLINUX isohybrid MBR file must begin by a known pattern of 32  bytes  of  x86
              machine code which essentially does nothing. It will get overwritten by 32 bytes of
              APM header mock-up.

       -part_like_isohybrid
              Control     whether     -isohybrid-gpt-basdat,     -isohybrid-gpt-hfsplus,      and
              -isohybrid-apm-hfsplus  apply  even  if  not  -isohybrid-mbr  is  present.   No MBR
              partition of type 0xee emerges, even if GPT gets produced.  Gaps  between  GPT  and
              APM  partitions  will  not  be  filled by more partitions.  Appended partitions get
              mentioned in APM if other APM partitions emerge.

       -iso_mbr_part_type "default"|number
              Set the partition type of the MBR partition which represents the ISO  or  at  least
              protects it.  Number may be 0x00 to 0xff. The text "default" re-enables the default
              types of the various occasions to create an ISO MBR partition.
              This is without effect if no such partition emerges by other  settings  or  if  the
              partition  type  is prescribed mandatorily like 0xee for GPT protective MBR or 0x96
              for CHRP.

       --protective-msdos-label
              Patch the System Area by a simple PC-DOS partition table where partition  1  claims
              the range of the ISO image but leaves the first block unclaimed.

       --mbr-force-bootable
              Enforce   an   MBR   partition   with   "bootable/active"   flag  if  options  like
              --protective-msdos-label or --grub2-mbr are given.  These  options  normally  cause
              the  flag  to  be set if there is an MBR partition of type other than 0xee or 0xef.
              If no such partition exists, then no bootflag is set,  unless  --mbr-force-bootable
              forces creation of a dummy partition of type 0x00 which covers only the first block
              of the ISO image.
              If no bootable MBR is indicated by other options and a partition  gets  created  by
              -append_partition,  then  --mbr-force-bootable  causes  a bootflag like it would do
              with e.g. --protective-msdos-label.

       -partition_offset 2kb_block_adr
              Cause a partition table with a single partition that  begins  at  the  given  block
              address.  This is counted in 2048 byte blocks, not in 512 byte blocks. If the block
              address is non-zero then it must be at least 16. Values larger than 16  are  hardly
              of use.  A non-zero partition offset causes two superblocks to be generated and two
              sets of directory trees. The image is then mountable from  its  absolute  start  as
              well as from the partition start.
              The  offset  value  of an ISO image gets preserved when a new session is added to a
              loaded image.  So the value defined here is only in effect if a new ISO image  gets
              written.

       -partition_hd_cyl number
              Set  the  number  of  heads  per cylinder for the MBR partition table.  0 chooses a
              default value. Maximum is 255.

       -partition_sec_hd number
              Set the number of sectors per head for  the  MBR  partition  table.   0  chooses  a
              default value. Maximum is 63.
              The  product  partition_sec_hd  *  partition_hd_cyl * 512 is the cylinder size.  It
              should be divisible by 2048 in  order  to  make  exact  alignment  possible.   With
              appended  partitions  and -appended_part_as_gpt there is no limit for the number of
              cylinders. Else there may be at most 1024 of them.  If the  cylinder  size  is  too
              small  to  stay  below  the  limit, then appropriate values of partition_hd_cyl are
              chosen with partition_sec_hd 32 or 63. If the image is  larger  than  8,422,686,720
              bytes,  then  the cylinder size constraints cannot be fulfilled for MBR.  They seem
              not overly important anyway.  Flat block addresses in partition tables are good for
              1 TiB.

       -partition_cyl_align mode
              Control  image  size alignment to an integer number of cylinders.  It is prescribed
              by isohybrid specs and it seems to please program fdisk.   Cylinder  size  must  be
              divisible by 2048.  Images larger than 8,323,596,288 bytes cannot be aligned in MBR
              partition table.
              Mode "auto" is default. Alignment by padding happens only if option  -isohybrid-mbr
              is given.
              Mode  "on"  causes  alignment  by padding with option --protective-msdos-label too.
              Mode "all" is like "on" but also pads up partitions from  -append_partition  to  an
              aligned size.
              Mode "off" disables alignment unconditionally.

       -append_partition partition_number type_code disk_path
              Cause  a  prepared  filesystem  image  to  be  appended  to the ISO image and to be
              described by a partition table entry in a boot block at the start of  the  emerging
              ISO  image. The partition entry will bear the size of the submitted file rounded up
              to the next multiple of 2048 bytes or to the next multiple of the cylinder size.
              Beware  of  subsequent  multi-session  runs.  The  appended  partition   will   get
              overwritten.
              partition_number  may  be  1  to  4. Number 1 will put the whole ISO image into the
              unclaimed space before partition 1. So  together  with  most  xorriso  MBR  or  GPT
              features, number 2 would be the most natural choice.
              The  type_code  may  be  "FAT12", "FAT16", "Linux", or a hexadecimal number between
              0x00 and 0xff. Not all those numbers will yield usable results. For a list of codes
              search  the  Internet  for  "Partition  Types" or run fdisk command "L".  This code
              matters only with MBR, not with GPT.
              If some other command causes the production of GPT, then  the  appended  partitions
              will be mentioned there too, even if not -appended_part_as_gpt is given.

       -appended_part_as_gpt
              Marks  partitions  from  -append_partition in GPT rather than in MBR.  In this case
              the MBR shows a single partition of type 0xee which covers the whole output data.
              By default, appended partitions get marked in GPT only if GPT is  produced  because
              of other options.

       -appended_part_as_apm
              Marks partitions from -append_partition in Apple Partition Map, too.
              By  default,  appended partitions get marked in APM only if APM is produced because
              of other options and -part_like_isohybrid is enabled.

       -efi-boot-part disk_path
              Copy a file from disk into the emerging ISO image and mark it by a GPT entry as EFI
              System  Partition.  EFI  boot firmware is supposed to use a FAT filesystem image in
              such a partition for booting from USB stick or hard disk.
              Instead of a disk_path, the word --efi-boot-image may be given.  It exposes in  GPT
              the content of the first El Torito EFI boot image as EFI system partition. EFI boot
              images are introduced by options -e or --efi-boot.  The  affected  EFI  boot  image
              cannot show up in HFS+ because it is stored outside the HFS+ partition.

       --gpt_disk_guid value
              Control whether an emerging GPT shall get a randomly generated disk GUID or whether
              the  GUID  is  supplied  by  the  user.    Value   "random"   is   default.   Value
              "modification-date"  produces  a  low  quality  GUID  from  the value set by option
              --modification-date=.
              A string of 32 hex digits, or a RFC 4122 compliant GUID string may be used  to  set
              the  disk  GUID  directly. UEFI prescribes the first three components of a RFC 4122
              GUID string to be byte-swapped in the binary representation:
              E.g. --gpt_disk_guid  2303cd2a-73c7-424a-a298-25632da7f446  equals  --gpt_disk_guid
              2acd0323c7734a42a29825632da7f446
              The partition GUIDs get generated by minimally varying the disk GUID.

       -chrp-boot-part
              Mark the block range of the whole emerging ISO image as MBR partition of type 0x96.
              This is not compatible with any other feature that produces MBR partition  entries.
              It makes GPT unrecognizable.
              CHRP  is  often  used  in  conjunction  with HFS. It is not yet tested whether HFS+
              filesystems produced with option -hfsplus would boot on any  CHRP  capable  machine
              which does not boot pure ISO 9660 as well.

       -chrp-boot
              Alias of -chrp-boot-part.

       -prep-boot-part disk_path
              Copy  a  file  from disk into the emerging ISO image and mark it by a MBR partition
              entry of type 0x41. PReP boot firmware is supposed  to  read  the  content  of  the
              partition  as single ELF executable file.  This option is compatible with other MBR
              partitions and with GPT.

       -mips-boot iso_rr_path
              Declare a data file in the image to be a  MIPS  Big  Endian  boot  file  and  cause
              production  of  a  MIPS  Big  Endian Volume Header. This is mutually exclusive with
              production of other boot blocks like MBR.  It will overwrite the first 512 bytes of
              any  data  provided  by  -G.   Up  to  15  boot  files  can be declared by multiple
              -mips-boot options.

       -mipsel-boot iso_rr_path
              Declare a data file in the image to be the MIPS Little Endian boot  file.  This  is
              mutually  exclusive  with other boot blocks.  It will overwrite the first 512 bytes
              of any data  provided  by  -G.   Only  a  single  boot  file  can  be  declared  by
              -mipsel-boot.

       -B disk_path[,disk_path ...]
              Cause  one or more data files on disk to be written after the end of the ISO image.
              A SUN Disk Label will be written into the first 512 bytes of the  ISO  image  which
              lists this image as partition 1 and the given disk_paths as partition 2 up to 8.
              The disk files should contain suitable boot images for SUN SPARC systems.
              The pseudo disk_path "..." causes that all empty partition entries become copies of
              the last non-empty entry. If no other disk_path is  given  before  "..."  then  all
              partitions  describe  the  ISO  image. In this case, the boot loader code has to be
              imported by option -G.

       -sparc-boot disk_path[,disk_path ...]
              Alias of -B.

       -sparc-label text
              Set the ASCII label text of a SUN Disk Label.

       --grub2-sparc-core iso_rr_path
              Cause the content address and size of the given  data  file  in  the  image  to  be
              written  after  the SUN Disk Label. Both numbers are counted in bytes.  The address
              is written as 64 bit big-endian number to byte 0x228.  The size is  written  as  32
              bit big-endian number to byte 0x230.

       -hppa-cmdline text
              Set  the  PALO  command  line  for  HP-PA.  Up  to 1023 characters are permitted by
              default. With -hppa-hdrversion 4 the limit is 127.
              Note that the first five -hppa options are mandatory, if any of the  -hppa  options
              is given. Only option -hppa-hdrversion is allowed to be missing.

       -hppa-bootloader iso_rr_path
              Designate the given path as HP-PA bootloader file.

       -hppa-kernel-32 iso_rr_path
              Designate the given path as HP-PA 32 bit kernel file.

       -hppa-kernel-64 iso_rr_path
              Designate the given path as HP-PA 64 bit kernel file.

       -hppa-ramdisk iso_rr_path
              Designate the given path as HP-PA RAM disk file.

       -hppa-hdrversion number
              Choose  between PALO header version 5 (default) and version 4.  For the appropriate
              value see in PALO source code: PALOHDRVERSION.

       -alpha-boot iso_rr_path
              Declare a data file in the image to be the DEC Alpha SRM Secondary Bootstrap Loader
              and  cause  production  of  a  boot  sector  which  points to it.  This is mutually
              exclusive with production of other boot blocks like MBR.

       Character sets:

       Character sets should not matter as long as only english alphanumeric characters are  used
       for  file names or as long as all writers and readers of the medium use the same character
       set.  Outside these constraints it may be necessary to let xorriso convert byte codes.
       A conversion from input character set to the output character set is performed when an ISO
       image  gets  written.   Vice  versa there is a conversion from output character set to the
       input character set when an ISO image gets loaded.  The sets can  be  defined  by  options
       -input-charset and -output-charset, if needed.

       -input-charset character_set_name
              Set  the  character  set  from which to convert disk file names when inserting them
              into the ISO image.

       -output-charset character_set_name
              Set the character set from which to convert  names of  loaded  ISO  images  and  to
              which to convert names when writing ISO images.

       Jigdo Template Extraction:

       From  man genisoimage: "Jigdo is a tool to help in the distribution of large files like CD
       and DVD images; see http://atterer.net/jigdo/ for more details. Debian  CDs  and  DVD  ISO
       images  are  published on the web in jigdo format to allow end users to download them more
       efficiently."
       If the use of libjte was enabled at compile time of xorriso, then xorrisofs can produce  a
       .jigdo  and  a .template file together with a single-session ISO image. If not, then Jigdo
       options will cause a FAILURE event, which normally leads to program abort.
       One may determine the ability for Jigdo by:
         $ xorrisofs -version 2>&1 | grep '^libjte' && echo YES

       The .jigdo file contains checksums  and  symbolic  file  addresses.   The  .template  file
       contains  the compressed ISO image with reference tags instead of the content bytes of the
       listed files.
       Input for this process are the normal arguments for a  xorrisofs  session  with  no  image
       loaded,  and  a  .md5  file which lists those data files which may be listed in the .jigdo
       file and externally referenced in the .template file.  Each designated file is represented
       in the .md5 file by a single text line:
       MD5  as  32  hex digits, 2 blanks, size as 12 decimal digits or blanks, 2 blanks, symbolic
       file address
       The file address in an .md5 line has to bear the same basename as  the  disk_path  of  the
       file  which it shall match. The directory path of the file address is decisive for To=From
       mapping, not for file recognition.  After To=From mapping, the file address  gets  written
       into  the  .jigdo  file.  Jigdo  restore  tools  will  convert these addresses into really
       reachable data source addresses from which they can read.
       If the list of jigdo parameters is not empty, then padding will be counted as part of  the
       ISO image.

       -jigdo-jigdo disk_path
              Set the disk_path for the .jigdo file with the checksums and download addresses for
              filling the holes in .template.

       -jigdo-template disk_path
              Set the disk_path for the .template file with the holed and  compressed  ISO  image
              copy.

       -jigdo-min-file-size size
              Set  the  minimum  size for a data file to be listed in the .jigdo file and being a
              hole in the .template file.  size may be a plain number counting bytes, or a number
              with  appended  letter  "k", "m", "g" to count KiB (1024 bytes), MiB (1024 KiB), or
              GiB (1024 MiB).

       -jigdo-force-md5 disk_path_pattern
              adds a regular expression  pattern  which  will  get  compared  with  the  absolute
              disk_path  of  any  data file that was not found in the .md5 list. A match causes a
              MISHAP event, which normally does not abort the program run but  finally  causes  a
              non-zero exit value of the program.

       -jigdo-exclude disk_path_pattern
              Add  a  regular  expression  pattern  which  will  get  compared  with the absolute
              disk_path of any data file. A match causes the file to stay  in  .template  in  any
              case.

       -jigdo-map To=From
              Add  a  string pair of the form To=From to the parameter list.  If a data file gets
              listed in the .jigdo file, then it is referred by the file address from its line in
              the  .md5  file.  This  file  address  gets checked whether it begins with the From
              string. If so, then this string will be  replaced  by  the  To  string  and  a  ':'
              character, before it goes into the .jigdo file. The From string should end by a '/'
              character.

       -md5-list disk_path
              Set the disk_path where to find the .md5 input file.

       -jigdo-template-compress "gzip"|"bzip2"
              Choose one of "bzip2" or "gzip" for the compression of the template file. The jigdo
              file is put out uncompressed.

       -checksum_algorithm_iso list_of_names
              Choose  one or more of "md5", "sha1", "sha256", "sha512" for the auxiliary "# Image
              Hex"  checksums  in  the  .jigdo  file.  The  list_of_names  may  e.g.  look   like
              "md5,sha1,sha512".  Value  "all"  chooses  all available algorithms.  Note that MD5
              stays always enabled.

       -checksum_algorithm_template list_of_names
              Choose the algorithms for the "# Template Hex" checksums in the .jigdo  file.   The
              rules for list_of_names are the same as with -checksum_algorithm_iso.

       Miscellaneous options:

       -print-size
              Print  to  stdandard  output  the  foreseeable  number  of  2048 byte blocks in the
              emerging ISO image. Do not produce this image.
              The result depends on several settings.
              If option --emul-toc  is given, then padding (see -pad) is not counted as  part  of
              the  image  size.  In  this  case  either use -no-pad or add 150 (= 300 KiB) to the
              resulting number.
              If mkisofs emulation ends after option -print-size, then the properties of the most
              recently specified boot image file cannot be edited by subsequent xorriso commands.

       --no_rc
              Only  if  used as first argument this option prevents reading and interpretation of
              startup files. See section FILES below.

       -help
              List supported options to stderr. Original  mkisofs  options  bear  their  original
              mkisofs description texts.

       -quiet
              Suppress  most messages of the program run, except those which indicate problems or
              errors.

       -gui
              Increase the frequency of pacifier messages while writing an ISO image.

       -log-file disk_path
              Truncate file disk_path to 0 size and redirect  to  it  all  messages  which  would
              normally appear on stderr. -log-file with empty text as disk_path re-enables output
              to stderr.

       -v
              Enable the output of informational program messages.

       -verbose
              Alias of -v.

       -version
              Print to standard output a text that begins with
               "mkisofs 2.01-Emulation Copyright (C)"
              and to standard error the version information of xorriso.

EXAMPLES

   Overview of examples:
       A simple image production run
       Set ISO image paths by -graft-points
       Perform multi-session runs
       Let xorrisofs work underneath growisofs
       Incremental backup of a few directory trees
       Incremental backup with accumulated trees
       Create bootable images for PC-BIOS and EFI

   A simple image production run
       A prepared file tree in directory ./for_iso gets copied into the root directory of the ISO
       image.  File  permissions  get  set  to  read-only  for  everybody.  Joliet attributes for
       Microsoft systems get added.  The resulting image gets written as data file ./image.iso on
       disk.
         $ xorrisofs -r -J -o ./image.iso ./for_iso

   Set ISO image paths by -graft-points
       Without option -graft-points each given disk file is copied into the root directory of the
       ISO  image,  maintaining  its  name.  If  a  directory  is  given,  then  its  files   and
       sub-directories are copied into the root directory, maintaining their names.
         $ xorrisofs ... /home/me/datafile /tmp/directory
       yields in the ISO image root directory:
         /datafile
         /file_1_from_directory
         ...
         /file_N_from_directory

       With  option  -graft-points it is possible to put files and directories to arbitrary paths
       in the ISO image.
         $ xorrisofs ... -graft-points /home/me/datafile /dir=/tmp/directory
       yields in the ISO image root directory:
         /datafile
         /dir
       Eventually needed parent directories in the image will be created automatically:
         /datafiles/file1=/home/me/datafile
       yields in the ISO image:
         /datafiles/file1
       The attributes of directory /datafiles get copied from /home/me on disk.

       Normally one should avoid = and \ characters in the ISO part of a  pathspec.   But  if  it
       must be, one may escape them:
         /with_\=_and_\\/file=/tmp/directory/file
       yields in the ISO image:
         /with_=_and_\/file

   Perform multi-session runs
       This  example  works  for  multi-session  media only: CD-R[W], DVD-R[W], DVD+R, BD-R.  Add
       cdrskin option --grow_overwriteable_iso to all  -as  cdrecord  runs  in  order  to  enable
       multi-session emulation on overwriteable media.
       The first session is written like this:
         $ xorrisofs -graft-points \
                     /tree1=prepared_for_iso/tree1 \
           | xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=fast -multi -eject -
       Follow-up sessions are written like this:
         $ dd if=/dev/sr0 count=1 >/dev/null 2>&1
         $ m=$(xorriso -as cdrecord dev=/dev/sr0 -msinfo)
         $ xorrisofs -M /dev/sr0 -C $m -graft-points \
                     /tree2=prepared_for_iso/tree2 \
           | xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 -waiti -multi -eject -
       Always  eject the drive tray between sessions. The old sessions get read via /dev/sr0. Its
       device driver might not be aware of the changed content before it loads the medium  again.
       In  this  case  the previous session would not be loaded and the new session would contain
       only the newly added files.
       For the same reason do not let xorriso -as cdrecord load the medium, but  rather  do  this
       manually or by a program that reads from /dev/sr0.

   Let xorrisofs work underneath growisofs
       growisofs expects an ISO formatter program which understands options -C and -M. A variable
       is defined to override the hardcoded default name.
         $ export MKISOFS="xorrisofs"
         $ growisofs -Z /dev/dvd /some/files
         $ growisofs -M /dev/dvd /more/files
       If no "xorrisofs" is available on your system,  then  you  will  have  to  create  a  link
       pointing to the xorriso binary and tell growisofs to use it. E.g. by:
         $ ln -s $(which xorriso) "$HOME/xorrisofs"
         $ export MKISOFS="$HOME/xorrisofs"
       One  may  quit  mkisofs  emulation  by argument "--" and make use of all xorriso commands.
       growisofs dislikes options which start with "-o" but -outdev must be set to "-".   So  use
       "outdev" instead:
         $ growisofs -Z /dev/dvd --for_backup -- \
                     outdev - -update_r /my/files /files
         $ growisofs -M /dev/dvd --for_backup -- \
                     outdev - -update_r /my/files /files
       Note  that --for_backup is given in the mkisofs emulation.  To preserve the recorded extra
       data it must already be in effect, when the emulation loads the image.

   Incremental backup of a few directory trees
       This changes the directory trees /open_source_project and /personal_mail in the ISO  image
       so  that  they  become  exact  copies  of  their  disk counterparts.  ISO file objects get
       created, deleted or get their attributes adjusted accordingly.
       ACL, xattr, hard links and MD5 checksums will be recorded.   It  is  expected  that  inode
       numbers  in the disk filesystem are persistent over cycles of mounting and booting.  Files
       with names matching *.o or *.swp get excluded explicitly.

       To be used several times on the same medium, whenever an update of the two disk  trees  to
       the  medium  is  desired.  Begin  with  a  blank  medium  and update it until he run fails
       gracefully due to lack of remaining space on the old one.
       Do not let xorriso -as cdrecord load the medium, but rather  do  this  manually  or  by  a
       program that reads from /dev/sr0.
         $ dd if=/dev/sr0 count=1 >/dev/null 2>&1
         $ msinfo=$(xorriso -as cdrecord dev=/dev/sr0 -msinfo)
         $ load_opts=
         $ test -n "$msinfo" && load_opts="-M /dev/sr0 -C $msinfo"
         $ xorrisofs $load_opts -o - --for_backup -m '*.o' -m '*.swp' \
           -V PROJ_MAIL_"$(date '+%Y_%m_%d_%H%M%S')" -graft-points \
           -old-root / \
           /projects=/home/thomas/projects \
           /personal_mail=/home/thomas/personal_mail \
           | xorriso -as cdrecord dev=/dev/sr0 -v -multi -waiti -eject -

       This  makes sense if the full backup leaves substantial remaining capacity on media and if
       the expected changes are much smaller than the full backup.

       Better do not use your youngest backup for -old-root.  Have at least two media  which  you
       use  alternatingly. So only older backups get endangered by the new write operation, while
       the newest backup is stored safely on a different medium.
       Always have a blank medium ready to perform a full backup in case the update attempt fails
       due  to  insufficient  remaining  capacity. This failure will not spoil the old medium, of
       course.

       If inode numbers on disk are not persistent, then use option --old-root-no-ino .  In  this
       case an update run will compare recorded MD5 sums against the current file content on hard
       disk.

       With mount option -o "sbsector=" on GNU/Linux or -s on FreeBSD or NetBSD it is possible to
       access  the  session  trees  which  represent  the  older  backup versions. With CD media,
       GNU/Linux mount accepts session numbers directly by its option "session=".
       Multi-session media and most overwriteable media written by xorriso can tell the sbsectors
       of their sessions by xorriso option -toc:
         $ xorriso -dev /dev/sr0 -toc
       xorriso can print the matching mount command for a session number:
         $ xorriso -mount_cmd /dev/sr0 session 12 /mnt
       or for a volume id that matches a search expression:
         $ xorriso -mount_cmd /dev/sr0 volid '*2008_12_05*' /mnt
       Both yield on standard output something like:
         mount -t iso9660 -o nodev,noexec,nosuid,ro,sbsector=1460256 '/dev/sr0' '/mnt'
       The superuser may let xorriso execute the mount command directly:
         # osirrox -mount /dev/sr0 "volid" '*2008_12_05*' /mnt

   Incremental backup with accumulated trees
       Solaris  does  not  offer  the  option  to  mount  older  sessions.  In order to keep them
       accessible, one may map all files to a file tree under a session directory and  accumulate
       those  directories  from  session to session.  The -root tree is cloned from the -old-root
       tree before it gets compared with the appropriate trees on disk.
       This demands to know the previously used session directory name.
       With the first session:
         $ xorrisofs -root /session1 \
           -o - --for_backup -m '*.o' -m '*.swp' \
           -V PROJ_MAIL_"$(date '+%Y_%m_%d_%H%M%S')" -graft-points \
           /projects=/home/thomas/projects \
           /personal_mail=/home/thomas/personal_mail \
           | xorriso -as cdrecord dev=/dev/sr0 -v blank=as_needed \
                     -multi -waiti -eject -

       With the second session, option -old-root  refers  to  /session1  and  the  new  -root  is
       /session2.
       Do  not  let  xorriso  -as  cdrecord  load the medium, but rather do this manually or by a
       program that reads from /dev/sr0.
         $ dd if=/dev/sr0 count=1 >/dev/null 2>&1
         $ msinfo=$(xorriso -as cdrecord dev=/dev/sr0 -msinfo)
         $ load_opts=
         $ test -n "$msinfo" && load_opts="-M /dev/sr0 -C $msinfo"
         $ xorrisofs $load_opts -root /session2 -old-root /session1 \
           -o - --for_backup -m '*.o' -m '*.swp' \
           -V PROJ_MAIL_"$(date '+%Y_%m_%d_%H%M%S')" -graft-points \
           /projects=/home/thomas/projects \
           /personal_mail=/home/thomas/personal_mail \
           | xorriso -as cdrecord dev=/dev/sr0 -v -multi -waiti -eject -
       With the third session, option -old-root refers to /session2.  The new -root is /session3.
       And so on.

   Create bootable images for PC-BIOS and EFI
       The SYSLINUX/ISOLINUX boot loader suite is popular for booting PC-BIOS.  The ISOLINUX wiki
       prescribes to create on  disk  a  directory  ./CD_root  and  to  copy  all  desired  files
       underneath   that   directory.   Especially   file   isolinux.bin   shall   be  copied  to
       ./CD_root/isolinux/isolinux.bin .  This is the boot image file.
       The prescribed mkisofs options can be used unchanged with xorrisofs:
         $ xorrisofs -o output.iso \
             -b isolinux/isolinux.bin -c isolinux/boot.cat \
             -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table \
             ./CD_root
       Put it on CD by a burn program. E.g.:
         $ xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=as_needed output.iso

       The image from above example will boot from CD, DVD or BD, but not from USB stick or other
       hard-disk-like  devices.  This  can be done by help of an isohybrid MBR. Syslinux provides
       matching template files as isohdp[fp]x*.bin . E.g. /usr/lib/syslinux/isohdpfx.bin .
       If a few hundred KB of size do not matter, then option -partition_offset can  be  used  to
       create  a  partition table where partition 1 starts not at block 0. This facilitates later
       manipulations of the USB stick by tools for partitioning and formatting.
       The image from the following example will be prepared for booting via MBR  and  its  first
       partition will start at hard disk block 64.
       It will also boot from optical media.
         $ xorrisofs -o output.iso \
             -b isolinux/isolinux.bin -c isolinux/boot.cat \
             -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table \
             -isohybrid-mbr /usr/lib/syslinux/isohdpfx.bin \
             -partition_offset 16 \
             ./CD_root
       Become  superuser  and  copy  the  image  to the unpartitioned base device file of the USB
       stick. On GNU/Linux this is e.g. /dev/sdb, not /dev/sdb1.
       CAUTION: This will overwrite any partitioning on the USB stick  and  make  remaining  data
       unaccessible.
       So  first  make  sure you got the correct address of the intended device.  E.g. by reading
       100 MiB data from it and watching it blinking:
         # dd bs=2K if=/dev/sdb count=50K >/dev/null
       Now copy the image onto it
         # dd bs=2K if=output.iso of=/dev/sdb

       Now for EFI:
       The boot image file has to be the image of an EFI System Partition, i.e. a FAT  filesystem
       with directory /EFI/BOOT and boot files with EFI prescribed names: BOOTIA32.EFI for 32 bit
       x86, BOOTx64.EFI for 64 bit AMD/x86 (in UEFI-2.4  there  is  indeed  a  lower  case  "x"),
       BOOTAA64.EFI for 64 bit ARM. The software in the FAT filesystem should be able to find and
       inspect the ISO filesystem for boot loader configuration and start  of  operating  system.
       GRUB2  program grub-mkimage can produce such a FAT filesystem with suitable content, which
       then uses further GRUB2 software from the ISO filesystem.
       EFI boot equipment may be combined with above ISOLINUX isohybrid  for  PC-BIOS  in  a  not
       really UEFI-2.4 compliant way, which obviously works well. It yields MBR and GPT partition
       tables, both with nested partitions.  Assumed the EFI System Partition image is  ready  as
       ./CD_root/boot/grub/efi.img,  add  the  following  options  before  the  directory address
       ./CD_root:
             -eltorito-alt-boot -e 'boot/grub/efi.img' -no-emul-boot \
             -isohybrid-gpt-basdat \
       More compliant with UEFI-2.4 is to decide for either MBR or GPT and to append  a  copy  of
       the  EFI  System  Partition  in order to avoid overlap of ISO partition and EFI partition.
       Here for MBR:
             -eltorito-alt-boot -e 'boot/grub/efi.img' -no-emul-boot \
             -append_partition 2 0xef ./CD_root/boot/grub/efi.img \
       The resulting ISOs are supposed to boot from optical media and USB stick.   One  may  omit
       option -eltorito-alt-boot if no option -b is used to make the ISO bootable via PC-BIOS.

       For  ISOs  with  pure  GRUB2  boot  equipment  consider to use GRUB2 tool grub-mkrescue as
       frontend to xorrisofs.

       If you have a bootable ISO filesystem and want to know its equipment plus a  proposal  how
       to reproduce it, try:
         $ xorriso -hfsplus on -indev IMAGE.iso \
             -report_el_torito plain -report_system_area plain \
             -print "" -print "======= Proposal for xorrisofs options:" \
             -report_el_torito as_mkisofs

FILES

   Startup files:
       If  not  --no_rc is given as the first argument then xorrisofs attempts on startup to read
       and execute lines from the following files:
          /etc/default/xorriso
          /etc/opt/xorriso/rc
          /etc/xorriso/xorriso.conf
          $HOME/.xorrisorc
       The files are read in the sequence given here, but none of them is required to exist.  The
       lines  are  not  interpreted as xorrisofs options but as generic xorriso commands. See man
       xorriso.

       After the xorriso startup files, the program tries one by one to open for reading:
          ./.mkisofsrc
          $MKISOFSRC
          $HOME/.mkisofsrc
          $(dirname $0)/.mkisofsrc
       On success it interprets the file content and  does  not  try  further  files.   The  last
       address is used only if start argument 0 has a non-trivial dirname.
       The reader currently interprets the following NAME=VALUE pairs:
        APPI default for -A
        PUBL default for -publisher
        SYSI default for -sysid
        VOLI default for -V
        VOLS default for -volset
       Any other lines will be silently ignored.

ENVIRONMENT

       The following environment variables influence the program behavior:
       HOME is used to find xorriso and mkisofs startup files.
       MKISOFSRC may be used to point the program to a mkisofs startup file.
       SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH  belongs  to the specs of reproducible-builds.org.  It is supposed to be
       either undefined or to contain a decimal number which tells the seconds since january  1st
       1970.  If  it  contains  a  number,  then  it  is used as time value to set the default of
       --modification-date=.  --gpt_disk_guid defaults to "modification-date".   The  default  of
       --set_all_file_dates is then "set_to_mtime".
       Startup files and program options can override the effect of SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH.

SEE ALSO

       For generic xorriso command mode
              xorriso(1)

       For the cdrecord emulation of xorriso
              xorrecord(1)

       For mounting xorriso generated ISO 9660 images (-t iso9660)
              mount(8)

       Other programs which produce ISO 9660 images
              mkisofs(8), genisoimage(8)

       Programs which burn sessions to optical media
              growisofs(1), cdrecord(1), wodim(1), cdrskin(1), xorriso(1)

       ACL and xattr
              getfacl(1), setfacl(1), getfattr(1), setfattr(1)

       MD5 checksums
              md5sum(1)

       On FreeBSD the commands for xattr and MD5 differ
              getextattr(8), setextattr(8), md5(1)

BUGS

       To  report bugs, request help, or suggest enhancements for xorriso, please send electronic
       mail to the public list <bug-xorriso@gnu.org>.   If  more  privacy  is  desired,  mail  to
       <scdbackup@gmx.net>.
       Please describe what you expect xorriso to do, the program arguments or dialog commands by
       which you tried to achieve it, the messages of xorriso, and  the  undesirable  outcome  of
       your program run.
       Expect to get asked more questions before solutions can be proposed.

AUTHOR

       Thomas Schmitt <scdbackup@gmx.net>
       for libburnia-project.org

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright (c) 2011 - 2018 Thomas Schmitt
       Permission  is  granted  to distribute this text freely. It shall only be modified in sync
       with the technical properties of xorriso. If  you  make  use  of  the  license  to  derive
       modified  versions  of  xorriso  then you are entitled to modify this text under that same
       license.

CREDITS

       xorrisofs is in part based on work by Vreixo Formoso who provides libisofs  together  with
       Mario  Danic  who also leads the libburnia team.  Vladimir Serbinenko contributed the HFS+
       filesystem code and related knowledge.
       Compliments towards Joerg Schilling whose cdrtools served me for ten years.

                                   Version 1.5.0, Sep 15, 2018                       XORRISOFS(1)