Provided by: perl-doc_5.28.1-6_all bug

NAME

       File::Path - Create or remove directory trees

VERSION

       2.15 - released June 07 2017.

SYNOPSIS

           use File::Path qw(make_path remove_tree);

           @created = make_path('foo/bar/baz', '/zug/zwang');
           @created = make_path('foo/bar/baz', '/zug/zwang', {
               verbose => 1,
               mode => 0711,
           });
           make_path('foo/bar/baz', '/zug/zwang', {
               chmod => 0777,
           });

           $removed_count = remove_tree('foo/bar/baz', '/zug/zwang', {
               verbose => 1,
               error  => \my $err_list,
               safe => 1,
           });

           # legacy (interface promoted before v2.00)
           @created = mkpath('/foo/bar/baz');
           @created = mkpath('/foo/bar/baz', 1, 0711);
           @created = mkpath(['/foo/bar/baz', 'blurfl/quux'], 1, 0711);
           $removed_count = rmtree('foo/bar/baz', 1, 1);
           $removed_count = rmtree(['foo/bar/baz', 'blurfl/quux'], 1, 1);

           # legacy (interface promoted before v2.06)
           @created = mkpath('foo/bar/baz', '/zug/zwang', { verbose => 1, mode => 0711 });
           $removed_count = rmtree('foo/bar/baz', '/zug/zwang', { verbose => 1, mode => 0711 });

DESCRIPTION

       This module provides a convenient way to create directories of arbitrary depth and to
       delete an entire directory subtree from the filesystem.

       The following functions are provided:

       make_path( $dir1, $dir2, .... )
       make_path( $dir1, $dir2, ...., \%opts )
           The "make_path" function creates the given directories if they don't exist before,
           much like the Unix command "mkdir -p".

           The function accepts a list of directories to be created. Its behaviour may be tuned
           by an optional hashref appearing as the last parameter on the call.

           The function returns the list of directories actually created during the call; in
           scalar context the number of directories created.

           The following keys are recognised in the option hash:

           mode => $num
               The numeric permissions mode to apply to each created directory (defaults to
               0777), to be modified by the current "umask". If the directory already exists (and
               thus does not need to be created), the permissions will not be modified.

               "mask" is recognised as an alias for this parameter.

           chmod => $num
               Takes a numeric mode to apply to each created directory (not modified by the
               current "umask"). If the directory already exists (and thus does not need to be
               created), the permissions will not be modified.

           verbose => $bool
               If present, will cause "make_path" to print the name of each directory as it is
               created. By default nothing is printed.

           error => \$err
               If present, it should be a reference to a scalar.  This scalar will be made to
               reference an array, which will be used to store any errors that are encountered.
               See the "ERROR HANDLING" section for more information.

               If this parameter is not used, certain error conditions may raise a fatal error
               that will cause the program to halt, unless trapped in an "eval" block.

           owner => $owner
           user => $owner
           uid => $owner
               If present, will cause any created directory to be owned by $owner.  If the value
               is numeric, it will be interpreted as a uid; otherwise a username is assumed. An
               error will be issued if the username cannot be mapped to a uid, the uid does not
               exist or the process lacks the privileges to change ownership.

               Ownership of directories that already exist will not be changed.

               "user" and "uid" are aliases of "owner".

           group => $group
               If present, will cause any created directory to be owned by the group $group.  If
               the value is numeric, it will be interpreted as a gid; otherwise a group name is
               assumed. An error will be issued if the group name cannot be mapped to a gid, the
               gid does not exist or the process lacks the privileges to change group ownership.

               Group ownership of directories that already exist will not be changed.

                   make_path '/var/tmp/webcache', {owner=>'nobody', group=>'nogroup'};

       mkpath( $dir )
       mkpath( $dir, $verbose, $mode )
       mkpath( [$dir1, $dir2,...], $verbose, $mode )
       mkpath( $dir1, $dir2,..., \%opt )
           The "mkpath()" function provide the legacy interface of "make_path()" with a different
           interpretation of the arguments passed.  The behaviour and return value of the
           function is otherwise identical to "make_path()".

       remove_tree( $dir1, $dir2, .... )
       remove_tree( $dir1, $dir2, ...., \%opts )
           The "remove_tree" function deletes the given directories and any files and
           subdirectories they might contain, much like the Unix command "rm -rf" or the Windows
           commands "rmdir /s" and "rd /s".

           The function accepts a list of directories to be removed. (In point of fact, it will
           also accept filesystem entries which are not directories, such as regular files and
           symlinks.  But, as its name suggests, its intent is to remove trees rather than
           individual files.)

           "remove_tree()"'s behaviour may be tuned by an optional hashref appearing as the last
           parameter on the call.  If an empty string is passed to "remove_tree", an error will
           occur.

           NOTE:  For security reasons, we strongly advise use of the hashref-as-final-argument
           syntax -- specifically, with a setting of the "safe" element to a true value.

               remove_tree( $dir1, $dir2, ....,
                   {
                       safe => 1,
                       ...         # other key-value pairs
                   },
               );

           The function returns the number of files successfully deleted.

           The following keys are recognised in the option hash:

           verbose => $bool
               If present, will cause "remove_tree" to print the name of each file as it is
               unlinked. By default nothing is printed.

           safe => $bool
               When set to a true value, will cause "remove_tree" to skip the files for which the
               process lacks the required privileges needed to delete files, such as delete
               privileges on VMS. In other words, the code will make no attempt to alter file
               permissions. Thus, if the process is interrupted, no filesystem object will be
               left in a more permissive mode.

           keep_root => $bool
               When set to a true value, will cause all files and subdirectories to be removed,
               except the initially specified directories. This comes in handy when cleaning out
               an application's scratch directory.

                   remove_tree( '/tmp', {keep_root => 1} );

           result => \$res
               If present, it should be a reference to a scalar.  This scalar will be made to
               reference an array, which will be used to store all files and directories unlinked
               during the call. If nothing is unlinked, the array will be empty.

                   remove_tree( '/tmp', {result => \my $list} );
                   print "unlinked $_\n" for @$list;

               This is a useful alternative to the "verbose" key.

           error => \$err
               If present, it should be a reference to a scalar.  This scalar will be made to
               reference an array, which will be used to store any errors that are encountered.
               See the "ERROR HANDLING" section for more information.

               Removing things is a much more dangerous proposition than creating things. As
               such, there are certain conditions that "remove_tree" may encounter that are so
               dangerous that the only sane action left is to kill the program.

               Use "error" to trap all that is reasonable (problems with permissions and the
               like), and let it die if things get out of hand. This is the safest course of
               action.

       rmtree( $dir )
       rmtree( $dir, $verbose, $safe )
       rmtree( [$dir1, $dir2,...], $verbose, $safe )
       rmtree( $dir1, $dir2,..., \%opt )
           The "rmtree()" function provide the legacy interface of "remove_tree()" with a
           different interpretation of the arguments passed. The behaviour and return value of
           the function is otherwise identical to "remove_tree()".

           NOTE:  For security reasons, we strongly advise use of the hashref-as-final-argument
           syntax, specifically with a setting of the "safe" element to a true value.

               rmtree( $dir1, $dir2, ....,
                   {
                       safe => 1,
                       ...         # other key-value pairs
                   },
               );

   ERROR HANDLING
       NOTE:
           The following error handling mechanism is consistent throughout all code paths EXCEPT
           in cases where the ROOT node is nonexistent.  In version 2.11 the maintainers
           attempted to rectify this inconsistency but too many downstream modules encountered
           problems.  In such case, if you require root node evaluation or error checking prior
           to calling "make_path" or "remove_tree", you should take additional precautions.

       If "make_path" or "remove_tree" encounters an error, a diagnostic message will be printed
       to "STDERR" via "carp" (for non-fatal errors) or via "croak" (for fatal errors).

       If this behaviour is not desirable, the "error" attribute may be used to hold a reference
       to a variable, which will be used to store the diagnostics. The variable is made a
       reference to an array of hash references.  Each hash contain a single key/value pair where
       the key is the name of the file, and the value is the error message (including the
       contents of $! when appropriate).  If a general error is encountered the diagnostic key
       will be empty.

       An example usage looks like:

         remove_tree( 'foo/bar', 'bar/rat', {error => \my $err} );
         if ($err && @$err) {
             for my $diag (@$err) {
                 my ($file, $message) = %$diag;
                 if ($file eq '') {
                     print "general error: $message\n";
                 }
                 else {
                     print "problem unlinking $file: $message\n";
                 }
             }
         }
         else {
             print "No error encountered\n";
         }

       Note that if no errors are encountered, $err will reference an empty array.  This means
       that $err will always end up TRUE; so you need to test @$err to determine if errors
       occurred.

   NOTES
       "File::Path" blindly exports "mkpath" and "rmtree" into the current namespace. These days,
       this is considered bad style, but to change it now would break too much code. Nonetheless,
       you are invited to specify what it is you are expecting to use:

         use File::Path 'rmtree';

       The routines "make_path" and "remove_tree" are not exported by default. You must specify
       which ones you want to use.

         use File::Path 'remove_tree';

       Note that a side-effect of the above is that "mkpath" and "rmtree" are no longer exported
       at all. This is due to the way the "Exporter" module works. If you are migrating a
       codebase to use the new interface, you will have to list everything explicitly. But that's
       just good practice anyway.

         use File::Path qw(remove_tree rmtree);

       API CHANGES

       The API was changed in the 2.0 branch. For a time, "mkpath" and "rmtree" tried,
       unsuccessfully, to deal with the two different calling mechanisms. This approach was
       considered a failure.

       The new semantics are now only available with "make_path" and "remove_tree". The old
       semantics are only available through "mkpath" and "rmtree". Users are strongly encouraged
       to upgrade to at least 2.08 in order to avoid surprises.

       SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS

       There were race conditions in the 1.x implementations of File::Path's "rmtree" function
       (although sometimes patched depending on the OS distribution or platform). The 2.0 version
       contains code to avoid the problem mentioned in CVE-2002-0435.

       See the following pages for more information:

           http://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi?bug=286905
           http://www.nntp.perl.org/group/perl.perl5.porters/2005/01/msg97623.html
           http://www.debian.org/security/2005/dsa-696

       Additionally, unless the "safe" parameter is set (or the third parameter in the
       traditional interface is TRUE), should a "remove_tree" be interrupted, files that were
       originally in read-only mode may now have their permissions set to a read-write (or
       "delete OK") mode.

       The following CVE reports were previously filed against File-Path and are believed to have
       been addressed:

       ·   <http://cve.circl.lu/cve/CVE-2004-0452>

       ·   <http://cve.circl.lu/cve/CVE-2005-0448>

       In February 2017 the cPanel Security Team reported an additional vulnerability in File-
       Path.  The "chmod()" logic to make directories traversable can be abused to set the mode
       on an attacker-chosen file to an attacker-chosen value.  This is due to the time-of-check-
       to-time-of-use (TOCTTOU) race condition
       (<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_of_check_to_time_of_use>) between the "stat()" that
       decides the inode is a directory and the "chmod()" that tries to make it user-rwx.  CPAN
       versions 2.13 and later incorporate a patch provided by John Lightsey to address this
       problem.  This vulnerability has been reported as CVE-2017-6512.

DIAGNOSTICS

       FATAL errors will cause the program to halt ("croak"), since the problem is so severe that
       it would be dangerous to continue. (This can always be trapped with "eval", but it's not a
       good idea. Under the circumstances, dying is the best thing to do).

       SEVERE errors may be trapped using the modern interface. If the they are not trapped, or
       if the old interface is used, such an error will cause the program will halt.

       All other errors may be trapped using the modern interface, otherwise they will be
       "carp"ed about. Program execution will not be halted.

       mkdir [path]: [errmsg] (SEVERE)
           "make_path" was unable to create the path. Probably some sort of permissions error at
           the point of departure or insufficient resources (such as free inodes on Unix).

       No root path(s) specified
           "make_path" was not given any paths to create. This message is only emitted if the
           routine is called with the traditional interface.  The modern interface will remain
           silent if given nothing to do.

       No such file or directory
           On Windows, if "make_path" gives you this warning, it may mean that you have exceeded
           your filesystem's maximum path length.

       cannot fetch initial working directory: [errmsg]
           "remove_tree" attempted to determine the initial directory by calling "Cwd::getcwd",
           but the call failed for some reason. No attempt will be made to delete anything.

       cannot stat initial working directory: [errmsg]
           "remove_tree" attempted to stat the initial directory (after having successfully
           obtained its name via "getcwd"), however, the call failed for some reason. No attempt
           will be made to delete anything.

       cannot chdir to [dir]: [errmsg]
           "remove_tree" attempted to set the working directory in order to begin deleting the
           objects therein, but was unsuccessful. This is usually a permissions issue. The
           routine will continue to delete other things, but this directory will be left intact.

       directory [dir] changed before chdir, expected dev=[n] ino=[n], actual dev=[n] ino=[n],
       aborting. (FATAL)
           "remove_tree" recorded the device and inode of a directory, and then moved into it. It
           then performed a "stat" on the current directory and detected that the device and
           inode were no longer the same. As this is at the heart of the race condition problem,
           the program will die at this point.

       cannot make directory [dir] read+writeable: [errmsg]
           "remove_tree" attempted to change the permissions on the current directory to ensure
           that subsequent unlinkings would not run into problems, but was unable to do so. The
           permissions remain as they were, and the program will carry on, doing the best it can.

       cannot read [dir]: [errmsg]
           "remove_tree" tried to read the contents of the directory in order to acquire the
           names of the directory entries to be unlinked, but was unsuccessful. This is usually a
           permissions issue. The program will continue, but the files in this directory will
           remain after the call.

       cannot reset chmod [dir]: [errmsg]
           "remove_tree", after having deleted everything in a directory, attempted to restore
           its permissions to the original state but failed. The directory may wind up being left
           behind.

       cannot remove [dir] when cwd is [dir]
           The current working directory of the program is /some/path/to/here and you are
           attempting to remove an ancestor, such as /some/path.  The directory tree is left
           untouched.

           The solution is to "chdir" out of the child directory to a place outside the directory
           tree to be removed.

       cannot chdir to [parent-dir] from [child-dir]: [errmsg], aborting. (FATAL)
           "remove_tree", after having deleted everything and restored the permissions of a
           directory, was unable to chdir back to the parent. The program halts to avoid a race
           condition from occurring.

       cannot stat prior working directory [dir]: [errmsg], aborting. (FATAL)
           "remove_tree" was unable to stat the parent directory after having returned from the
           child. Since there is no way of knowing if we returned to where we think we should be
           (by comparing device and inode) the only way out is to "croak".

       previous directory [parent-dir] changed before entering [child-dir], expected dev=[n]
       ino=[n], actual dev=[n] ino=[n], aborting. (FATAL)
           When "remove_tree" returned from deleting files in a child directory, a check revealed
           that the parent directory it returned to wasn't the one it started out from. This is
           considered a sign of malicious activity.

       cannot make directory [dir] writeable: [errmsg]
           Just before removing a directory (after having successfully removed everything it
           contained), "remove_tree" attempted to set the permissions on the directory to ensure
           it could be removed and failed. Program execution continues, but the directory may
           possibly not be deleted.

       cannot remove directory [dir]: [errmsg]
           "remove_tree" attempted to remove a directory, but failed. This may be because some
           objects that were unable to be removed remain in the directory, or it could be a
           permissions issue. The directory will be left behind.

       cannot restore permissions of [dir] to [0nnn]: [errmsg]
           After having failed to remove a directory, "remove_tree" was unable to restore its
           permissions from a permissive state back to a possibly more restrictive setting.
           (Permissions given in octal).

       cannot make file [file] writeable: [errmsg]
           "remove_tree" attempted to force the permissions of a file to ensure it could be
           deleted, but failed to do so. It will, however, still attempt to unlink the file.

       cannot unlink file [file]: [errmsg]
           "remove_tree" failed to remove a file. Probably a permissions issue.

       cannot restore permissions of [file] to [0nnn]: [errmsg]
           After having failed to remove a file, "remove_tree" was also unable to restore the
           permissions on the file to a possibly less permissive setting. (Permissions given in
           octal).

       unable to map [owner] to a uid, ownership not changed");
           "make_path" was instructed to give the ownership of created directories to the
           symbolic name [owner], but "getpwnam" did not return the corresponding numeric uid.
           The directory will be created, but ownership will not be changed.

       unable to map [group] to a gid, group ownership not changed
           "make_path" was instructed to give the group ownership of created directories to the
           symbolic name [group], but "getgrnam" did not return the corresponding numeric gid.
           The directory will be created, but group ownership will not be changed.

SEE ALSO

       ·   File::Remove

           Allows files and directories to be moved to the Trashcan/Recycle Bin (where they may
           later be restored if necessary) if the operating system supports such functionality.
           This feature may one day be made available directly in "File::Path".

       ·   File::Find::Rule

           When removing directory trees, if you want to examine each file to decide whether to
           delete it (and possibly leaving large swathes alone), File::Find::Rule offers a
           convenient and flexible approach to examining directory trees.

BUGS AND LIMITATIONS

       The following describes File::Path limitations and how to report bugs.

   MULTITHREADED APPLICATIONS
       File::Path "rmtree" and "remove_tree" will not work with multithreaded applications due to
       its use of "chdir".  At this time, no warning or error is generated in this situation.
       You will certainly encounter unexpected results.

       The implementation that surfaces this limitation will not be changed. See the
       File::Path::Tiny module for functionality similar to File::Path but which does not
       "chdir".

   NFS Mount Points
       File::Path is not responsible for triggering the automounts, mirror mounts, and the
       contents of network mounted filesystems.  If your NFS implementation requires an action to
       be performed on the filesystem in order for File::Path to perform operations, it is
       strongly suggested you assure filesystem availability by reading the root of the mounted
       filesystem.

   REPORTING BUGS
       Please report all bugs on the RT queue, either via the web interface:

       <http://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/Bugs.html?Dist=File-Path>

       or by email:

           bug-File-Path@rt.cpan.org

       In either case, please attach patches to the bug report rather than including them inline
       in the web post or the body of the email.

       You can also send pull requests to the Github repository:

       <https://github.com/rpcme/File-Path>

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

       Paul Szabo identified the race condition originally, and Brendan O'Dea wrote an
       implementation for Debian that addressed the problem.  That code was used as a basis for
       the current code. Their efforts are greatly appreciated.

       Gisle Aas made a number of improvements to the documentation for 2.07 and his advice and
       assistance is also greatly appreciated.

AUTHORS

       Prior authors and maintainers: Tim Bunce, Charles Bailey, and David Landgren
       <david@landgren.net>.

       Current maintainers are Richard Elberger <riche@cpan.org> and James (Jim) Keenan
       <jkeenan@cpan.org>.

CONTRIBUTORS

       Contributors to File::Path, in alphabetical order by first name.

       <bulkdd@cpan.org>
       Charlie Gonzalez <itcharlie@cpan.org>
       Craig A. Berry <craigberry@mac.com>
       James E Keenan <jkeenan@cpan.org>
       John Lightsey <john@perlsec.org>
       Nigel Horne <njh@bandsman.co.uk>
       Richard Elberger <riche@cpan.org>
       Ryan Yee <ryee@cpan.org>
       Skye Shaw <shaw@cpan.org>
       Tom Lutz <tommylutz@gmail.com>
       Will Sheppard <willsheppard@github>

COPYRIGHT

       This module is copyright (C) Charles Bailey, Tim Bunce, David Landgren, James Keenan and
       Richard Elberger 1995-2017. All rights reserved.

LICENSE

       This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself.