Provided by: perl-doc_5.28.1-6_all bug

NAME

       Hash::Util - A selection of general-utility hash subroutines

SYNOPSIS

         # Restricted hashes

         use Hash::Util qw(
                            fieldhash fieldhashes

                            all_keys
                            lock_keys unlock_keys
                            lock_value unlock_value
                            lock_hash unlock_hash
                            lock_keys_plus
                            hash_locked hash_unlocked
                            hashref_locked hashref_unlocked
                            hidden_keys legal_keys

                            lock_ref_keys unlock_ref_keys
                            lock_ref_value unlock_ref_value
                            lock_hashref unlock_hashref
                            lock_ref_keys_plus
                            hidden_ref_keys legal_ref_keys

                            hash_seed hash_value hv_store
                            bucket_stats bucket_info bucket_array
                            lock_hash_recurse unlock_hash_recurse
                            lock_hashref_recurse unlock_hashref_recurse

                            hash_traversal_mask
                          );

         %hash = (foo => 42, bar => 23);
         # Ways to restrict a hash
         lock_keys(%hash);
         lock_keys(%hash, @keyset);
         lock_keys_plus(%hash, @additional_keys);

         # Ways to inspect the properties of a restricted hash
         my @legal = legal_keys(%hash);
         my @hidden = hidden_keys(%hash);
         my $ref = all_keys(%hash,@keys,@hidden);
         my $is_locked = hash_locked(%hash);

         # Remove restrictions on the hash
         unlock_keys(%hash);

         # Lock individual values in a hash
         lock_value  (%hash, 'foo');
         unlock_value(%hash, 'foo');

         # Ways to change the restrictions on both keys and values
         lock_hash  (%hash);
         unlock_hash(%hash);

         my $hashes_are_randomised = hash_seed() != 0;

         my $int_hash_value = hash_value( 'string' );

         my $mask= hash_traversal_mask(%hash);

         hash_traversal_mask(%hash,1234);

DESCRIPTION

       "Hash::Util" and "Hash::Util::FieldHash" contain special functions for manipulating hashes
       that don't really warrant a keyword.

       "Hash::Util" contains a set of functions that support restricted hashes. These are
       described in this document.  "Hash::Util::FieldHash" contains an (unrelated) set of
       functions that support the use of hashes in inside-out classes, described in
       Hash::Util::FieldHash.

       By default "Hash::Util" does not export anything.

   Restricted hashes
       5.8.0 introduces the ability to restrict a hash to a certain set of keys.  No keys outside
       of this set can be added.  It also introduces the ability to lock an individual key so it
       cannot be deleted and the ability to ensure that an individual value cannot be changed.

       This is intended to largely replace the deprecated pseudo-hashes.

       lock_keys
       unlock_keys
             lock_keys(%hash);
             lock_keys(%hash, @keys);

           Restricts the given %hash's set of keys to @keys.  If @keys is not given it restricts
           it to its current keyset.  No more keys can be added. delete() and exists() will still
           work, but will not alter the set of allowed keys. Note: the current implementation
           prevents the hash from being bless()ed while it is in a locked state. Any attempt to
           do so will raise an exception. Of course you can still bless() the hash before you
           call lock_keys() so this shouldn't be a problem.

             unlock_keys(%hash);

           Removes the restriction on the %hash's keyset.

           Note that if any of the values of the hash have been locked they will not be unlocked
           after this sub executes.

           Both routines return a reference to the hash operated on.

       lock_keys_plus
             lock_keys_plus(%hash,@additional_keys)

           Similar to "lock_keys()", with the difference being that the optional key list
           specifies keys that may or may not be already in the hash. Essentially this is an
           easier way to say

             lock_keys(%hash,@additional_keys,keys %hash);

           Returns a reference to %hash

       lock_value
       unlock_value
             lock_value  (%hash, $key);
             unlock_value(%hash, $key);

           Locks and unlocks the value for an individual key of a hash.  The value of a locked
           key cannot be changed.

           Unless %hash has already been locked the key/value could be deleted regardless of this
           setting.

           Returns a reference to the %hash.

       lock_hash
       unlock_hash
               lock_hash(%hash);

           lock_hash() locks an entire hash, making all keys and values read-only.  No value can
           be changed, no keys can be added or deleted.

               unlock_hash(%hash);

           unlock_hash() does the opposite of lock_hash().  All keys and values are made
           writable.  All values can be changed and keys can be added and deleted.

           Returns a reference to the %hash.

       lock_hash_recurse
       unlock_hash_recurse
               lock_hash_recurse(%hash);

           lock_hash() locks an entire hash and any hashes it references recursively, making all
           keys and values read-only. No value can be changed, no keys can be added or deleted.

           This method only recurses into hashes that are referenced by another hash.  Thus a
           Hash of Hashes (HoH) will all be restricted, but a Hash of Arrays of Hashes (HoAoH)
           will only have the top hash restricted.

               unlock_hash_recurse(%hash);

           unlock_hash_recurse() does the opposite of lock_hash_recurse().  All keys and values
           are made writable.  All values can be changed and keys can be added and deleted.
           Identical recursion restrictions apply as to lock_hash_recurse().

           Returns a reference to the %hash.

       hashref_locked
       hash_locked
             hashref_locked(\%hash) and print "Hash is locked!\n";
             hash_locked(%hash) and print "Hash is locked!\n";

           Returns true if the hash and its keys are locked.

       hashref_unlocked
       hash_unlocked
             hashref_unlocked(\%hash) and print "Hash is unlocked!\n";
             hash_unlocked(%hash) and print "Hash is unlocked!\n";

           Returns true if the hash and its keys are unlocked.

       legal_keys
             my @keys = legal_keys(%hash);

           Returns the list of the keys that are legal in a restricted hash.  In the case of an
           unrestricted hash this is identical to calling keys(%hash).

       hidden_keys
             my @keys = hidden_keys(%hash);

           Returns the list of the keys that are legal in a restricted hash but do not have a
           value associated to them. Thus if 'foo' is a "hidden" key of the %hash it will return
           false for both "defined" and "exists" tests.

           In the case of an unrestricted hash this will return an empty list.

           NOTE this is an experimental feature that is heavily dependent on the current
           implementation of restricted hashes. Should the implementation change, this routine
           may become meaningless, in which case it will return an empty list.

       all_keys
             all_keys(%hash,@keys,@hidden);

           Populates the arrays @keys with the all the keys that would pass an "exists" tests,
           and populates @hidden with the remaining legal keys that have not been utilized.

           Returns a reference to the hash.

           In the case of an unrestricted hash this will be equivalent to

             $ref = do {
                 @keys = keys %hash;
                 @hidden = ();
                 \%hash
             };

           NOTE this is an experimental feature that is heavily dependent on the current
           implementation of restricted hashes. Should the implementation change this routine may
           become meaningless in which case it will behave identically to how it would behave on
           an unrestricted hash.

       hash_seed
               my $hash_seed = hash_seed();

           hash_seed() returns the seed bytes used to randomise hash ordering.

           Note that the hash seed is sensitive information: by knowing it one can craft a
           denial-of-service attack against Perl code, even remotely, see "Algorithmic Complexity
           Attacks" in perlsec for more information.  Do not disclose the hash seed to people who
           don't need to know it.  See also "PERL_HASH_SEED_DEBUG" in perlrun.

           Prior to Perl 5.17.6 this function returned a UV, it now returns a string, which may
           be of nearly any size as determined by the hash function your Perl has been built
           with. Possible sizes may be but are not limited to 4 bytes (for most hash algorithms)
           and 16 bytes (for siphash).

       hash_value
               my $hash_value = hash_value($string);

           hash_value() returns the current perl's internal hash value for a given string.

           Returns a 32 bit integer representing the hash value of the string passed in. This
           value is only reliable for the lifetime of the process. It may be different depending
           on invocation, environment variables,  perl version, architectures, and build options.

           Note that the hash value of a given string is sensitive information: by knowing it one
           can deduce the hash seed which in turn can allow one to craft a denial-of-service
           attack against Perl code, even remotely, see "Algorithmic Complexity Attacks" in
           perlsec for more information.  Do not disclose the hash value of a string to people
           who don't need to know it. See also "PERL_HASH_SEED_DEBUG" in perlrun.

       bucket_info
           Return a set of basic information about a hash.

               my ($keys, $buckets, $used, @length_counts)= bucket_info($hash);

           Fields are as follows:

               0: Number of keys in the hash
               1: Number of buckets in the hash
               2: Number of used buckets in the hash
               rest : list of counts, Kth element is the number of buckets
                      with K keys in it.

           See also bucket_stats() and bucket_array().

       bucket_stats
           Returns a list of statistics about a hash.

            my ($keys, $buckets, $used, $quality, $utilization_ratio,
                   $collision_pct, $mean, $stddev, @length_counts)
               = bucket_stats($hashref);

           Fields are as follows:

               0: Number of keys in the hash
               1: Number of buckets in the hash
               2: Number of used buckets in the hash
               3: Hash Quality Score
               4: Percent of buckets used
               5: Percent of keys which are in collision
               6: Mean bucket length of occupied buckets
               7: Standard Deviation of bucket lengths of occupied buckets
               rest : list of counts, Kth element is the number of buckets
                      with K keys in it.

           See also bucket_info() and bucket_array().

           Note that Hash Quality Score would be 1 for an ideal hash, numbers close to and below
           1 indicate good hashing, and number significantly above indicate a poor score. In
           practice it should be around 0.95 to 1.05.  It is defined as:

            $score= sum( $count[$length] * ($length * ($length + 1) / 2) )
                       /
                       ( ( $keys / 2 * $buckets ) *
                         ( $keys + ( 2 * $buckets ) - 1 ) )

           The formula is from the Red Dragon book (reformulated to use the data available) and
           is documented at <http://www.strchr.com/hash_functions>

       bucket_array
               my $array= bucket_array(\%hash);

           Returns a packed representation of the bucket array associated with a hash. Each
           element of the array is either an integer K, in which case it represents K empty
           buckets, or a reference to another array which contains the keys that are in that
           bucket.

           Note that the information returned by bucket_array is sensitive information: by
           knowing it one can directly attack perl's hash function which in turn may allow one to
           craft a denial-of-service attack against Perl code, even remotely, see "Algorithmic
           Complexity Attacks" in perlsec for more information.  Do not disclose the output of
           this function to people who don't need to know it. See also "PERL_HASH_SEED_DEBUG" in
           perlrun. This function is provided strictly for  debugging and diagnostics purposes
           only, it is hard to imagine a reason why it would be used in production code.

       bucket_stats_formatted
             print bucket_stats_formatted($hashref);

           Return a formatted report of the information returned by bucket_stats().  An example
           report looks like this:

            Keys: 50 Buckets: 33/64 Quality-Score: 1.01 (Good)
            Utilized Buckets: 51.56% Optimal: 78.12% Keys In Collision: 34.00%
            Chain Length - mean: 1.52 stddev: 0.66
            Buckets 64          [0000000000000000000000000000000111111111111111111122222222222333]
            Len   0 Pct:  48.44 [###############################]
            Len   1 Pct:  29.69 [###################]
            Len   2 Pct:  17.19 [###########]
            Len   3 Pct:   4.69 [###]
            Keys    50          [11111111111111111111111111111111122222222222222333]
            Pos   1 Pct:  66.00 [#################################]
            Pos   2 Pct:  28.00 [##############]
            Pos   3 Pct:   6.00 [###]

           The first set of stats gives some summary statistical information, including the
           quality score translated into "Good", "Poor" and "Bad", (score<=1.05, score<=1.2,
           score>1.2). See the documentation in bucket_stats() for more details.

           The two sets of barcharts give stats and a visual indication of performance of the
           hash.

           The first gives data on bucket chain lengths and provides insight on how much work a
           fetch *miss* will take. In this case we have to inspect every item in a bucket before
           we can be sure the item is not in the list. The performance for an insert is
           equivalent to this case, as is a delete where the item is not in the hash.

           The second gives data on how many keys are at each depth in the chain, and gives an
           idea of how much work a fetch *hit* will take. The performance for an update or delete
           of an item in the hash is equivalent to this case.

           Note that these statistics are summary only. Actual performance will depend on real
           hit/miss ratios accessing the hash. If you are concerned by hit ratios you are
           recommended to "oversize" your hash by using something like:

              keys(%hash)= keys(%hash) << $k;

           With $k chosen carefully, and likely to be a small number like 1 or 2. In theory the
           larger the bucket array the less chance of collision.

       hv_store
             my $sv = 0;
             hv_store(%hash,$key,$sv) or die "Failed to alias!";
             $hash{$key} = 1;
             print $sv; # prints 1

           Stores an alias to a variable in a hash instead of copying the value.

       hash_traversal_mask
           As of Perl 5.18 every hash has its own hash traversal order, and this order changes
           every time a new element is inserted into the hash. This functionality is provided by
           maintaining an unsigned integer mask (U32) which is xor'ed with the actual bucket id
           during a traversal of the hash buckets using keys(), values() or each().

           You can use this subroutine to get and set the traversal mask for a specific hash.
           Setting the mask ensures that a given hash will produce the same key order. Note that
           this does not guarantee that two hashes will produce the same key order for the same
           hash seed and traversal mask, items that collide into one bucket may have different
           orders regardless of this setting.

       bucket_ratio
           This function behaves the same way that scalar(%hash) behaved prior to Perl 5.25.
           Specifically if the hash is tied, then it calls the SCALAR tied hash method, if untied
           then if the hash is empty it return 0, otherwise it returns a string containing the
           number of used buckets in the hash, followed by a slash, followed by the total number
           of buckets in the hash.

               my %hash=("foo"=>1);
               print Hash::Util::bucket_ratio(%hash); # prints "1/8"

       used_buckets
           This function returns the count of used buckets in the hash. It is expensive to
           calculate and the value is NOT cached, so avoid use of this function in production
           code.

       num_buckets
           This function returns the total number of buckets the hash holds, or would hold if the
           array were created. (When a hash is freshly created the array may not be allocated
           even though this value will be non-zero.)

   Operating on references to hashes.
       Most subroutines documented in this module have equivalent versions that operate on
       references to hashes instead of native hashes.  The following is a list of these subs.
       They are identical except in name and in that instead of taking a %hash they take a
       $hashref, and additionally are not prototyped.

       lock_ref_keys
       unlock_ref_keys
       lock_ref_keys_plus
       lock_ref_value
       unlock_ref_value
       lock_hashref
       unlock_hashref
       lock_hashref_recurse
       unlock_hashref_recurse
       hash_ref_unlocked
       legal_ref_keys
       hidden_ref_keys

CAVEATS

       Note that the trapping of the restricted operations is not atomic: for example

           eval { %hash = (illegal_key => 1) }

       leaves the %hash empty rather than with its original contents.

BUGS

       The interface exposed by this module is very close to the current implementation of
       restricted hashes. Over time it is expected that this behavior will be extended and the
       interface abstracted further.

AUTHOR

       Michael G Schwern <schwern@pobox.com> on top of code by Nick Ing-Simmons and Jeffrey
       Friedl.

       hv_store() is from Array::RefElem, Copyright 2000 Gisle Aas.

       Additional code by Yves Orton.

SEE ALSO

       Scalar::Util, List::Util and "Algorithmic Complexity Attacks" in perlsec.

       Hash::Util::FieldHash.