Provided by: latexml_0.8.3-3_all bug


       "LaTeXML::Package" - Support for package implementations and document customization.


       This package defines and exports most of the procedures users will need to customize or
       extend LaTeXML. The LaTeXML implementation of some package might look something like the
       following, but see the installed "LaTeXML/Package" directory for realistic examples.

         package LaTeXML::Package::pool;  # to put new subs & variables in common pool
         use LaTeXML::Package;            # to load these definitions
         use strict;                      # good style
         use warnings;
         # Load "anotherpackage"
         # A simple macro, just like in TeX
         DefMacro('\thesection', '\thechapter.\roman{section}');
         # A constructor defines how a control sequence generates XML:
         DefConstructor('\thanks{}', "<ltx:thanks>#1</ltx:thanks>");
         # And a simple environment ...
         # A math  symbol \Real to stand for the Reals:
         DefMath('\Real', "\x{211D}", role=>'ID');
         # Or a semantic floor:
         # More esoteric ...
         # Use a RelaxNG schema
         # Or use a special DocType if you have to:
         # DocType("rootelement",
         #         "-//Your Site//Your DocType",'your.dtd',
         #          prefix=>"http://whatever/");
         # Allow sometag elements to be automatically closed if needed
         Tag('prefix:sometag', autoClose=>1);
         # Don't forget this, so perl knows the package loaded.


       This module provides a large set of utilities and declarations that are useful for writing
       `bindings': LaTeXML-specific implementations of a set of control sequences such as would
       be defined in a LaTeX style or class file. They are also useful for controlling and
       customization of LaTeXML's processing.  See the "See also" section, below, for additional
       lower-level modules imported & re-exported.

       To a limited extent (and currently only when explicitly enabled), LaTeXML can process the
       raw TeX code found in style files.  However, to preserve document structure and semantics,
       as well as for efficiency, it is usually necessary to supply a LaTeXML-specific `binding'
       for style and class files. For example, a binding "mypackage.sty.ltxml" would encode
       LaTeXML-specific implementations of all the control sequences in "mypackage.sty" so that
       "\usepackage{mypackage}" would work.  Similarly for "myclass.cls.ltxml".  Additionally,
       document-specific bindings can be supplied: before processing a TeX source file, eg
       "mydoc.tex", LaTeXML will automatically include the definitions and settings in
       "mydoc.latexml".  These ".ltxml" and ".latexml" files should be placed LaTeXML's
       searchpaths, where will find them: either in the current directory or in a directory given
       to the --path option, or possibly added to the variable SEARCHPATHS).

       Since LaTeXML mimics TeX, a familiarity with TeX's processing model is critical.  LaTeXML
       models: catcodes and tokens (See LaTeXML::Core::Token,  LaTeXML::Core::Tokens) which are
       extracted from the plain source text characters by the LaTeXML::Core::Mouth; "Macros",
       which are expanded within the LaTeXML::Core::Gullet; and "Primitives", which are digested
       within the LaTeXML::Core::Stomach to produce LaTeXML::Core::Box, LaTeXML::Core::List.  A
       key additional feature is the "Constructors": when digested they generate a
       LaTeXML::Core::Whatsit which, upon absorbtion by LaTeXML::Core::Document, inserts text or
       XML fragments in the final document tree.

       Notation: Many of the following forms take code references as arguments or options.  That
       is, either a reference to a defined sub, eg. "\&somesub", or an anonymous function "sub {
       ... }".  To document these cases, and the arguments that are passed in each case, we'll
       use a notation like "code($stomach,...)".

   Control Sequences
       Many of the following forms define the behaviour of control sequences.  While in TeX
       you'll typically only define macros, LaTeXML is effectively redefining TeX itself, so we
       define "Macros" as well as "Primitives", "Registers", "Constructors" and "Environments".
       These define the behaviour of these control sequences when processed during the various
       phases of LaTeX's imitation of TeX's digestive tract.


       LaTeXML uses a more convienient method of specifying parameter patterns for control
       sequences. The first argument to each of these defining forms ("DefMacro", "DefPrimive",
       etc) is a prototype consisting of the control sequence being defined along with the
       specification of parameters required by the control sequence.  Each parameter describes
       how to parse tokens following the control sequence into arguments or how to delimit them.
       To simplify coding and capture common idioms in TeX/LaTeX programming, latexml's parameter
       specifications are more expressive than TeX's  "\def" or LaTeX's "\newcommand".  Examples
       of the prototypes for familiar TeX or LaTeX control sequences are:

          DefPrimitive('\multiply Variable SkipKeyword:by Number',..
          DefPrimitive('\newcommand OptionalMatch:* DefToken[]{}', ...

       The general syntax for parameter specification is

           reads a regular TeX argument.  spec can be omitted (ie. "{}").  Otherwise spec is
           itself a parameter specification and the argument is reparsed to accordingly.  ("{}"
           is a shorthand for "Plain".)

           reads an LaTeX-style optional argument.  spec can be omitted (ie. "{}").  Otherwise,
           if spec is of the form Default:stuff, then stuff would be the default value.
           Otherwise spec is itself a parameter specification and the argument, if supplied, is
           reparsed according to that specification.  ("[]" is a shorthand for "Optional".)

           Reads an argument of the given type, where either Type has been declared, or there
           exists a ReadType function accessible from LaTeXML::Package::Pool.  See the available
           types, below.

       "Type:value | Type:value1:value2..."
           These forms invoke the parser for Type but pass additional Tokens to the reader
           function.  Typically this would supply defaults or parameters to a match.

           Similar to Type, but it is not considered an error if the reader returns undef.

           Similar to "Optional"Type, but the value returned from the reader is ignored, and does
           not occupy a position in the arguments list.

       The predefined argument Types are as follows.

       "Plain, Semiverbatim"

           Reads a standard TeX argument being either the next token, or if the next token is an
           {, the balanced token list.  In the case of "Semiverbatim", many catcodes are
           disabled, which is handy for URL's, labels and similar.

       "Token, XToken"

           Read a single TeX Token.  For "XToken", if the next token is expandable, it is
           repeatedly expanded until an unexpandable token remains, which is returned.

       "Number, Dimension, Glue | MuGlue"

           Read an Object corresponding to Number, Dimension, Glue or MuGlue, using TeX's rules
           for parsing these objects.

       "Until:match | XUntil:"match>

           Reads tokens until a match to the tokens match is found, returning the tokens
           preceding the match. This corresponds to TeX delimited arguments.  For "XUntil",
           tokens are expanded as they are matched and accumulated.


           Reads tokens until the next open brace "{".  This corresponds to the peculiar TeX
           construct "\def\foo#{...".

       "Match:match(|match)* | Keyword:"match(|match)*>

           Reads tokens expecting a match to one of the token lists match, returning the one that
           matches, or undef.  For "Keyword", case and catcode of the matches are ignored.
           Additionally, any leading spaces are skipped.


           Read tokens until a closing }, but respecting nested {} pairs.


           Read a parenthesis delimited tokens, but does not balance any nested parentheses.

       "Undigested, Digested, DigestUntil:match"

           These types alter the usual sequence of tokenization and digestion in separate stages
           (like TeX).  A "Undigested" parameter inhibits digestion completely and remains in
           token form.  A "Digested" parameter gets digested until the (required) opening { is
           balanced; this is useful when the content would usually need to have been protected in
           order to correctly deal with catcodes.  "DigestUntil" digests tokens until a token
           matching match is found.


           Reads a token, expanding if necessary, and expects a control sequence naming a
           writable register.  If such is found, it returns an array of the corresponding
           definition object, and any arguments required by that definition.

       "SkipSpaces, Skip1Space"

           Skips one, or any number of, space tokens, if present, but contributes nothing to the
           argument list.

       Common Options

       "scope=>'local' | 'global' | scope"
           Most defining commands accept an option to control how the definition is stored, for
           global or local definitions, or using a named scope A named scope saves a set of
           definitions and values that can be activated at a later time.

           Particularly interesting forms of scope are those that get automatically activated
           upon changes of counter and label.  For example, definitions that have
           "scope=>'section:1.1'"  will be activated when the section number is "1.1", and will
           be deactivated when that section ends.

           This option controls whether this definition is locked from further changes in the TeX
           sources; this keeps local 'customizations' by an author from overriding important
           LaTeXML definitions and breaking the conversion.


       "DefMacro(prototype, expansion, %options);"

           Defines the macro expansion for prototype; a macro control sequence that is expanded
           during macro expansion time in the  LaTeXML::Core::Gullet.  The expansion should be
           one of tokens | string | code($gullet,@args)>: a string will be tokenized upon first
           usage.  Any macro arguments will be substituted for parameter indicators (eg #1) in
           the tokens or tokenized string and the result is used as the expansion of the control
           sequence. If code is used, it is called at expansion time and should return a list of
           tokens as its result.

           DefMacro options are

               See "Common Options".

               specifies a definition that will only be expanded in math mode; the control
               sequence must be a single character.


             DefMacro('\today',sub { ExplodeText(today()); });

       "DefMacroI(cs, paramlist, expansion, %options);"

           Internal form of "DefMacro" where the control sequence and parameter list have already
           been separated; useful for definitions from within code.  Also, slightly more
           efficient for macros with no arguments (use "undef" for paramlist), and useful for
           obscure cases like defining "\begin{something*}" as a Macro.


       "DefConditional(prototype, test, %options);"

           Defines a conditional for prototype; a control sequence that is processed during macro
           expansion time (in the  LaTeXML::Core::Gullet).  A conditional corresponds to a TeX
           "\if".  If the test is "undef", a "\newif" type of conditional is defined, which is
           controlled with control sequences like "\footrue" and "\foofalse".  Otherwise the test
           should be "code($gullet,@args)" (with the control sequence's arguments) that is called
           at expand time to determine the condition.  Depending on whether the result of that
           evaluation returns a true or false value (in the usual Perl sense), the result of the
           expansion is either the first or else code following, in the usual TeX sense.

           DefConditional options are

               See "Common Options".

               This option is only used to define "\ifcase".


             DefConditional('\ifmmode',sub {
                LookupValue('IN_MATH'); });

       "DefConditionalI(cs, paramlist, test, %options);"

           Internal form of "DefConditional" where the control sequence and parameter list have
           already been parsed; useful for definitions from within code.  Also, slightly more
           efficient for conditinal with no arguments (use "undef" for "paramlist").


           "IfCondition" allows you to test a conditional from within perl. Thus something like
           "if(IfCondition('\ifmmode')){ domath } else { dotext }" might be equivalent to TeX's
           "\ifmmode domath \else dotext \fi".


       "DefPrimitive(prototype, replacement, %options);"

           Defines a primitive control sequence; a primitive is processed during digestion (in
           the  LaTeXML::Core::Stomach), after macro expansion but before Construction time.
           Primitive control sequences generate Boxes or Lists, generally containing basic
           Unicode content, rather than structured XML.  Primitive control sequences are also
           executed for side effect during digestion, effecting changes to the

           The replacement can be a string used as the text content of a Box to be created (using
           the current font).  Alternatively replacement can be "code($stomach,@args)" (with the
           control sequence's arguments) which is invoked at digestion time, probably for side-
           effect, but returning Boxes or Lists or nothing.  replacement may also be undef, which
           contributes nothing to the document, but does record the TeX code that created it.

           DefPrimitive options are

               See "Common Options".

           "mode=> ('text' | 'display_math' | 'inline_math')"
               Changes to this mode during digestion.

               Specifies the font to use (see "Fonts").  If the font change is to only apply to
               material generated within this command, you would also use "<bounded="1>>;
               otherwise, the font will remain in effect afterwards as for a font switching

               If true, TeX grouping (ie. "{}") is enforced around this invocation.

               specifies whether the given constructor can only appear, or cannot appear, in math

               supplies a hook to execute during digestion just before the main part of the
               primitive is executed (and before any arguments have been read).  The code should
               either return nothing (return;) or a list of digested items (Box's,List,Whatsit).
               It can thus change the State and/or add to the digested output.

               supplies a hook to execute during digestion just after the main part of the
               primitive ie executed.  it should either return nothing (return;) or digested
               items.  It can thus change the State and/or add to the digested output.

               indicates whether this is a prefix type of command; This is only used for the
               special TeX assignment prefixes, like "\global".


              DefPrimitive('\begingroup',sub { $_[0]->begingroup; });

       "DefPrimitiveI(cs, paramlist, code($stomach,@args), %options);"

           Internal form of "DefPrimitive" where the control sequence and parameter list have
           already been separated; useful for definitions from within code.


       "DefRegister(prototype, value, %options);"

           Defines a register with value as the initial value (a Number, Dimension, Glue, MuGlue
           or Tokens --- I haven't handled Box's yet).  Usually, the prototype is just the
           control sequence, but registers are also handled by prototypes like "\count{Number}".
           "DefRegister" arranges that the register value can be accessed when a numeric,
           dimension, ... value is being read, and also defines the control sequence for

           Options are

               specifies if it is not allowed to change this value.

               By default value is stored in the State's Value table under a name concatenating
               the control sequence and argument values.  These options allow other means of
               fetching and storing the value.



       "DefRegisterI(cs, paramlist, value, %options);"

           Internal form of "DefRegister" where the control sequence and parameter list have
           already been parsed; useful for definitions from within code.


       "DefConstructor(prototype, $replacement, %options);"

           The Constructor is where LaTeXML really starts getting interesting; invoking the
           control sequence will generate an arbitrary XML fragment in the document tree.  More
           specifically: during digestion, the arguments will be read and digested, creating a
           LaTeXML::Core::Whatsit to represent the object. During absorbtion by the
           LaTeXML::Core::Document, the "Whatsit" will generate the XML fragment according to
           replacement. The replacement can be "code($document,@args,%properties)" which is
           called during document absorbtion to create the appropriate XML (See the methods of

           More conveniently, replacement can be an pattern: simply a bit of XML as a string with
           certain substitutions to be made. The substitutions are of the following forms:

           "#1, #2 ... #name"
               These are replaced by the corresponding argument (for #1) or property (for #name)
               stored with the Whatsit. Each are turned into a string when it appears as in an
               attribute position, or recursively processed when it appears as content.

               Another form of substituted value is prefixed with "&" which invokes a function.
               For example, " &func(#1) " would invoke the function "func" on the first argument
               to the control sequence; what it returns will be inserted into the document.

           "?test(pattern)"  or "?test(ifpattern)(elsepattern)"
               Patterns can be conditionallized using this form.  The test is any of the above
               expressions (eg. "#1"), considered true if the result is non-empty.  Thus
               "?#1(<foo/>)" would add the empty element "foo" if the first argument were given.

           "^" If the constuctor begins with "^", the XML fragment is allowed to float up to a
               parent node that is allowed to contain it, according to the Document Type.

           The Whatsit property "font" is defined by default.  Additional properties "body" and
           "trailer" are defined when "captureBody" is true, or for environments.  By using
           "$whatsit->setProperty(key=>$value);" within "afterDigest", or by using the
           "properties" option, other properties can be added.

           DefConstructor options are

               See "Common Options".

               These options are the same as for "Primitives"

           "reversion=>texstring | code($whatsit,#1,#2,...)"
               specifies the reversion of the invocation back into TeX tokens (if the default
               reversion is not appropriate).  The textstring string can include "#1", "#2"...
               The code is called with the $whatsit and digested arguments and must return a list
               of Token's.

               provides a control sequence to be used in the "reversion" instead of the one
               defined in the "prototype".  This is a convenient alternative for reversion when a
               'public' command conditionally expands into an internal one, but the reversion
               should be for the public command.

           "sizer=>string | code($whatsit)"
               specifies how to compute (approximate) the displayed size of the object, if that
               size is ever needed (typically needed for graphics generation).  If a string is
               given, it should contain only a sequence of "#1" or "#name" to access arguments
               and properties of the Whatsit: the size is computed from these items layed out
               side-by-side.  If code is given, it should return the three Dimensions (width,
               height and depth).  If neither is given, and the "reversion" specification is of
               suitible format, it will be used for the sizer.

           "properties=>{%properties} | code($stomach,#1,#2...)"
               supplies additional properties to be set on the generated Whatsit.  In the first
               form, the values can be of any type, but if a value is a code references, it takes
               the same args ($stomach,#1,#2,...) and should return the value; it is executed
               before creating the Whatsit.  In the second form, the code should return a hash of

               supplies a hook to execute during digestion just before the Whatsit is created.
               The code should either return nothing (return;) or a list of digested items
               (Box's,List,Whatsit).  It can thus change the State and/or add to the digested

               supplies a hook to execute during digestion just after the Whatsit is created (and
               so the Whatsit already has its arguments and properties). It should either return
               nothing (return;) or digested items.  It can thus change the State, modify the
               Whatsit, and/or add to the digested output.

               supplies a hook to execute before constructing the XML (generated by replacement).

               Supplies code to execute after constructing the XML.

           "captureBody=>boolean | Token"
               if true, arbitrary following material will be accumulated into a `body' until the
               current grouping level is reverted, or till the "Token" is encountered if the
               option is a "Token".  This body is available as the "body" property of the
               Whatsit.  This is used by environments and math.

               This gives a number of args for cases where it can't be infered directly from the
               prototype (eg. when more args are explicitly read by hooks).

       "DefConstructorI(cs, paramlist, replacement, %options);"

           Internal form of "DefConstructor" where the control sequence and parameter list have
           already been separated; useful for definitions from within code.

       "DefMath(prototype, tex, %options);"

           A common shorthand constructor; it defines a control sequence that creates a
           mathematical object, such as a symbol, function or operator application.  The options
           given can effectively create semantic macros that contribute to the eventual parsing
           of mathematical content.  In particular, it generates an XMDual using the replacement
           tex for the presentation.  The content information is drawn from the name and options

           "DefMath" accepts the options:

               See "Common Options".

               These options are the same as for "Constructors"

               gives a name attribute for the object

               gives the OpenMath content dictionary that name is from.

               adds a grammatical role attribute to the object; this specifies the grammatical
               role that the object plays in surrounding expressions.  This direly needs

           "mathstyle=>('display' | 'text' | 'script' | 'scriptscript')"
               Controls whether the this object will be presented in a specific mathstyle, or
               according to the current setting of "mathstyle".

           "scriptpos=>('mid' | 'post')"
               Controls the positioning of any sub and super-scripts relative to this object;
               whether they be stacked over or under it, or whether they will appear in the usual
               position.  TeX.pool defines a function "doScriptpos()" which is useful for
               operators like "\sum" in that it sets to "mid" position when in displaystyle,
               otherwise "post".

               Whether or not the object is stretchy when displayed.

               These three are similar to "role", "scriptpos" and "stretchy", but are used in
               unusual cases.  These apply to the given attributes to the operator token in the
               content branch.

               Normally, these commands are digested with an implicit grouping around them,
               localizing changes to fonts, etc; "noggroup=>1" inhibits this.


                role=>'ID', meaning=>'infinity');

       "DefMathI(cs, paramlist, tex, %options);"

           Internal form of "DefMath" where the control sequence and parameter list have already
           been separated; useful for definitions from within code.


       "DefEnvironment(prototype, replacement, %options);"

           Defines an Environment that generates a specific XML fragment.  "replacement" is of
           the same form as for DefConstructor, but will generally include reference to the
           "#body" property. Upon encountering a "\begin{env}":  the mode is switched, if needed,
           else a new group is opened; then the environment name is noted; the beforeDigest hook
           is run.  Then the Whatsit representing the begin command (but ultimately the whole
           environment) is created and the afterDigestBegin hook is run.  Next, the body will be
           digested and collected until the balancing "\end{env}".   Then, any afterDigest hook
           is run, the environment is ended, finally the mode is ended or the group is closed.
           The body and "\end{env}" whatsit are added to the "\begin{env}"'s whatsit as body and
           trailer, respectively.

           "DefEnvironment" takes the following options:

               See "Common Options".

               These options are the same as for "Primitives"

               These options are the same as for "DefConstructor"

               This hook is similar to that for "DefConstructor", but it applies to the
               "\begin{environment}" control sequence.

               This hook is similar to "DefConstructor"'s "afterDigest" but it applies to the
               "\begin{environment}" control sequence.  The Whatsit is the one for the beginning
               control sequence, but represents the environment as a whole.  Note that although
               the arguments and properties are present in the Whatsit, the body of the
               environment is not yet available!

               This hook is similar to "DefConstructor"'s "beforeDigest" but it applies to the
               "\end{environment}" control sequence.

               This hook is simlar to "DefConstructor"'s "afterDigest" but it applies to the
               "\end{environment}" control sequence.  Note, however that the Whatsit is only for
               the ending control sequence, not the Whatsit for the environment as a whole.

               This option supplies a hook to be executed during digestion after the ending
               control sequence has been digested (and all the 4 other digestion hook have
               executed) and after the body of the environment has been obtained.  The Whatsit is
               the (useful) one representing the whole environment, and it now does have the body
               and trailer available, stored as a properties.


                "<ltx:emph>#1</ltx:emph", mode=>'text');

       "DefEnvironmentI(name, paramlist, replacement, %options);"

           Internal form of "DefEnvironment" where the control sequence and parameter list have
           already been separated; useful for definitions from within code.

   Inputing Content and Definitions
       "FindFile(name, %options);"

           Find an appropriate file with the given name in the current directories in
           "SEARCHPATHS".  If a file ending with ".ltxml" is found, it will be preferred.

           Note that if the "name" starts with a recognized protocol (currently one of
           "(literal|http|https|ftp)") followed by a colon, the name is returned, as is, and no
           search for files is carried out.

           The options are:

               specifies the file type.  If not set, it will search for both "name.tex" and name.

               inhibits searching for a LaTeXML binding ("name.type.ltxml") to use instead of the
               file itself.

               inhibits searching for raw tex version of the file.  That is, it will only search
               for the LaTeXML binding.

       "InputContent(request, %options);"

           "InputContent" is used for cases when the file (or data) is plain TeX material that is
           expected to contribute content to the document (as opposed to pure definitions).  A
           Mouth is opened onto the file, and subsequent reading and/or digestion will pull
           Tokens from that Mouth until it is exhausted, or closed.

           In some circumstances it may be useful to provide a string containing the TeX material
           explicitly, rather than referencing a file.  In this case, the "literal" pseudo-
           protocal may be used:


           If a file named "$request.latexml" exists, it will be read in as if it were a latexml
           binding file, before processing.  This can be used for adhoc customization of the
           conversion of specific files, without modifying the source, or creating more elaborate

           The only option to "InputContent" is:

               Inhibits signalling an error if no appropriate file is found.


           "Input" is analogous to LaTeX's "\input", and is used in cases where it isn't
           completely clear whether content or definitions is expected.  Once a file is found,
           the approach specified by "InputContent" or "InputDefinitions" is used, depending on
           which type of file is found.

       "InputDefinitions(request, %options);"

           "InputDefinitions" is used for loading definitions, ie. various macros, settings, etc,
           rather than document content; it can be used to load LaTeXML's binding files, or for
           reading in raw TeX definitions or style files.  It reads and processes the material
           completely before returning, even in the case of TeX definitions.  This procedure
           optionally supports the conventions used for standard LaTeX packages and classes (see
           "RequirePackage" and "LoadClass").

           Options for "InputDefinitions" are:

               the file type to search for.

               inhibits searching for a LaTeXML binding; only raw TeX files will be sought and

               inhibits searching for raw TeX files, only a LaTeXML binding will be sought and

               inhibits reporting an error if no appropriate file is found.

           The following options are primarily useful when "InputDefinitions" is supporting
           standard LaTeX package and class loading.

               indicates whether to pass in any options from the calling class or package.

               indicates whether options processing should be handled.

               specifies a list of options (in the 'package options' sense) to be passed
               (possibly in addition to any provided by the calling class or package).

           "after=>tokens | code($gullet)"
               provides tokens or code to be processed by a "name.type-h@@k" macro.

               fishy option that indicates that this definitions file should be treated as if it
               were defining a class; typically shows up in latex compatibility mode, or AMSTeX.

           A handy method to use most of the TeX distribution's raw TeX definitions for a
           package, but override only a few with LaTeXML bindings is by defining a binding file,
           say "tikz.sty.ltxml", to contain

             InputDefinitions('tikz', type => 'sty', noltxml => 1);

           which would find and read in "tizk.sty", and then follow it by a couple of strategic
           LaTeXML definitions, "DefMacro", etc.

   Class and Packages
       "RequirePackage(package, %options);"

           Finds and loads a package implementation (usually "package.sty.ltxml", unless
           "noltxml" is specified)for the requested package.  It returns the pathname of the
           loaded package.  The options are:

               specifies the file type (default "sty".

               specifies a list of package options.

               inhibits searching for the LaTeXML binding for the file (ie. "name.type.ltxml"

               inhibits searching for raw tex version of the file.  That is, it will only search
               for the LaTeXML binding.

       "LoadClass(class, %options);"

           Finds and loads a class definition (usually "class.cls.ltxml").  It returns the
           pathname of the loaded class.  The only option is

               specifies a list of class options.

       "LoadPool(pool, %options);"

           Loads a pool file (usually "pool.pool.ltxml"), one of the top-level definition files,
           such as TeX, LaTeX or AMSTeX.  It returns the pathname of the loaded file.

       "DeclareOption(option, tokens | string | code($stomach));"

           Declares an option for the current package or class.  The 2nd argument can be a string
           (which will be tokenized and expanded) or tokens (which will be macro expanded), to
           provide the value for the option, or it can be a code reference which is treated as a
           primitive for side-effect.

           If a package or class wants to accomodate options, it should start with one or more
           "DeclareOptions", followed by "ProcessOptions()".

       "PassOptions(name, ext, @options); "

           Causes the given @options (strings) to be passed to the package (if ext is "sty") or
           class (if ext is "cls") named by name.


           Processes the options that have been passed to the current package or class in a
           fashion similar to LaTeX.  The only option (to "ProcessOptions" is "inorder=>boolean"
           indicating whehter the (package) options are processed in the order they were used,
           like "ProcessOptions*".


           Process the options given explicitly in @options.

       "AtBeginDocument(@stuff); "

           Arranges for @stuff to be carried out after the preamble, at the beginning of the
           document.  @stuff should typically be macro-level stuff, but carried out for side
           effect; it should be tokens, tokens lists, strings (which will be tokenized), or
           "code($gullet)" which would yeild tokens to be expanded.

           This operation is useful for style files loaded with "--preload" or document specific
           customization files (ie. ending with ".latexml"); normally the contents would be
           executed before LaTeX and other style files are loaded and thus can be overridden by
           them.  By deferring the evaluation to begin-document time, these contents can override
           those style files.  This is likely to only be meaningful for LaTeX documents.

           Arranges for @stuff to be carried out just before "\\end{document}".  These tokens can
           be used for side effect, or any content they generate will appear as the last children
           of the document.

   Counters and IDs
       "NewCounter(ctr, within, %options);"

           Defines a new counter, like LaTeX's \newcounter, but extended.  It defines a counter
           that can be used to generate reference numbers, and defines "\thectr", etc. It also
           defines an "uncounter" which can be used to generate ID's (xml:id) for unnumbered
           objects.  ctr is the name of the counter.  If defined, within is the name of another
           counter which, when incremented, will cause this counter to be reset.  The options are

               Specifies a prefix to be used to generate ID's when using this counter

               Not sure that this is even sane.

       "$num = CounterValue($ctr);"

           Fetches the value associated with the counter $ctr.

       "$tokens = StepCounter($ctr);"

           Analog of "\stepcounter", steps the counter and returns the expansion of "\the$ctr".
           Usually you should use "RefStepCounter($ctr)" instead.

       "$keys = RefStepCounter($ctr);"

           Analog of "\refstepcounter", steps the counter and returns a hash containing the keys
           "refnum="$refnum, id=>$id>.  This makes it suitable for use in a "properties" option
           to constructors.  The "id" is generated in parallel with the reference number to
           assist debugging.

       "$keys = RefStepID($ctr);"

           Like to "RefStepCounter", but only steps the "uncounter", and returns only the id;
           This is useful for unnumbered cases of objects that normally get both a refnum and id.


           Resets the counter $ctr to zero.


           Generates an ID for nodes during the construction phase, useful for cases where the
           counter based scheme is inappropriate.  The calling pattern makes it appropriate for
           use in Tag, as in

              Tag('ltx:para',afterClose=>sub { GenerateID(@_,'p'); })

           If $node doesn't already have an xml:id set, it computes an appropriate id by
           concatenating the xml:id of the closest ancestor with an id (if any), the prefix (if
           any) and a unique counter.

   Document Model
       Constructors define how TeX markup will generate XML fragments, but the Document Model is
       used to control exactly how those fragments are assembled.

       "Tag(tag, %properties);"

           Declares properties of elements with the name tag.  Note that "Tag" can set or add
           properties to any element from any binding file, unlike the properties set on control
           by  "DefPrimtive", "DefConstructor", etc..  And, since the properties are recorded in
           the current Model, they are not subject to TeX grouping; once set, they remain in
           effect until changed or the end of the document.

           The tag can be specified in one of three forms:

              prefix:name matches specific name in specific namespace
              prefix:*    matches any tag in the specific namespace;
              *           matches any tag in any namespace.

           There are two kinds of properties:

           Scalar properties
               For scalar properties, only a single value is returned for a given element.  When
               the property is looked up, each of the above forms is considered (the specific
               element name, the namespace, and all elements); the first defined value is

               The recognized scalar properties are:

                   Specifies whether tag can be automatically opened if needed to insert an
                   element that can only be contained by tag.  This property can help match the
                   more  SGML-like LaTeX to XML.

                   Specifies whether this tag can be automatically closed if needed to close an
                   ancestor node, or insert an element into an ancestor.  This property can help
                   match the more  SGML-like LaTeX to XML.

           Code properties
               These properties provide a bit of code to be run at the times of certain events
               associated with an element.  All the code bits that match a given element will be
               run, and since they can be added by any binding file, and be specified in a random
               orders, a little bit of extra control is desirable.

               Firstly, any early codes are run (eg "afterOpen:early"), then any normal codes
               (without modifier) are run, and finally any late codes are run (eg.

               Within each of those groups, the codes assigned for an element's specific name are
               run first, then those assigned for its package and finally the generic one ("*");
               that is, the most specific codes are run first.

               When code properties are accumulated by "Tag" for normal or late events, the code
               is appended to the end of the current list (if there were any previous codes
               added); for early event, the code is prepended.

               The recognized code properties are:

                   Provides code to be run whenever a node with this tag is opened.  It is called
                   with the document being constructed, and the initiating digested object as
                   arguments.  It is called after the node has been created, and after any
                   initial attributes due to the constructor (passed to openElement) are added.

                   "afterOpen:early" or "afterOpen:late" can be used in place of "afterOpen";
                   these will be run as a group bfore, or after (respectively) the unmodified

                   Provides code to be run whenever a node with this tag is closed.  It is called
                   with the document being constructed, and the initiating digested object as

                   "afterClose:early" or "afterClose:late" can be used in place of "afterClose";
                   these will be run as a group bfore, or after (respectively) the unmodified


           Specifies the schema to use for determining document model.  You can leave off the
           extension; it will look for "schemaname.rng" (and maybe eventually, ".rnc" if that is
           ever implemented).

       "RegisterNamespace(prefix, URL);"

           Declares the prefix to be associated with the given URL.  These prefixes may be used
           in ltxml files, particularly for constructors, xpath expressions, etc.  They are not
           necessarily the same as the prefixes that will be used in the generated document Use
           the prefix "#default" for the default, non-prefixed, namespace.  (See
           RegisterDocumentNamespace, as well as DocType or RelaxNGSchema).

       "RegisterDocumentNamespace(prefix, URL);"

           Declares the prefix to be associated with the given URL used within the generated XML.
           They are not necessarily the same as the prefixes used in code (RegisterNamespace).
           This function is less rarely needed, as the namespace declarations are generally
           obtained from the DTD or Schema themselves Use the prefix "#default" for the default,
           non-prefixed, namespace.  (See DocType or RelaxNGSchema).

       "DocType(rootelement, publicid, systemid, %namespaces);"

           Declares the expected rootelement, the public and system ID's of the document type to
           be used in the final document.  The hash %namespaces specifies the namespaces prefixes
           that are expected to be found in the DTD, along with each associated namespace URI.
           Use the prefix "#default" for the default namespace (ie. the namespace of non-prefixed
           elements in the DTD).

           The prefixes defined for the DTD may be different from the prefixes used in
           implementation CODE (eg. in ltxml files; see RegisterNamespace).  The generated
           document will use the namespaces and prefixes defined for the DTD.

   Document Rewriting
       During document construction, as each node gets closed, the text content gets simplfied.
       We'll call it applying ligatures, for lack of a better name.

       "DefLigature(regexp, %options);"

           Apply the regular expression (given as a string: "/fa/fa/" since it will be converted
           internally to a true regexp), to the text content.  The only option is
           "fontTest=>code($font)"; if given, then the substitution is applied only when
           "fontTest" returns true.

           Predefined Ligatures combine sequences of "." or single-quotes into appropriate
           Unicode characters.


           A Math Ligature typically combines a sequence of math tokens (XMTok) into a single
           one.  A simple example is

              DefMathLigature(":=" => ":=", role => 'RELOP', meaning => 'assign');

           replaces the two tokens for colon and equals by a token representing assignment.  The
           options are those characterising an XMTok, namely: "role", "meaning" and "name".

           For more complex cases (recognizing numbers, for example), you may supply a function
           "matcher="CODE($document,$node)>, which is passed the current document and the last
           math node in the sequence.  It should examine $node and any preceding nodes (using
           "previousSibling") and return a list of "($n,$string,%attributes)" to replace the $n
           nodes by a new one with text content being $string content and the given attributes.
           If no replacement is called for, CODE should return undef.

       After document construction, various rewriting and augmenting of the document can take


           These two declarations define document rewrite rules that are applied to the document
           tree after it has been constructed, but before math parsing, or any other
           postprocessing, is done.  The %specification consists of a sequence of key/value pairs
           with the initial specs successively narrowing the selection of document nodes, and the
           remaining specs indicating how to modify or replace the selected nodes.

           The following select portions of the document:

               Selects the part of the document with label=$label

               The scope could be "label:foo" or "section:1.2.3" or something similar. These
               select a subtree labelled 'foo', or a section with reference number "1.2.3"

               Select those nodes matching an explicit xpath expression.

               Selects nodes that look like what the processing of tex would produce.

               Selects text nodes that match the regular expression.

           The following act upon the selected node:

               Adds the attributes given in the hash reference to the node.

               Interprets replacement as TeX code to generate nodes that will replace the
               selected nodes.

   Mid-Level support
       "$tokens = Expand($tokens);"

           Expands the given $tokens according to current definitions.

       "$boxes = Digest($tokens);"

           Processes and digestes the $tokens.  Any arguments needed by control sequences in
           $tokens must be contained within the $tokens itself.

       "@tokens = Invocation($cs,@args);"

           Constructs a sequence of tokens that would invoke the token $cs on the arguments.

       "RawTeX('... tex code ...');"

           RawTeX is a convenience function for including chunks of raw TeX (or LaTeX) code in a
           Package implementation.  It is useful for copying portions of the normal
           implementation that can be handled simply using macros and primitives.


           Gives $token1 the same `meaning' (definition) as $token2; like TeX's \let.

       "StartSemiVerbatim(); ... ; EndSemiVerbatim();"
           Disable disable most TeX catcodes.

       "$tokens = Tokenize($string);"
           Tokenizes the $string using the standard catcodes, returning a LaTeXML::Core::Tokens.

       "$tokens = TokenizeInternal($string);"
           Tokenizes the $string according to the internal cattable (where @ is a letter),
           returning a LaTeXML::Core::Tokens.

   Argument Readers

           Reads from $gullet the tokens corresponding to $spec (a Parameters object).

       "DefParameterType(type, code($gullet,@values), %options);"

           Defines a new Parameter type, type, with code for its reader.

           Options are:

               This code is responsible for converting a previously parsed argument back into a
               sequence of Token's.

               whether it is an error if no matching input is found.

               whether the value returned should contribute to argument lists, or simply be
               passed over.

               whether the catcode table should be modified before reading tokens.

       "<DefColumnType(proto, expansion);"

           Defines a new column type for tabular and arrays.  proto is the prototype for the
           pattern, analogous to the pattern used for other definitions, except that macro being
           defined is a single character.  The expansion is a string specifying what it should
           expand into, typically more verbose column specification.

   Access to State
       "$value = LookupValue($name);"

           Lookup the current value associated with the the string $name.


           Assign $value to be associated with the the string $name, according to the given
           scoping rule.

           Values are also used to specify most configuration parameters (which can therefor also
           be scoped).  The recognized configuration parameters are:

            VERBOSITY         : the level of verbosity for debugging
                                output, with 0 being default.
            STRICT            : whether errors (eg. undefined macros)
                                are fatal.
            INCLUDE_COMMENTS  : whether to preserve comments in the
                                source, and to add occasional line
                                number comments. (Default true).
            PRESERVE_NEWLINES : whether newlines in the source should
                                be preserved (not 100% TeX-like).
                                By default this is true.
            SEARCHPATHS       : a list of directories to search for
                                sources, implementations, etc.


           This function, along with the next three are like "AssignValue", but maintain a global
           list of values.  "PushValue" pushes the provided values onto the end of a list.  The
           data stored for $name is global and must be a LIST reference; it is created if needed.


           Similar to  "PushValue", but pushes a value onto the front of the list.  The data
           stored for $name is global and must be a LIST reference; it is created if needed.


           Removes and returns the value on the end of the list named by $name.  The data stored
           for $name is global and must be a LIST reference.  Returns "undef" if there is no data
           in the list.


           Removes and returns the first value in the list named by $name.  The data stored for
           $name is global and must be a LIST reference.  Returns "undef" if there is no data in
           the list.


           This function maintains a hash association named by $name.  It returns the value
           associated with $key within that mapping.  The data stored for $name is global and
           must be a HASH reference.  Returns "undef" if there is no data associated with $key in
           the mapping, or the mapping is not (yet) defined.


           This function associates $value with $key within the mapping named by $name.  The data
           stored for $name is global and must be a HASH reference; it is created if needed.

       "$value = LookupCatcode($char);"

           Lookup the current catcode associated with the the character $char.


           Set $char to have the given $catcode, with the assignment made according to the given
           scoping rule.

           This method is also used to specify whether a given character is active in math mode,
           by using "math:$char" for the character, and using a value of 1 to specify that it is

       "$meaning = LookupMeaning($token);"

           Looks up the current meaning of the given $token which may be a Definition, another
           token, or the token itself if it has not otherwise been defined.

       "$defn = LookupDefinition($token);"

           Looks up the current definition, if any, of the $token.


           Install the Definition $defn into $STATE under its control sequence.

           Tests whether the two tokens are equal in the sense that they are either equal tokens,
           or if defined, have the same definition.

       "MergeFont(%fontspec); "

           Set the current font by merging the font style attributes with the current font.  The
           %fontspec specifies the properties of the desired font.  Likely values include (the
           values aren't required to be in this set):

            family : serif, sansserif, typewriter, caligraphic,
                     fraktur, script
            series : medium, bold
            shape  : upright, italic, slanted, smallcaps
            size   : tiny, footnote, small, normal, large,
                     Large, LARGE, huge, Huge
            color  : any named color, default is black

           Some families will only be used in math.  This function returns nothing so it can be
           easily used in beforeDigest, afterDigest.

           Declares a font map for the encoding $name. The map $map is an array of 128 or 256
           entries, each element is either a unicode string for the representation of that
           codepoint, or undef if that codepoint is not supported  by this encoding.  The only
           option currently is "family" used because some fonts (notably cmr!)  have different
           glyphs in some font families, such as "family="'typewriter'>.

           Returns the unicode string representing the given codepoint $code (an integer) in the
           given font encoding $encoding.  If $encoding is undefined, the usual case, the current
           font encoding and font family is used for the lookup.  Explicit decoding is used when
           "\\char" or similar are invoked ($implicit is false), and the codepoint must be
           represented in the fontmap, otherwise undef is returned.  Implicit decoding (ie.
           $implicit is true) occurs within the Stomach when a Token's content is being digested
           and converted to a Box; in that case only the lower 128 codepoints are converted; all
           codepoints above 128 are assumed to already be Unicode.

           The font map for $encoding is automatically loaded if it has not already been loaded.

           Returns the unicode string resulting from decoding the individual characters in
           $string according to FontDecode, above.

           Finds and loads the font map for the encoding named $encoding, if it hasn't been
           loaded before.  It looks for "encoding.fontmap.ltxml", which would typically define
           the font map using "DeclareFontMap", possibly including extra maps for families like

           Lookup the color object associated with $name.

           Associates the $name with the given $color (a color object), with the given scoping.

           Defines a color model $model that is derived from the core color model $coremodel.
           The two functions $tocore and $fromcore convert a color object in that model to the
           core model, or from the core model to the derived model.  Core models are rgb, cmy,
           cmyk, hsb and gray.

   Low-level Functions

           Cleans an $id of disallowed characters, trimming space.


           Cleans a $label of disallowed characters, trimming space.  The prefix $prefix is
           prepended (or "LABEL", if none given).


           Cleans an index key, so it can be used as an ID.

           Cleans a bibliographic citation key, so it can be used as an ID.


           Cleans a url.


           Generates a UTF character, handy for the the 8 bit characters.  For example,
           "UTF(0xA0)" generates the non-breaking space.

       "@tokens = roman($number);"

           Formats the $number in (lowercase) roman numerals, returning a list of the tokens.

       "@tokens = Roman($number);"

           Formats the $number in (uppercase) roman numerals, returning a list of the tokens.


       See also LaTeXML::Global, LaTeXML::Common::Object, LaTeXML::Common::Error,
       LaTeXML::Core::Token, LaTeXML::Core::Tokens, LaTeXML::Core::Box, LaTeXML::Core::List,
       LaTeXML::Common::Number, LaTeXML::Common::Float, LaTeXML::Common::Dimension,
       LaTeXML::Common::Glue, LaTeXML::Core::MuDimension, LaTeXML::Core::MuGlue,
       LaTeXML::Core::Pair, LaTeXML::Core::PairList, LaTeXML::Common::Color,
       LaTeXML::Core::Alignment, LaTeXML::Common::XML, LaTeXML::Util::Radix.


       Bruce Miller <>


       Public domain software, produced as part of work done by the United States Government &
       not subject to copyright in the US.