Provided by: libnet-amazon-s3-perl_0.86-1_all bug


       Net::Amazon::S3 - Use the Amazon S3 - Simple Storage Service


       version 0.86


         use Net::Amazon::S3;
         my $aws_access_key_id     = 'fill me in';
         my $aws_secret_access_key = 'fill me in too';

         my $s3 = Net::Amazon::S3->new(
             {   aws_access_key_id     => $aws_access_key_id,
                 aws_secret_access_key => $aws_secret_access_key,
                 # or use an IAM role.
                 use_iam_role          => 1

                 retry                 => 1,

         # a bucket is a globally-unique directory
         # list all buckets that i own
         my $response = $s3->buckets;
         foreach my $bucket ( @{ $response->{buckets} } ) {
             print "You have a bucket: " . $bucket->bucket . "\n";

         # create a new bucket
         my $bucketname = 'acmes_photo_backups';
         my $bucket = $s3->add_bucket( { bucket => $bucketname } )
             or die $s3->err . ": " . $s3->errstr;

         # or use an existing bucket
         $bucket = $s3->bucket($bucketname);

         # store a file in the bucket
         $bucket->add_key_filename( '1.JPG', 'DSC06256.JPG',
             { content_type => 'image/jpeg', },
         ) or die $s3->err . ": " . $s3->errstr;

         # store a value in the bucket
         $bucket->add_key( 'reminder.txt', 'this is where my photos are backed up' )
             or die $s3->err . ": " . $s3->errstr;

         # list files in the bucket
         $response = $bucket->list_all
             or die $s3->err . ": " . $s3->errstr;
         foreach my $key ( @{ $response->{keys} } ) {
             my $key_name = $key->{key};
             my $key_size = $key->{size};
             print "Bucket contains key '$key_name' of size $key_size\n";

         # fetch file from the bucket
         $response = $bucket->get_key_filename( '1.JPG', 'GET', 'backup.jpg' )
             or die $s3->err . ": " . $s3->errstr;

         # fetch value from the bucket
         $response = $bucket->get_key('reminder.txt')
             or die $s3->err . ": " . $s3->errstr;
         print "reminder.txt:\n";
         print "  content length: " . $response->{content_length} . "\n";
         print "    content type: " . $response->{content_type} . "\n";
         print "            etag: " . $response->{content_type} . "\n";
         print "         content: " . $response->{value} . "\n";

         # delete keys
         $bucket->delete_key('reminder.txt') or die $s3->err . ": " . $s3->errstr;
         $bucket->delete_key('1.JPG')        or die $s3->err . ": " . $s3->errstr;

         # and finally delete the bucket
         $bucket->delete_bucket or die $s3->err . ": " . $s3->errstr;


       This module provides a Perlish interface to Amazon S3. From the developer blurb: "Amazon
       S3 is storage for the Internet. It is designed to make web-scale computing easier for
       developers. Amazon S3 provides a simple web services interface that can be used to store
       and retrieve any amount of data, at any time, from anywhere on the web. It gives any
       developer access to the same highly scalable, reliable, fast, inexpensive data storage
       infrastructure that Amazon uses to run its own global network of web sites. The service
       aims to maximize benefits of scale and to pass those benefits on to developers".

       To find out more about S3, please visit:

       To use this module you will need to sign up to Amazon Web Services and provide an "Access
       Key ID" and " Secret Access Key". If you use this module, you will incurr costs as
       specified by Amazon. Please check the costs. If you use this module with your Access Key
       ID and Secret Access Key you must be responsible for these costs.

       I highly recommend reading all about S3, but in a nutshell data is stored in values.
       Values are referenced by keys, and keys are stored in buckets. Bucket names are global.

       Note: This is the legacy interface, please check out Net::Amazon::S3::Client instead.

       Development of this code happens here:


       Create a new S3 client object. Takes some arguments:

           Use your Access Key ID as the value of the AWSAccessKeyId parameter in requests you
           send to Amazon Web Services (when required). Your Access Key ID identifies you as the
           party responsible for the request.

           Since your Access Key ID is not encrypted in requests to AWS, it could be discovered
           and used by anyone. Services that are not free require you to provide additional
           information, a request signature, to verify that a request containing your unique
           Access Key ID could only have come from you.


           If you are using temporary credentials provided by the AWS Security Token Service, set
           the token here, and it will be added to the request in order to authenticate it.

           If you'd like to use IAM provided temporary credentials, pass this option with a true

           Set this to 0 if you don't want to use SSL-encrypted connections when talking to S3.
           Defaults to 1.

           To use SSL-encrypted connections, LWP::Protocol::https is required.

           Set this to 0 to disable Keep-Alives.  Default is 10.

           How many seconds should your script wait before bailing on a request to S3? Defaults
           to 30.

           If this library should retry upon errors. This option is recommended.  This uses
           exponential backoff with retries after 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 seconds, as recommended by
           Amazon. Defaults to off.

           The S3 host endpoint to use. Defaults to ''. This allows you to
           connect to any S3-compatible host.

           Use the virtual host method ('') instead of specifying the
           bucket at the first part of the path. This is particularly useful if you want to
           access buckets not located in the US-Standard region (such as EU, Asia Pacific or
           South America).  See
           <> for the pros and

           Authorization implementation package name.

           This library provides Net::Amazon::S3::Signature::V2 and

           Default is Signature 4 if host is "", Signature 2 otherwise


       When using Net::Amazon::S3 in child processes using fork (such as in combination with the
       excellent Parallel::ForkManager) you should create the S3 object in each child, use a
       fresh LWP::UserAgent in each child, or disable the LWP::ConnCache in the parent:

           $s3->ua( LWP::UserAgent->new(
               keep_alive => 0, requests_redirectable => [qw'GET HEAD DELETE PUT POST'] );

       Returns undef on error, else hashref of results

       Takes a hashref:

           The name of the bucket you want to add

       acl_short (optional)
           See the set_acl subroutine for documentation on the acl_short options

       location_constraint (option)
           Sets the location constraint of the new bucket. If left unspecified, the default S3
           datacenter location will be used. Otherwise, you can set it to 'EU' for a European
           data center - note that costs are different.

       Returns 0 on failure, Net::Amazon::S3::Bucket object on success

   bucket BUCKET
       Takes a scalar argument, the name of the bucket you're creating

       Returns an (unverified) bucket object from an account. Does no network access.

       Takes either a Net::Amazon::S3::Bucket object or a hashref containing

           The name of the bucket to remove

       Returns false (and fails) if the bucket isn't empty.

       Returns true if the bucket is successfully deleted.

       List all keys in this bucket.

       Takes a hashref of arguments:


           The name of the bucket you want to list keys on


           Restricts the response to only contain results that begin with the specified prefix.
           If you omit this optional argument, the value of prefix for your query will be the
           empty string. In other words, the results will be not be restricted by prefix.

           If this optional, Unicode string parameter is included with your request, then keys
           that contain the same string between the prefix and the first occurrence of the
           delimiter will be rolled up into a single result element in the CommonPrefixes
           collection. These rolled-up keys are not returned elsewhere in the response.  For
           example, with prefix="USA/" and delimiter="/", the matching keys "USA/Oregon/Salem"
           and "USA/Oregon/Portland" would be summarized in the response as a single "USA/Oregon"
           element in the CommonPrefixes collection. If an otherwise matching key does not
           contain the delimiter after the prefix, it appears in the Contents collection.

           Each element in the CommonPrefixes collection counts as one against the MaxKeys limit.
           The rolled-up keys represented by each CommonPrefixes element do not.  If the
           Delimiter parameter is not present in your request, keys in the result set will not be
           rolled-up and neither the CommonPrefixes collection nor the NextMarker element will be
           present in the response.

           This optional argument limits the number of results returned in response to your
           query. Amazon S3 will return no more than this number of results, but possibly less.
           Even if max-keys is not specified, Amazon S3 will limit the number of results in the
           response.  Check the IsTruncated flag to see if your results are incomplete.  If so,
           use the Marker parameter to request the next page of results.  For the purpose of
           counting max-keys, a 'result' is either a key in the 'Contents' collection, or a
           delimited prefix in the 'CommonPrefixes' collection. So for delimiter requests, max-
           keys limits the total number of list results, not just the number of keys.

           This optional parameter enables pagination of large result sets.  "marker" specifies
           where in the result set to resume listing. It restricts the response to only contain
           results that occur alphabetically after the value of marker. To retrieve the next page
           of results, use the last key from the current page of results as the marker in your
           next request.

           See also "next_marker", below.

           If "marker" is omitted,the first page of results is returned.

       Returns undef on error and a hashref of data on success:

       The hashref looks like this:

               bucket          => $bucket_name,
               prefix          => $bucket_prefix,
               common_prefixes => [$prefix1,$prefix2,...]
               marker          => $bucket_marker,
               next_marker     => $bucket_next_available_marker,
               max_keys        => $bucket_max_keys,
               is_truncated    => $bucket_is_truncated_boolean
               keys            => [$key1,$key2,...]

       Explanation of bits of that:

           If list_bucket was requested with a delimiter, common_prefixes will contain a list of
           prefixes matching that delimiter.  Drill down into these prefixes by making another
           request with the prefix parameter.

           B flag that indicates whether or not all results of your query were returned in this
           response. If your results were truncated, you can make a follow-up paginated request
           using the Marker parameter to retrieve the rest of the results.

           A convenience element, useful when paginating with delimiters. The value of
           "next_marker", if present, is the largest (alphabetically) of all key names and all
           CommonPrefixes prefixes in the response.  If the "is_truncated" flag is set, request
           the next page of results by setting "marker" to the value of "next_marker". This
           element is only present in the response if the "delimiter" parameter was sent with the

       Each key is a hashref that looks like this:

               key           => $key,
               last_modified => $last_mod_date,
               etag          => $etag, # An MD5 sum of the stored content.
               size          => $size, # Bytes
               storage_class => $storage_class # Doc?
               owner_id      => $owner_id,
               owner_displayname => $owner_name

       List all keys in this bucket without having to worry about 'marker'. This is a convenience
       method, but may make multiple requests to S3 under the hood.

       Takes the same arguments as list_bucket.






       This module contains code modified from Amazon that contains the following notice:

         #  This software code is made available "AS IS" without warranties of any
         #  kind.  You may copy, display, modify and redistribute the software
         #  code either by itself or as incorporated into your code; provided that
         #  you do not remove any proprietary notices.  Your use of this software
         #  code is at your own risk and you waive any claim against Amazon
         #  Digital Services, Inc. or its affiliates with respect to your use of
         #  this software code. (c) 2006 Amazon Digital Services, Inc. or its
         #  affiliates.


       Testing S3 is a tricky thing. Amazon wants to charge you a bit of money each time you use
       their service. And yes, testing counts as using.  Because of this, the application's test
       suite skips anything approaching a real test unless you set these three environment

           Doesn't matter what you set it to. Just has to be set

           Your AWS access key

           Your AWS sekkr1t passkey. Be forewarned that setting this environment variable on a
           shared system might leak that information to another user. Be careful.


       Leon Brocard <> and unknown Amazon Digital Services programmers.

       Brad Fitzpatrick <> - return values, Bucket object

       Pedro Figueiredo <> - since 0.54




       Leo Lapworth <>


       This software is copyright (c) 2019 by Amazon Digital Services, Leon Brocard, Brad
       Fitzpatrick, Pedro Figueiredo, Rusty Conover.

       This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as
       the Perl 5 programming language system itself.