Provided by: libnet-proxy-perl_0.12-6_all bug

NAME

       Net::Proxy::Tutorial - Network proxies for fun and profit

SYNOPSIS

       This document describes in detail how to use "Net::Proxy" in several real-life situations.

DEFINITIONS

   What is a proxy?
       You need a proxy every time you need to cross network boundaries to reach a service that
       is not directly accessible.

       The typical example is the corporate web proxy in a company. The corporate firewall is a
       boundary, usually very tightly closed, between the corporate network and the outside world
       (wild wild Internet).

       To let the employees access all the nice web sites outside, the company sets up a web
       proxy, which is authorised to cross the boundary (firewall) on your behalf. The web
       browser asks the proxy for whatever it needs, and the proxy goes and fetches the requested
       stuff on the web.

       Since the proxy sees the client requests, it can check if they fit the corporate browsing
       policy and decide if it will fetch the document for the requestor. It can also request
       authentication, and log the username with the request.

       Transparent proxies mimic the actual service you asked for, and reply as if they were the
       actual service provider. Except that the client doesn't notice there is a proxy in
       between. Most transparent web proxies grab outgoing traffic on port 80. Some ISP do this
       to cache responses and spare their bandwidth.

   Why do I need a proxy?
       Sometimes, the traffic you want to send or receive doesn't quite fit the model that the
       network designers had in mind.

       For example, if you need to modify network traffic, almost transparently, at a high level,
       you probably need "Net::Proxy".

DESCRIPTION

       In this section, we will see actual examples of use of "Net::Proxy".

   A basic "Net::Proxy" script
       Most "Net::Proxy" based scripts look like the following:

       ·   The usual boilerplate:

               #!perl
               use strict;
               use warnings;
               use Net::Proxy;

       ·   One or more proxies are created by calling "new()" with the appropriate parameters:

               my $proxy = Net::Proxy->new( ... );

       ·   The individual proxies are registered with the "Net::Proxy" framework:

               $proxy->register();

       ·   Some framework options are defined:

               Net::Proxy->set_verbosity(1);

           Note: The "set_verbosity()" method is available only since "Net::Proxy" version 0.04.

       ·   The framework is started, sets up the listening sockets, and waits for connections to
           proxy around:

               Net::Proxy->mainloop();

   The concepts behind "Net::Proxy"
       Any time a proxy handles a network connection, it actually manages two connections: a
       connection from the client to the proxy, and a connection from the proxy to the server.
       During normal processing, each chunk of data received on one connection is copied to the
       other connection, and vice-versa.

       "Net::Proxy" introduces the concept of "connectors". Connectors are used to represent the
       ends of the two connections that the proxy handles to create a single client-server
       connection.

                             +-------+
                             | proxy |
                             |       |
           "client" --->(xx)[in]  [out]---> "server"
                             +-------+

       In the above ASCII diagram, "(xx)" represents the listening port number, and "[in]" (left)
       and "[out]" (right) the "Net::Proxy" connectors.

       The "in" connector accepts incoming connections on a listening port.  Once a connection
       with the client is established, the proxy uses the "out" connector to connect to the
       destination server.

       The simplest connector is named "Net::Proxy::Connector::tcp" (we'll use "tcp" for short).
       When placed on the "in" side, it simply "listen()"s for incoming connections and them
       "accept()"s them.  Then the "out" connector "connect()"s to the server.

       Each connector accepts different parameters, which we'll see in the following examples.

       Since the proxy must handle every item of data going through, it can look at it, and
       modify it. This is what other connectors do: they can insert or transform data on the fly,
       which provides us with an incredible amount of power on our network connections, which we
       will leverage throughout this document.

REAL-LIFE EXAMPLES

   Contacting a SSH server through the corporate web proxy
       (This example requires at least "Net::Proxy" version 0.02 to work.)

       In many companies, the corporate firewall doesn't let you connect outside with SSH. The
       only allowed access to the outside is via the web proxy.

       Luckily, web proxies are designed to let certain types of TCP connection go through them
       without modifications: encrypted SSL connections, used in HTTPS. These connections are
       handled in the following way: the client sends a "CONNECT" connect to the proxy which
       (according to a policy based on the hostname, port and the user's credentials) actually
       connects to the remote host and transfers the data between the client and server, without
       looking at the encrypted data. The proxy doesn't even check that the traffic is actual SSL
       traffic.

       So your SSH client could connect to a local proxy, which would send the "CONNECT" request
       to the web proxy, asking for a connection to your home SSH server. Thereafter, the local
       proxy would behave like a standard TCP proxy and simply pass the data around.

       Here is a network diagram showing the network configuration in ASCII-art:

                                                    '
                            (internal network)      '     (Internet)
                                                    '
                         +-------+     +-------+    '     +-------+
                         | local |     |  web  |    '     |  ssh  |
          ssh            | proxy |     | proxy |    '     | server|
         client --->(22)[tcp]    |     |       |    '     |       |
                         |[connect]-->(8080)   |----'--->(22)     |
                         +-------+     +-------+    '     +-------+
                                                    '
                                                    '

       Here's how to set up the local "Net::Proxy" instance:

           Net::Proxy->new(
               in => {
                   type => 'tcp',
                   host => 'localhost',
                   port => 22,
               },
               out => {
                   type => 'connect',
                   host => 'home.example.com',
                   port => 22,

                   # proxy details
                   proxy_host => 'proxy.mycompany.com',
                   proxy_port => 8080,

                   # proxy credentials
                   proxy_user => 'me',
                   proxy_pass => 's3kr3t',
               },
           )->register();

       Most of the time, corporate web proxies do not allow connections on other ports than 443,
       the standard HTTPS port. You just need to reconfigure your SSH server so that it also
       listens on port 443:

           # sshd configuration file
           Port 22
           Port 443

       In the exemple above, you need to change the "out"/"port" from 22 to 443.

       Many SSH clients (like PuTTY) already include configuration options to get through web
       proxies, so "Net::Proxy" probably isn't necessary any longer to handle this kind of
       traffic.

   Running two services on the same TCP port
       (This example requires at least "Net::Proxy" version 0.03 to work.)

       So you managed to get out of your corporate prison^Wnetwork by setting up your SSH server
       to listen on port 443. The problem is that you also run a HTTPS server; and if you want it
       to be accessible to anyone, it must run on port 443 (otherwise the corporate proxy won't
       let you pass through, and noone will find it anyway).

       Therefore, the only option is to run both the SSL web server and the SSH server on the
       same port. How is that even possible? TCP clearly doesn't allow this (or we wouldn't need
       those long services files in our /etc directories).

       What you need is a proxy that can guess what the client wants, but without contacting the
       server. If it manages to find out which server the client wants to connect to, it can then
       contact the expected server and do its usual proxy job.

       Luckily, there is a fundamental difference of behaviour between a http/s client and a SSH
       client:

       ·   during a HTTP(S) connection, the client "speaks" first

       ·   during a SSH connection, the server sends a banner first

                        '
         (Internet)     '        (internal network)
                        '
                        '           +-------+
                        '           |reverse|
                        '           | proxy |
          SSL client ---'--->(      |    [tcp]---> SSL server
                        '    ((443)[dual]   |
          SSH client ---'--->(      |    [tcp]---> SSH server
                        '           +-------+
                        '

       "Net::Proxy"'s "dual" connector is able to detect between two such clients with the help
       of a timeout.

           Net::Proxy->new(
               {   in => {
                       type         => 'dual',
                       host         => '0.0.0.0',
                       port         => 443,
                       client_first => {
                           type => 'tcp',
                           port => 444,     # move the https server to another port
                       },
                       server_first => {
                           type => 'tcp',
                           port => 22,      # good old SSH
                       },

                       # wait during a 2 second timeout
                       timeout => 2,
                   },
                   out => { type => 'dummy' },
               }
           )->register();

   Hiding SSH connections going through the corporate proxy from IDS
       (This example requires at least "Net::Proxy" version 0.06 to work.)

       The first technique we presented (using a CONNECT request to get out of the corporate
       network) is so well-known that many Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) check the first
       packets of a connection to try and find hidden SSH connections crossing the corporate
       boundaries outwards.

       The server banner looks like this:

           SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_3.9p1

       while the client banner may look like this:

           SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_4.2p1 Debian-5

       You want to deceive Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) by modifying the cleartext part of
       your SSH connection. Since the detection code simply looks for the ""SSH-"" string, an
       "encryption" scheme as simple as ROT-13 is enough.

                                                     '
                            (internal network)       '          (Internet)
                                                     '
                         +-------+      +-------+    '          +-------+
                         | local |      |  web  |    '          |reverse|
          ssh            | proxy |      | proxy |    '          | proxy |
         client --->(22)[tcp]    |      |       |    '          |       |
                         |[connect]===>(8080)   |===='===>(443)[tcp][tcp]--->  ssh
                         +-------+      +-------+    '          +-------+     server
                                                     '
           Traffic                \________ ________/'
           ---> ssh                        v         '
           ===> ssh + rot13         Traffic scanned  '
                                      by the IDS     '
                                                     '

       The "hook" connector option accepts a callback that will be called for each chunk of data
       received, before sending it out. The callback must have the following signature:

           # Net::Proxy versions 0.06 and 0.07
           sub {
               my ( $dataref, $connector ) = @_;
               ...
           }

           # As from Net::Proxy version 0.08
           sub {
               my ( $dataref, $socket, $connector ) = @_;
               ...
           }

       The ROT-13 routine is straightforward (and must be defined in both scripts):

           my $rot13 = sub { ${ $_[0] } =~ y/A-Za-z/N-ZA-Mn-za-m/ };

       Client-side proxy:

           Net::Proxy->new(
               {   in => {
                       type => 'tcp',
                       host => '0.0.0.0',
                       port => 22,
                       hook => $rot13
                   },
                   out => {
                       type => 'connect',
                       host => 'home.example.com',
                       port => 22,
                       hook => $rot13,

                       # proxy configuration
                       proxy_host => 'proxy.mycompany.com',
                       proxy_port => 8080,

                       # proxy credentials
                       proxy_user => 'me',
                       proxy_pass => 's3kr3t',
                   },
               }
           )->register();

       Server-side proxy:

           Net::Proxy->new(
               {   in => {
                       type => 'tcp',
                       host => '0.0.0.0',
                       port => 443,
                       hook => $rot13
                   },
                   out => {
                       type => 'tcp',
                       port => 22,
                       hook => $rot13
                   }
               }
           )->register();

   Hiding a SSH connection under SSL through a corporate proxy
       (This example requires at least "Net::Proxy" version 0.08 to work.)

       Another option to hide what you are doing in your connection through the corporate proxy,
       is to actually use SSL to connect to your SSH server (a la stunnel). This is what the
       proxy expects, after all.

                                                      '
                          (internal network)          '         (Internet)
                                                      '
                       +-----------+      +-------+   '         +-------+
                       |   local   |      |  web  |   '         |reverse|
         ssh           |   proxy   |      | proxy |   '         | proxy |
        client -->(22)[tcp]        |      |       |   '         |       |
                       |[connect_ssl]===>(8080)   |==='==>(443)[ssl][tcp]--->  ssh
                       +-----------+      +-------+   '         +-------+     server
                                                      '
          Traffic                    \_______ _______/'
          ---> ssh                           v        '
          ===> ssh over SSL           Traffic scanned '
                                        by the IDS    '
                                                      '

       Client-side proxy:

           Net::Proxy->new(
               {   in => {
                       type => 'tcp',
                       host => '0.0.0.0',
                       port => 22,
                   },
                   out => {
                       type => 'connect_ssl',
                       host => 'home.example.com',
                       port => 443,

                       # proxy configuration
                       proxy_host => 'proxy.mycompany.com',
                       proxy_port => 8080,

                       # proxy credentials
                       proxy_user => 'me',
                       proxy_pass => 's3kr3t',
                   },
               }
           )->register();

       Server-side proxy:

           Net::Proxy->new(
               {   in => {
                       type => 'ssl',
                       host => '0.0.0.0',
                       port => 443,
                   },
                   out => {
                       type => 'tcp',
                       port => 22,
                   }
               }
           )->register();

AUTHOR

       Philippe "BooK" Bruhat, "<book@cpan.org>".

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright 2006-2007 Philippe 'BooK' Bruhat, All Rights Reserved.

LICENSE

       This tutorial is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No
       Derivative Works 3.0 License.

POD ERRORS

       Hey! The above document had some coding errors, which are explained below:

       Around line 391:
           Non-ASCII character seen before =encoding in '(I<a'. Assuming ISO8859-1