Provided by: libnet-ssh2-perl_0.70-1_amd64 bug


       Net::SSH2 - Support for the SSH 2 protocol via libssh2.


         use Net::SSH2;

         my $ssh2 = Net::SSH2->new();

         $ssh2->connect('') or $ssh2->die_with_error;

         $ssh->check_hostkey('ask') or $ssh2->die_with_error;

         if ($ssh2->auth_keyboard('fizban')) {
             my $chan = $ssh2->channel();

             my $sftp = $ssh2->sftp();
             my $fh = $sftp->open('/etc/passwd') or $sftp->die_with_error;
             print $_ while <$fh>;


       Net::SSH2 is a Perl interface to the libssh2 (<>) library.  It
       supports the SSH2 protocol (there is no support for SSH1) with all of the key exchanges,
       ciphers, and compression of libssh2.

       Even if the module can be compiled and linked against very old versions of the library,
       nothing below 1.5.0 should really be used (older versions were quite buggy and unreliable)
       and version 1.7.0 or later is recommended.

   Error handling
       Unless otherwise indicated, methods return a true value on success and "undef" on failure;
       use the "error" method to get extended error information.

       Important: methods in Net::SSH2 not backed by libssh2 functions (i.e. "check_hostkey" or
       SCP related methods) require libssh2 1.7.0 or later in order to set the error state. That
       means that after any of those methods fails, "error" would not return the real code but
       just some bogus result when an older version of the library is used.

   Typical usage
       The typical usage order is as follows:

       1.  Create the SSH2 object calling "new".

       2.  Configure the session if required. For instance, enabling compression or picking some
           specific encryption methods.

       3.  Establish the SSH connection calling the method "connect".

       4.  Check the remote host public key calling "check_hostkey".

       5.  Authenticate calling the required authentication methods.

       6.  Call "channel" and related methods to create new bidirectional communication channels
           over the SSH connection.

       7.  Close the connection letting the Net::SSH2 object go out of scope or calling
           "disconnect" explicitly.


       All the constants defined in libssh2 can be imported from Net::SSH2.

       For instance:


       Though note that most methods accept the uncommon part of the constant name as a string.
       For instance the following two method calls are equivalent:


       Tags can be used to import the following constant subsets:

         callback channel error socket trace hash method
         disconnect policy fx fxf sftp

       The tag "all" can also be used to import all of them.


   new ( %options )
       Create new Net::SSH2 object representing a SSH session.

       The accepted options are as follows:

           Sets the default timeout in milliseconds. See "timeout".

           Sets tracing. See "trace".


               my $ssh2 = Net::SSH2->new(trace => -1);

           Note that tracing requires a version of libssh2 compiled with debugging support.

           Enable debugging. See "debug".

           Sets flag "LIBSSH2_FLAG_COMPRESS". See "flag".

           Sets flag "LIBSSH2_FLAG_SIGPIPE". See "flag".

   banner ( text )
       Set the SSH2 banner text sent to the remote host (prepends required "SSH-2.0-").

       In scalar context, returns libssh2 version/patch e.g. 0.18 or "0.18.0-20071110".  In list
       context, returns that version plus the numeric version (major, minor, and patch, each
       encoded as 8 bits, e.g. 0x001200 for version 0.18) and the default banner text (e.g.

       Returns the last error code. In list context, returns (code, error name, error string).

       Note that the returned error value is only meaningful after some other method indicates an
       error by returning false.

   die_with_error ( [message] )
       Calls "die" with the given message and the error information from the object appended.

       For instance:

         $ssh2->connect("ajhkfhdklfjhklsjhd", 22)
             or $ssh2->die_with_error;
         # dies as:
         #    Unable to connect to remote host: Invalid argument (-1 LIBSSH2_ERROR_SOCKET_NONE)

       Returns a reference to the underlying IO::Socket object (usually a derived class as
       IO::Socket::IP or IO::Socket::INET), or "undef" if not yet connected.

       Calls "libssh2_trace" with supplied bitmask. In order to enable all tracing pass "-1" as


       A version of libssh2 compiled with tracing support is required.

   timeout ( timeout_ms )
       Enables a global timeout (in milliseconds) which will affect every action (requires
       libssh2 1.2.9 or later).

       By default, or if you set the timeout to zero, Net::SSH2 has no timeout.

       Note that timeout errors may leave the SSH connection in an inconsistent state and further
       operations may fail or behave incorrectly. Actually, some methods are able to recover
       after a timeout error and others are not.

       Don't hesitate to report any issue you encounter related to this so that it can be fixed
       or at least, documented!

   method ( type [, values... ] )
       Sets or gets a method preference. For get, pass in the type only; to set, pass in either a
       list of values or a comma-separated string. Values can only be queried after the session
       is connected.

       The following methods can be set or queried:

           Key exchange method names. Supported values:

               Diffie-Hellman key exchange with SHA-1 as hash, and Oakley Group 2 (see RFC 2409).

               Diffie-Hellman key exchange with SHA-1 as hash, and Oakley Group 14 (see RFC

               Diffie-Hellman key exchange with SHA-1 as hash, using a safe-prime/generator pair
               (chosen by server) of arbitrary strength (specified by client) (see IETF draft

           Public key algorithms. Supported values:

               Based on the Digital Signature Standard (FIPS-186-2).

               Based on PKCS#1 (RFC 3447).

           Encryption algorithm from client to server. Supported algorithms:

               AES in CBC mode, with 256-bit key.

               Alias for aes256-cbc.

               AES in CBC mode, with 192-bit key.

               AES in CBC mode, with 128-bit key.

               Blowfish in CBC mode.

               ARCFOUR stream cipher.

               CAST-128 in CBC mode.

               Three-key 3DES in CBC mode.

               No encryption.

           Encryption algorithm from server to client. See the "LIBSSH2_METHOD_CRYPT_CS" entry
           above for supported algorithms.

           Message Authentication Code (MAC) algorithms from client to server. Supported values:

               SHA-1 with 20-byte digest and key length.

               SHA-1 with 20-byte key length and 12-byte digest length.

               MD5 with 16-byte digest and key length.

               MD5 with 16-byte key length and 12-byte digest length.

               RIPEMD-160 algorithm with 20-byte digest length.

               Alias for hmac-ripemd160.

               No encryption.

           Message Authentication Code (MAC) algorithms from server to client. See
           LIBSSH2_METHOD_MAC_CS for supported algorithms.

           Compression methods from client to server. Supported values:

               The "zlib" compression method as described in RFC 1950 and RFC 1951.

               No compression

           Compression methods from server to client. See LIBSSH2_METHOD_COMP_CS for supported
           compression methods.

   connect ( handle | host [, port])
       The argument combinations accepted are as follows:

       a glob or "IO::*" object reference
           Note that tied file handles are not acceptable. The underlying libssh2 requires real
           file handles.

       host [, port]
           In order to handle IPv6 addresses the optional module IO::Socket::IP is required.

           The port number defaults to 22.

       This method used to accept a "Timeout" argument. That feature has been replaced by the
       constructor "timeout" option but note that it takes milliseconds instead of seconds!

   disconnect ( [description [, reason [, language]]] )
       Sends a clean disconnect message to the remote server. Default values are empty strings
       for description and language, and "SSH_DISCONNECT_BY_APPLICATION" for the reason.

       The name of the remote host given at connect time or retrieved from the TCP layer.

       The port number of the remote SSH server.

   hostkey_hash ( hash type )
       Returns a hash of the host key; note that the key is raw data and may contain nulls or
       control characters.

       The type may be as follows:

           MD5 hash, 16 bytes long (requires libssh2 compiled with MD5 support).

           SHA1 hash, 20 bytes long.

       Note: in previous versions of the module this method was called "hostkey".

       Returns the public key from the remote host and its type which is one of

   check_hostkey( [policy, [known_hosts_path [, comment] ] ] )
       Looks for the remote host key inside the given known host file (defaults to

       On success, this method returns the result of the call done under the hood to
       "Net::SSH2::KnownHost::check" (i.e. "LIBSSH2_KNOWNHOST_CHECK_MATCH",

       On failure it returns "undef".

       The accepted policies are as follows:

           Only host keys already present in the known hosts file are accepted.

           This is the default policy.

           If the host key is not present in the known hosts file, the user is asked if it should
           be accepted or not.

           If accepted, the key is added to the known host file with the given comment.

           Trust On First Use: if the host key is not present in the known hosts file, it is
           added there and accepted.

           The key is always accepted, but it is never saved into the known host file.

           If a reference to a subroutine is given, it is called when the key is not present in
           the known hosts file or a different key is found. The arguments passed to the callback
           are the session object, the matching error ("LIBSSH2_KNOWNHOST_CHECK_FAILURE",

   auth_list ( [username] )
       Returns the authentication methods accepted by the server. In scalar context the methods
       are returned as a comma separated string.

       When the server accepted an unauthenticated session for the given username, this method
       returns "undef" but "auth_ok" returns true.

       Returns true when the session is authenticated.

   auth_password ( username [, password [, callback ]] )
       Authenticates using a password.

       If the password has expired, if a callback code reference was given, it's called as
       "callback($self, $username)" and should return a password.  If no callback is provided,

   auth_password_interact ( username [, callback])
       Prompts the user for the password interactively (requires Term::ReadKey).

   auth_publickey ( username, publickey_path, privatekey_path [, passphrase ] )
       Authenticate using the given private key and an optional passphrase.

       When libssh2 is compiled using OpenSSL as the crypto backend, passing this method "undef"
       as the public key argument is acceptable (OpenSSL is able to extract the public key from
       the private one).

       See also "Supported key formats".

   auth_publickey_frommemory ( username, publickey_blob, privatekey_blob [, passphrase ] )
       Authenticate using the given public/private key and an optional passphrase. The keys must
       be PEM encoded (requires libssh2 1.6.0 or later with the OpenSSL backend).

   auth_hostbased ( username, publickey, privatekey, hostname, [, local username [, passphrase ]]
       Host-based authentication using an optional passphrase. The local username defaults to be
       the same as the remote username.

   auth_keyboard ( username, password | callback )
       Authenticate using "keyboard-interactive". Takes either a password, or a callback code
       reference which is invoked as "callback->(self, username, name, instruction, prompt...)"
       (where each prompt is a hash with "text" and "echo" keys, signifying the prompt text and
       whether the user input should be echoed, respectively) which should return an array of

       If only a username is provided, the default callback will handle standard interactive
       responses (requires Term::ReadKey)

   auth_agent ( username )
       Try to authenticate using an SSH agent (requires libssh2 1.2.3).

   auth ( ... )
       This is a general, prioritizing authentication mechanism that can use any of the previous
       methods. You provide it some parameters and (optionally) a ranked list of methods you want
       considered (defaults to all). It will remove any unsupported methods or methods for which
       it doesn't have parameters (e.g. if you don't give it a public key, it can't use publickey
       or hostkey), and try the rest, returning whichever one succeeded or "undef" if they all
       failed. If a parameter is passed with an "undef" value, a default value will be supplied
       if possible.

       The parameters are:

           An optional ranked list of methods to try.  The names should be the names of the
           Net::SSH2 "auth" methods, e.g. "keyboard" or "publickey", with the addition of
           "keyboard-auto" for automated "keyboard-interactive" and "password-interact" which
           prompts the user for the password interactively.

           "privatekey" and "publickey" are file paths.

           If this option is set to a true value, interactive methods will be enabled.

           If a password is given but authentication using it fails, the module will fall back to
           ask the user for another password if this parameter is set to a true value.

           auth_keyboard callback.

           auth_password callback.

       For historical reasons and in order to maintain backward compatibility with older versions
       of the module, when the "password" argument is given, it is also used as the passphrase
       (and a deprecation warning generated).

       In order to avoid that behaviour the "passphrase" argument must be also passed (it could
       be "undef"). For instance:

         $ssh2->auth(username => $user,
                     privatekey => $privatekey_path,
                     publickey => $publickey_path,
                     password => $password,
                     passphrase => undef);

       This work around will be removed in a not too distant future version of the module.

   flag (key, value)
       Sets the given session flag.

       The currently supported flag values are:

           If set before the connection negotiation is performed, compression will be negotiated
           for this connection.

           Compression can also be enabled passing option "compress" to the constructor new.

           if set, Net::SSH2/libssh2 will not attempt to block SIGPIPEs but will let them trigger
           from the underlying socket layer.

   keepalive_config(want_reply, interval)
       Set how often keepalive messages should be sent.

       "want_reply" indicates whether the keepalive messages should request a response from the
       server. "interval" is number of seconds that can pass without any I/O.

       Send a keepalive message if needed.

       On failure returns undef. On success returns how many seconds you can sleep after this
       call before you need to call it again.

       Note that the underlying libssh2 function "libssh2_keepalive_send" can not recover from
       EAGAIN errors. If this method fails with such error, the SSH connection may become

       The usage of this function is discouraged.

   channel ( [type, [window size, [packet size]]] )
       Creates and returns a new channel object. See Net::SSH2::Channel.

       Type, if given, must be "session" (a reminiscence of an old, more generic, but never
       working wrapping).

   tcpip ( host, port [, shost, sport ] )
       Creates a TCP connection from the remote host to the given host:port, returning a new

       The "shost" and "sport" arguments are merely informative and passed to the remote SSH
       server as the origin of the connection. They default to

       Note that this method does not open a new port on the local machine and forwards incoming
       connections to the remote side.

   listen ( port [, host [, bound port [, queue size ]]] )
       Sets up a TCP listening port on the remote host.  Host defaults to; if bound port
       is provided, it should be a scalar reference in which the bound port is returned. Queue
       size specifies the maximum number of queued connections allowed before the server refuses
       new connections.

       Returns a new Net::SSH2::Listener object.

   scp_get ( remote_path [, local_path ] )
       Retrieve a file with SCP. Local path defaults to basename of remote.

       Alternatively, "local_path" may be an already open file handle or an IO::Handle object
       (e.g. IO::File, IO::Scalar).

   scp_put ( local_path [, remote_path ] )
       Send a file with SCP. Remote path defaults to same as local.

       Alternatively, "local_path" may be an already open file handle or a reference to a
       IO::Handle object (it must have a valid stat method).

       Return SecureFTP interface object (see Net::SSH2::SFTP).

       Note that SFTP support in libssh2 is pretty rudimentary. You should consider using
       Net::SFTP::Foreign with the Net::SSH2 backend Net::SFTP::Foreign::Backend::Net_SSH2

       Return public key interface object (see Net::SSH2::PublicKey).

       Returns known hosts interface object (see Net::SSH2::KnownHosts).

   poll ( timeout, arrayref of hashes )
       Deprecated: the poll functionality in libssh2 is deprecated and its usage disregarded.
       Session methods "sock" and "block_directions" can be used instead to integrate Net::SSH2
       inside an external event loop.

       Pass in a timeout in milliseconds and an arrayref of hashes with the following keys:

           May be a Net::SSH2::Channel or Net::SSH2::Listener object, integer file descriptor, or
           perl file handle.

           Requested events.  Combination of LIBSSH2_POLLFD_* constants (with the POLL prefix
           stripped if present), or an arrayref of the names ('in', 'hup' etc.).

           Returned events.  Returns a hash with the (lowercased) names of the received events
           ('in', 'hup', etc.) as keys with true values, and a "value" key with the integer

       Returns undef on error, or the number of active objects.

       Get the blocked direction after some method returns "LIBSSH2_ERROR_EAGAIN".


   debug ( state )
       Class method (affects all Net::SSH2 objects).

       Pass 1 to enable, 0 to disable. Debug output is sent to "STDERR".

   blocking ( flag )
       Enable or disable blocking.

       A good number of the methods in "Net::SSH2"/"libssh2" can not work in non-blocking mode.
       Some of them may just forcibly enable blocking during its execution. A few may even
       corrupt the SSH session or crash the program.

       The ones that can be safely called are "read" and, with some caveats, "write". See "write"
       in Net::SSH2::Channel.

       Don't hesitate to report any bug you found in that area!


   Protocol versions
       The underlaying "libssh2" library does support version 2 of the SSH protocol exclusively
       (hopefully, version 1 usage is almost extinct).

       The SFTP client implements version 3 of the SFTP protocol.

   Key formats
       Private and public keys can be generated and stored using different formats and cyphers.
       Which ones are accepted by "Net::SSH2" depends on the libssh2 version being used and of
       the underlying crypto backend (OpenSSL "libssl" or "libgcrypt") it was configured to use
       at build time.

       An increassingly common problem is that OpenSSH since version 7.8 (released 2018-8-24)
       generates keys by default using the format RFC4716 which is not supported by "libssl", the
       default crypto backend.

       Keys can be converted inplace to the old PEM format using ssh-keygen(1) as follows:

         $ ssh-keygen -p -m PEM -N "" -f ~/.ssh/id_rsa

       On Windows, PuTTYgen (which is part of the PuTTY distribution) can be used to convert

       Another common issue is that in the last years OpenSSH has incorporated several new
       cyphers that are not supported by any version of "libssh2" yet (though the incoming 1.8.1
       may aliviate the situation). Currently the best option from an interoperability standpoint
       is probably to stick to RSA key usage.

       Nowadays "libssh2" development is not thrilling; new versions (even minor ones) are being
       released just every two or three years. On the other hand security issues are found and
       reported far more frequently. That means that "Net::SSH2"/"libssh2" could be an easy
       attack vector.

       So, Net::SSH2 must be used with care only in trusted environments.

       More specifically, using it to connect to untrusted third party computers over the
       Internet may be a very bad idea!


       Net::SSH2::Channel, Net::SSH2::Listener, Net::SSH2::SFTP, Net::SSH2::File, Net::SSH2::Dir.

       LibSSH2 documentation at <>.

       IETF Secure Shell (secsh) working group at

       Net::SSH::Any and Net::SFTP::Foreign integrate nicely with Net::SSH2.

       Other Perl modules related to SSH you may find interesting: Net::OpenSSH, Net::SSH::Perl,
       Net::OpenSSH::Parallel, Net::OpenSSH::Compat.


       Copyright (C) 2005 - 2010 by David B. Robins (

       Copyright (C) 2010 - 2016 by Rafael Kitover (

       Copyright (C) 2011 - 2019 by Salvador FandiƱo (

       All rights reserved.

       This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself, either Perl version 5.8.0 or, at your option, any later version of
       Perl 5 you may have available.