Provided by: libnet-works-perl_0.22-1_all bug


       Net::Works::Network - An object representing a single IP address (4 or 6) subnet


       version 0.22


         use Net::Works::Network;

         my $network = Net::Works::Network->new_from_string( string => '' );
         print $network->as_string();          #
         print $network->prefix_length();        # 24
         print $network->bits();               # 32
         print $network->version();            # 4

         my $first_address = $network->first();
         print $first_address->as_string();    #

         my $last_address = $network->last();
         print $last_address->as_string();     #

         my $iterator = $network->iterator();
         while ( my $ip = $iterator->() ) { print $ip . "\n"; }

         my $network_32 = Net::Works::Network->new_from_string( string => '' );
         print $network_32->max_prefix_length(); # 30

         # All methods work with IPv4 and IPv6 subnets
         my $ipv6_network = Net::Works::Network->new_from_string( string => '2001:db8::/48' );

         my @subnets = Net::Works::Network->range_as_subnets( '', '' );
         print $_->as_string, "\n" for @subnets;


       Objects of this class represent an IP address network. It can handle both IPv4 and IPv6
       subnets. It provides various methods for getting information about the subnet.

       For IPv6, it uses 128-bit integers (via Math::Int128) to represent the numeric value of an
       address as needed.


       This class provides the following methods:

   Net::Works::Network->new_from_string( ... )
       This method takes a "string" parameter and an optional "version" parameter. The "string"
       parameter should be a string representation of an IP address subnet, e.g., "".

           my $network = Net::Works::Network->new_from_string(
               string => ''
           print $network->as_string; #

       The "version" parameter should be either 4 or 6, but you don't really need this unless
       you're trying to force a dotted quad to be interpreted as an IPv6 network or to a force an
       IPv6 address colon-separated hex number to be interpreted as an IPv4 network.

       If you pass an IPv4 network but specify the version as 6 then we will add 96 to the

           my $network = Net::Works::Network->new_from_string(
               string  => '',
               version => 6,
           print $network->as_string; # ::

   Net::Works::Network->new_from_integer( ... )
       This method takes an "integer" parameter, "prefix_length" parameter, and an optional
       "version" parameter. The "integer" parameter should be an integer representation of an IP
       within the subnet. The "prefix_length" parameter should be an integer between 0 and 32 for
       IPv4 or 0 and 128 for IPv6. The "version" parameter should be either 4 or 6.

       Note that if you are passing an IPv4 address that you want treated as an IPv6 address you
       need to manually add 96 to the "prefix_length" yourself.

       Returns a string representation of the network like "" or "2001:db8::/48". The
       IP address in the string is the first address within the subnet.

       Returns a 4 or 6 to indicate whether this is an IPv4 or IPv6 network.

       Returns the length of the netmask as an integer.

       Returns the number of bit of an address in the network, which is either 32 (IPv4) or 128

       This returns the maximum possible numeric subnet that this network could fit in. In other
       words, the subnet could be part of the subnet, so this returns

       Returns the first IP in the network as an Net::Works::Address object.

       Returns the first IP in the network as an integer. This may be a Math::Int128 object.

       Returns the last IP in the network as an Net::Works::Address object.

       Returns the last IP in the network as an integer. This may be a Math::Int128 object.

       Returns true if the network contains just a single address (/32 in IPv4 or /128 in IPv6).

       This returns an anonymous sub that returns one IP address in the range each time it's

       For single address subnets (/32 or /128), this returns a single address.

       When it has exhausted all the addresses in the network, it returns "undef"

       This method accepts a single Net::Works::Address or Net::Works::Network object. It returns
       true if the given address or network is contained by the network it is called on. Note
       that a network always contains itself.

       This returns a list of two new network objects representing the original network split
       into two halves. For example, splitting "" returns "" and

       If the original networks is a single address network (a /32 in IPv4 or /128 in IPv6) then
       this method returns an empty list.

   Net::Works::Network->range_as_subnets( $first_address, $last_address, $version )
       Given two IP addresses as strings, this method breaks the range up into the largest
       subnets that include all the IP addresses in the range (including the two passed to this

       This method also excludes any reserved subnets such as the RFC1918
       <> IPv4 private address space, RFC5735
       <> IPv4 special-use address space and RFC5156
       <> IPv6 special-use address space.

       An overview can be found at the IANA IPv4 <
       ipv4-special-registry/iana-ipv4-special-registry.xhtml> and IPv6
       registry.xhtml> special-purpose address registries.

       The networks currently treated as reserved are:



       This method works with both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. You can pass an explicit version as
       the final argument. If you don't, we check whether either address contains a colon (:). If
       either of them does, we assume you want IPv6 subnets.

       When given an IPv6 range that includes the first 32 bits of addresses (the IPv4 space),
       both IPv4 and IPv6 reserved networks are removed from the range.


       This class overloads comparison, allowing you to compare two objects and to sort them
       (either as numbers or strings). Objects are compared based on the first IP address in
       their networks, and then by prefix length if they have the same starting address.

       It also overloads stringification to call the "$network->as_string()" method.


       Prior to version 0.17, this package referred to the prefix length as mask length. The
       "mask_length()" and "max_mask_length()" methods are deprecated, and will probably start
       warning in a future release. In addition, passing a "mask_length" key to the
       "new_from_integer()" constructor has been replaced by "prefix_length". The old key will
       continue to work for now but may start warning in a future release.


       ·   Dave Rolsky <>

       ·   Greg Oschwald <>

       ·   Olaf Alders <>


       This software is copyright (c) 2016 by MaxMind, Inc.

       This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as
       the Perl 5 programming language system itself.