Provided by: libnumber-format-perl_1.75-1ubuntu1_all bug


       Number::Format - Perl extension for formatting numbers


         use Number::Format;
         my $x = new Number::Format %args;
         $formatted = $x->round($number, $precision);
         $formatted = $x->format_number($number, $precision, $trailing_zeroes);
         $formatted = $x->format_negative($number, $picture);
         $formatted = $x->format_picture($number, $picture);
         $formatted = $x->format_price($number, $precision, $symbol);
         $formatted = $x->format_bytes($number, $precision);
         $number    = $x->unformat_number($formatted);

         use Number::Format qw(:subs);
         $formatted = round($number, $precision);
         $formatted = format_number($number, $precision, $trailing_zeroes);
         $formatted = format_negative($number, $picture);
         $formatted = format_picture($number, $picture);
         $formatted = format_price($number, $precision, $symbol);
         $formatted = format_bytes($number, $precision);
         $number    = unformat_number($formatted);


       Perl, version 5.8 or higher. to determine locale settings. is used for some error reporting.


       These functions provide an easy means of formatting numbers in a manner suitable for
       displaying to the user.

       There are two ways to use this package.  One is to declare an object of type
       Number::Format, which you can think of as a formatting engine.  The various functions
       defined here are provided as object methods.  The constructor "new()" can be used to set
       the parameters of the formatting engine.  Valid parameters are:

         THOUSANDS_SEP     - character inserted between groups of 3 digits
         DECIMAL_POINT     - character separating integer and fractional parts
         MON_THOUSANDS_SEP - like THOUSANDS_SEP, but used for format_price
         MON_DECIMAL_POINT - like DECIMAL_POINT, but used for format_price
         INT_CURR_SYMBOL   - character(s) denoting currency (see format_price())
         DECIMAL_DIGITS    - number of digits to the right of dec point (def 2)
         DECIMAL_FILL      - boolean; whether to add zeroes to fill out decimal
         NEG_FORMAT        - format to display negative numbers (def ``-x'')
         KILO_SUFFIX       - suffix to add when format_bytes formats kilobytes (trad)
         MEGA_SUFFIX       -    "    "  "    "        "         "    megabytes (trad)
         GIGA_SUFFIX       -    "    "  "    "        "         "    gigabytes (trad)
         KIBI_SUFFIX       - suffix to add when format_bytes formats kibibytes (iec)
         MEBI_SUFFIX       -    "    "  "    "        "         "    mebibytes (iec)
         GIBI_SUFFIX       -    "    "  "    "        "         "    gibibytes (iec)

       They may be specified in upper or lower case, with or without a leading hyphen ( - ).

       If "THOUSANDS_SEP" is set to the empty string, format_number will not insert any

       "MON_DECIMAL_POINT", and "INT_CURR_SYMBOL" come from the POSIX locale information (see
       perllocale).  If your POSIX locale does not provide "MON_THOUSANDS_SEP" and/or
       "MON_DECIMAL_POINT" fields, then the "THOUSANDS_SEP" and/or "DECIMAL_POINT" values are
       used for those parameters.  Formerly, POSIX was optional but this caused problems in some
       cases, so it is now required.  If this causes you hardship, please contact the author of
       this package at <> (remove "SPAM" to get correct email address) for help.

       If any of the above parameters are not specified when you invoke "new()", then the values
       are taken from package global variables of the same name (e.g.  $DECIMAL_POINT is the
       default for the "DECIMAL_POINT" parameter).  If you use the ":vars" keyword on your "use
       Number::Format" line (see non-object-oriented example below) you will import those
       variables into your namesapce and can assign values as if they were your own local
       variables.  The default values for all the parameters are:

         THOUSANDS_SEP     = ','
         DECIMAL_POINT     = '.'
         MON_THOUSANDS_SEP = ','
         MON_DECIMAL_POINT = '.'
         INT_CURR_SYMBOL   = 'USD'
         DECIMAL_DIGITS    = 2
         DECIMAL_FILL      = 0
         NEG_FORMAT        = '-x'
         KILO_SUFFIX       = 'K'
         MEGA_SUFFIX       = 'M'
         GIGA_SUFFIX       = 'G'
         KIBI_SUFFIX       = 'KiB'
         MEBI_SUFFIX       = 'MiB'
         GIBI_SUFFIX       = 'GiB'

       Note however that when you first call one of the functions in this module without using
       the object-oriented interface, further setting of those global variables will have no
       effect on non-OO calls.  It is recommended that you use the object-oriented interface
       instead for fewer headaches and a cleaner design.

       The "DECIMAL_FILL" and "DECIMAL_DIGITS" values are not set by the Locale system, but are
       definable by the user.  They affect the output of "format_number()".  Setting
       "DECIMAL_DIGITS" is like giving that value as the $precision argument to that function.
       Setting "DECIMAL_FILL" to a true value causes "format_number()" to append zeroes to the
       right of the decimal digits until the length is the specified number of digits.

       "NEG_FORMAT" is only used by "format_negative()" and is a string containing the letter
       'x', where that letter will be replaced by a positive representation of the number being
       passed to that function.  "format_number()" and "format_price()" utilize this feature by
       calling "format_negative()" if the number was less than 0.

       "KILO_SUFFIX", "MEGA_SUFFIX", and "GIGA_SUFFIX" are used by "format_bytes()" when the
       value is over 1024, 1024*1024, or 1024*1024*1024, respectively.  The default values are
       "K", "M", and "G".  These apply in the default "traditional" mode only.  Note: TERA or
       higher are not implemented because of integer overflows on 32-bit systems.

       "KIBI_SUFFIX", "MEBI_SUFFIX", and "GIBI_SUFFIX" are used by "format_bytes()" when the
       value is over 1024, 1024*1024, or 1024*1024*1024, respectively.  The default values are
       "KiB", "MiB", and "GiB".  These apply in the "iso60027"" mode only.  Note: TEBI or higher
       are not implemented because of integer overflows on 32-bit systems.

       The only restrictions on "DECIMAL_POINT" and "THOUSANDS_SEP" are that they must not be
       digits and must not be identical.  There are no restrictions on "INT_CURR_SYMBOL".

       For example, a German user might include this in their code:

         use Number::Format;
         my $de = new Number::Format(-thousands_sep   => '.',
                                     -decimal_point   => ',',
                                     -int_curr_symbol => 'DEM');
         my $formatted = $de->format_number($number);

       Or, if you prefer not to use the object oriented interface, you can do this instead:

         use Number::Format qw(:subs :vars);
         $THOUSANDS_SEP   = '.';
         $DECIMAL_POINT   = ',';
         $INT_CURR_SYMBOL = 'DEM';
         my $formatted = format_number($number);


       Nothing is exported by default.  To export the functions or the global variables defined
       herein, specify the function name(s) on the import list of the "use Number::Format"
       statement.  To export all functions defined herein, use the special tag ":subs".  To
       export the variables, use the special tag ":vars"; to export both subs and vars you can
       use the tag ":all".


       new( %args )
           Creates a new Number::Format object.  Valid keys for %args are any of the parameters
           described above.  Keys may be in all uppercase or all lowercase, and may optionally be
           preceded by a hyphen (-) character.  Example:

             my $de = new Number::Format(-thousands_sep   => '.',
                                         -decimal_point   => ',',
                                         -int_curr_symbol => 'DEM');

       round($number, $precision)
           Rounds the number to the specified precision.  If $precision is omitted, the value of
           the "DECIMAL_DIGITS" parameter is used (default value 2).  Both input and output are
           numeric (the function uses math operators rather than string manipulation to do its
           job), The value of $precision may be any integer, positive or negative. Examples:

             round(3.14159)       yields    3.14
             round(3.14159, 4)    yields    3.1416
             round(42.00, 4)      yields    42
             round(1234, -2)      yields    1200

           Since this is a mathematical rather than string oriented function, there will be no
           trailing zeroes to the right of the decimal point, and the "DECIMAL_POINT" and
           "THOUSANDS_SEP" variables are ignored.  To format your number using the
           "DECIMAL_POINT" and "THOUSANDS_SEP" variables, use "format_number()" instead.

       format_number($number, $precision, $trailing_zeroes)
           Formats a number by adding "THOUSANDS_SEP" between each set of 3 digits to the left of
           the decimal point, substituting "DECIMAL_POINT" for the decimal point, and rounding to
           the specified precision using "round()".  Note that $precision is a maximum precision
           specifier; trailing zeroes will only appear in the output if $trailing_zeroes is
           provided, or the parameter "DECIMAL_FILL" is set, with a value that is true (not zero,
           undef, or the empty string).  If $precision is omitted, the value of the
           "DECIMAL_DIGITS" parameter (default value of 2) is used.

           If the value is too large or great to work with as a regular number, but instead must
           be shown in scientific notation, returns that number in scientific notation without
           further formatting.


             format_number(12345.6789)             yields   '12,345.68'
             format_number(123456.789, 2)          yields   '123,456.79'
             format_number(1234567.89, 2)          yields   '1,234,567.89'
             format_number(1234567.8, 2)           yields   '1,234,567.8'
             format_number(1234567.8, 2, 1)        yields   '1,234,567.80'
             format_number(1.23456789, 6)          yields   '1.234568'
             format_number("0.000020000E+00", 7);' yields   '2e-05'

           Of course the output would have your values of "THOUSANDS_SEP" and "DECIMAL_POINT"
           instead of ',' and '.' respectively.

       format_negative($number, $picture)
           Formats a negative number.  Picture should be a string that contains the letter "x"
           where the number should be inserted.  For example, for standard negative numbers you
           might use ``"-x"'', while for accounting purposes you might use ``"(x)"''.  If the
           specified number begins with a ``-'' character, that will be removed before
           formatting, but formatting will occur whether or not the number is negative.

       format_picture($number, $picture)
           Returns a string based on $picture with the "#" characters replaced by digits from
           $number.  If the length of the integer part of $number is too large to fit, the "#"
           characters are replaced with asterisks ("*") instead.  Examples:

             format_picture(100.023, 'USD ##,###.##')   yields   'USD    100.02'
             format_picture(1000.23, 'USD ##,###.##')   yields   'USD  1,000.23'
             format_picture(10002.3, 'USD ##,###.##')   yields   'USD 10,002.30'
             format_picture(100023,  'USD ##,###.##')   yields   'USD **,***.**'
             format_picture(1.00023, 'USD #.###,###')   yields   'USD 1.002,300'

           The comma (,) and period (.) you see in the picture examples should match the values
           of "THOUSANDS_SEP" and "DECIMAL_POINT", respectively, for proper operation.  However,
           the "THOUSANDS_SEP" characters in $picture need not occur every three digits; the only
           use of that variable by this function is to remove leading commas (see the first
           example above).  There may not be more than one instance of "DECIMAL_POINT" in

           The value of "NEG_FORMAT" is used to determine how negative numbers are displayed.
           The result of this is that the output of this function my have unexpected spaces
           before and/or after the number.  This is necessary so that positive and negative
           numbers are formatted into a space the same size.  If you are only using positive
           numbers and want to avoid this problem, set NEG_FORMAT to "x".

       format_price($number, $precision, $symbol)
           Returns a string containing $number formatted similarly to "format_number()", except
           that the decimal portion may have trailing zeroes added to make it be exactly
           $precision characters long, and the currency string will be prefixed.

           The $symbol attribute may be one of "INT_CURR_SYMBOL" or "CURRENCY_SYMBOL" (case
           insensitive) to use the value of that attribute of the object, or a string containing
           the symbol to be used.  The default is "INT_CURR_SYMBOL" if this argument is undefined
           or not given; if set to the empty string, or if set to undef and the "INT_CURR_SYMBOL"
           attribute of the object is the empty string, no currency will be added.

           If $precision is not provided, the default of 2 will be used.  Examples:

             format_price(12.95)   yields   'USD 12.95'
             format_price(12)      yields   'USD 12.00'
             format_price(12, 3)   yields   '12.000'

           The third example assumes that "INT_CURR_SYMBOL" is the empty string.

       format_bytes($number, %options)
       format_bytes($number, $precision)  # deprecated
           Returns a string containing $number formatted similarly to "format_number()", except
           that large numbers may be abbreviated by adding a suffix to indicate 1024, 1,048,576,
           or 1,073,741,824 bytes.  Suffix may be the traditional K, M, or G (default); or the
           IEC standard 60027 "KiB," "MiB," or "GiB" depending on the "mode" option.

           Negative values will result in an error.

           The second parameter can be either a hash that sets options, or a number.  Using a
           number here is deprecated and will generate a warning; early versions of
           Number::Format only allowed a numeric value.  A future release of Number::Format will
           change this warning to an error.  New code should use a hash instead to set options.
           If it is a number this sets the value of the "precision" option.

           Valid options are:

               Set the precision for displaying numbers.  If not provided, a default of 2 will be
               used.  Examples:

                 format_bytes(12.95)                   yields   '12.95'
                 format_bytes(12.95, precision => 0)   yields   '13'
                 format_bytes(2048)                    yields   '2K'
                 format_bytes(2048, mode => "iec")     yields   '2KiB'
                 format_bytes(9999999)                 yields   '9.54M'
                 format_bytes(9999999, precision => 1) yields   '9.5M'

               Sets the default units used for the results.  The default is to determine this
               automatically in order to minimize the length of the string.  In other words,
               numbers greater than or equal to 1024 (or other number given by the 'base' option,
               q.v.) will be divided by 1024 and $KILO_SUFFIX or $KIBI_SUFFIX added; if greater
               than or equal to 1048576 (1024*1024), it will be divided by 1048576 and
               $MEGA_SUFFIX or $MEBI_SUFFIX appended to the end; etc.

               However if a value is given for "unit" it will use that value instead.  The first
               letter (case-insensitive) of the value given indicates the threshhold for
               conversion; acceptable values are G (for giga/gibi), M (for mega/mebi), K (for
               kilo/kibi), or A (for automatic, the default).  For example:

                 format_bytes(1048576, unit => 'K') yields     '1,024K'
                                                    instead of '1M'

               Note that the valid values to this option do not vary even when the suffix
               configuration variables have been changed.

               Sets the number at which the $KILO_SUFFIX is added.  Default is 1024.  Set to any
               value; the only other useful value is probably 1000, as hard disk manufacturers
               use that number to make their disks sound bigger than they really are.

               If the mode (see below) is set to "iec" or "iec60027" then setting the base option
               results in an error.

               Traditionally, bytes have been given in SI (metric) units such as "kilo" and
               "mega" even though they represent powers of 2 (1024, etc.)  rather than powers of
               10 (1000, etc.)  This "binary prefix" causes much confusion in consumer products
               where "GB" may mean either 1,048,576 or 1,000,000, for example.  The International
               Electrotechnical Commission has created standard IEC 60027 to introduce prefixes
               Ki, Mi, Gi, etc. ("kibibytes," "mebibytes," "gibibytes," etc.) to remove this
               confusion.  Specify a mode option with either "traditional" or "iec60027" (or
               abbreviate as "trad" or "iec") to indicate which type of binary prefix you want
               format_bytes to use.  For backward compatibility, "traditional" is the default.
               See for more information.

           Converts a string as returned by "format_number()", "format_price()", or
           "format_picture()", and returns the corresponding value as a numeric scalar.  Returns
           "undef" if the number does not contain any digits.  Examples:

             unformat_number('USD 12.95')   yields   12.95
             unformat_number('USD 12.00')   yields   12
             unformat_number('foobar')      yields   undef
             unformat_number('1234-567@.8') yields   1234567.8

           The value of "DECIMAL_POINT" is used to determine where to separate the integer and
           decimal portions of the input.  All other non-digit characters, including but not
           limited to "INT_CURR_SYMBOL" and "THOUSANDS_SEP", are removed.

           If the number matches the pattern of "NEG_FORMAT" or there is a ``-'' character before
           any of the digits, then a negative number is returned.

           If the number ends with the "KILO_SUFFIX", "KIBI_SUFFIX", "MEGA_SUFFIX",
           "MEBI_SUFFIX", "GIGA_SUFFIX", or "GIBI_SUFFIX" characters, then the number returned
           will be multiplied by the appropriate multiple of 1024 (or if the base option is
           given, by the multiple of that value) as appropriate.  Examples:

             unformat_number("4K", base => 1024)   yields  4096
             unformat_number("4K", base => 1000)   yields  4000
             unformat_number("4KiB", base => 1024) yields  4096
             unformat_number("4G")                 yields  4294967296


       Some systems, notably OpenBSD, may have incomplete locale support.  Using this module
       together with setlocale(3) in OpenBSD may therefore not produce the intended results.


       No known bugs at this time.  Report bugs using the CPAN request tracker at
       <> or by email to the author.


       William R. Ward, (remove "SPAM" before sending email, leaving only my