Provided by: libnumber-phone-perl_3.5001-1_all bug


       Number::Phone - base class for Number::Phone::* modules


       In a sub-class ...

           package Number::Phone::UK;
           use base 'Number::Phone';

       and to magically use the right subclass ...

           use Number::Phone;

           $daves_phone = Number::Phone->new('+442087712924');
           $daves_other_phone = Number::Phone->new('+44 7979 866 975');
           # alternatively      Number::Phone->new('+44', '7979 866 975');
           # or                 Number::Phone->new('UK', '07979 866 975');

           if($daves_phone->is_mobile()) {

       in the example, the +44 is recognised as the country code for the UK, so the appropriate
       country-specific module is loaded if available.

       If you pass in a bogus country code not recognised by Number::Phone::Country, the
       constructor will return undef.


       Early versions of this module allowed what are now object methods to also be called as
       class methods or even as functions. This was a bad design decision. Use of those calling
       conventions was deprecated in version 2.0, released in January 2012, and started to emit
       warnings. All code to support those calling conventions has now been removed.

       Until 2017 we ued KOS for the country code for Kosovo, that has now changed to XK. See

       From version 3.4000 to 3.4003 inclusive we accepted any old garbage after +383 as being
       valid, as the Kosovo numbering plan had not been published.  Now that that has been
       published, we use libphonenumber data, and validate against it.

       The prefix codes in 3.4003 and earlier were managed by hand and so got out of date. After
       that release they are mostly derived from libphonenumber.  libphonenumber's data includes
       carrier selection codes when they are mandatory for dialling so those are now included.
       This sometimes means that some random carrier has been arbitrarily privileged over others.

COMPATIBILTY WITH libphonenumber

       libphonenumber is a similar project for other languages, maintained by Google.

       If you pass in a country code for which no supporting module is available, the constructor
       will try to use a 'stub' class under Number::Phone::StubCountry::* that uses data
       automatically extracted from Google's libphonenumber project.  libphonenumber doesn't have
       enough data to support all the features of Number::Phone.  If you want to disable this,
       then pass 'nostubs' when you use the module:

           use Number::Phone qw(nostubs);

       Alternatively, if you want to *always* use data derived from libphonenumber, you should
       use the Number::Phone::Lib module instead. This is a subclass of Number::Phone that will
       use the libphonenumber-derived stub classes even when extra data is available in, for
       example, Number::Phone::UK. You might want to do this for compatibility or performance.
       Number::Phone::UK is quite slow, because it uses a huge database for some of its features.


       All Number::Phone classes can implement the following object methods.

       The implementations in the parent class all return undef unless otherwise noted.

       Those methods whose names begin "is_" should return the following values:

           The truth or falsehood can not be determined;

       0 (zero)
           False - eg, is_personal() might return 0 for a number that is assigned to a government

       1 (one)

   IS_* methods
           The number is valid within the national numbering scheme.  It may or may not yet be
           allocated, or it may be reserved.  Any number which returns true for any of the
           following methods will also be valid.

           The number has been allocated to a telco for use.  It may or may not yet be in use or
           may be reserved.

           The number has been assigned to a customer or is in use by the telco for its own

           The number refers to a geographic area.

           The number, when in use, can only refer to a fixed line.

           The number, when in use, can only refer to a mobile phone.

           The number, when in use, can only refer to a pager.

           The number, when in use, can only refer to a VoIP service.

           The number, when in use, can only refer to an ISDN service.

           Callers will not be charged for calls to this number under normal circumstances.

           The number, when in use, attracts special rates.  For instance, national dialling at
           local rates, or premium rates for services.

           The number, when in use, goes to a service of an adult nature, such as porn.

           The number, when in use, goes to an individual person.

           The number, when in use, goes to a business.

           The number, when in use, goes to a government department.  Note that the emergency
           services are considered to be a network service so should *not* return true for this

           The number is charged like a domestic number (including toll-free or special rate),
           but actually terminates in a different country.  This covers the special dialling
           arrangements between Spain and Gibraltar, and between the Republic of Ireland and
           Northern Ireland, as well as services such as the various "Country Direct"-a-likes.
           See also the "country()" method.

           The number is some kind of network service such as the operator, directory enquiries,
           emergency services etc

           The number is for use in fiction, such as TV and Radio drama programmes.  It will not
           be allocated for use in real life.

           The numeric code for this country.  eg, 44 for the UK.  Note that there is *no* +

           While the superclass does indeed implement this (returning undef) this is nonsense in
           just about all cases, so you should always implement this.

           Returns some text in an appropriate character set saying who the telecoms regulator
           is, with optional details such as their web site or phone number.

           Return the area code - if applicable - for the number.  If not applicable, the
           superclass implementation returns undef.

           Return the name for the area code - if applicable.  If not applicable, the superclass
           definition returns undef.  For instance, for a number beginning +44 20 it would return
           'London'.  Note that this may return data in non-ASCII character sets.

           This returns an approximate geographic location for the number if possible.  Obviously
           this only applies to fixed lines!  The data returned is, if defined, a reference to an
           array containing two elements, latitude and longitude, in degrees.  North of the
           equator and East of Greenwich are positive.  You may optionally return a third element
           indicating how confident you are of the location.  Specify this as a number in
           kilometers indicating the radius of the error circle.

           The superclass implementation returns undef, which is a reasonable default.

           Return the subscriber part of the number.

           While the superclass implementation returns undef, this is nonsense in just about all
           cases, so you should always implement this.

           Return the name of the telco assigned this number, in an appropriate character set and
           with optional details such as their web site or phone number.  Note that this should
           not take into account number portability.

           The superclass implementation returns undef, as this information is not easily
           available for most numbering plans.

           Return the name of the telco to whom this number has been ported.  If it is known to
           have not been ported, then return the same as "operator()" above.

           The superclass implementation returns undef, indicating that you don't know whether
           the number has been ported.

           Return a listref of all the is_... methods above which are true.  Note that this
           method should only be implemented in the super-class.  eg, for the number +44 20
           87712924 this might return "[qw(valid allocated geographic)]".

           Return a sanely formatted E.123-compliant version of the number, complete with IDD
           code, eg for the UK number (0208) 771-2924 it would return +44 20 8771 2924.

           The superclass implementation returns undef, which is nonsense, so you should always
           implement this.

           If you want something different from E.123, then pass this the name of a formatter to

           For example, if you want to get "just the digits, ma'am", use the Raw formatter thus:

             Number::Phone->new('+44 20 8771 2924')->format_using('Raw');

           which will return:


           It is a fatal error to specify a non-existent formatter.

           Given a country code (either two-letter ISO or numeric prefix), return the number
           formatted either nationally-formatted, if the number is in the same country, or as a
           nationally-preferred international number if not. Internally this uses the National
           and NationallyPreferredIntl formatters. Beware of the potential performance hit!

           The two letter ISO country code for the country in which the call will terminate.
           This is implemented in the superclass and you will only have to implement your own
           version for countries where part of the number range is overlayed with another

           Exception: for the UK, return 'uk', not 'gb'.

           Specifically, the superclass implementation looks at the class name and returns the
           last two-letter code it finds.  eg ...

             from Number::Phone::UK, it would return UK
             from Number::Phone::UK::IM, it would return IM
             from Number::Phone::NANP::US, it would return US
             from Number::Phone::FR::Full, it would return FR

           If the number forwards to another number (such as a special rate number forwarding to
           a geographic number), or is part of a chunk of number-space mapped onto another chunk
           of number-space (such as where a country has a shortcut to (part of) another country's
           number-space, like how Gibraltar used to appear as an area code in Spain's numbering
           plan as well as having its own country code), then this method may return an object
           representing the target number.  Otherwise it returns undef.

           The superclass implementation returns undef.

           Takes another Number::Phone object as its only argument and returns a string showing
           how to dial from the number represented by the invocant to that represented by the


               Call from +44 20 7210 3613
                      to +44 1932 341 111
                You dial 01932341111

               Call from +44 20 7210 3613
                      to +44 1932 341 111
                You dial 01932341111

               Call from +44 20 7210 3613
                      to +1 202 224 6361
                You dial 0012022246361

               Call from +1 202 224 6361
                      to +44 20 7210 3613
                You dial 011442072103613

               Call from +44 7979 866975
                      to +44 7979 866976
                You dial 07979 866976

           This method is implemented in the superclass, but you may have to define certain other
           methods to assist it.  The algorithm is as follows:

           international call
               Append together the source country's international dialling prefix (usually 00),
               then the destination country's code code, area code, and subscriber number.

           domestic call, different area code
               Call the object's "intra_country_dial_to()" method.

               If it dies, return undef.

               If it returns anything other than undef, return that.

               If it returns undef, append together the country's out-of-area calling prefix
               (usually 0 or 1), the destination area code and subscriber number.

           domestic call, same area code
               Call the object's "intra_country_dial_to()" method.

               If it dies, return undef.

               If it returns anything other than undef, return that.

               If it returns undef, return the destination subscriber number.

           Takes an object (which should be in the same country as the invocant) and returns
           either undef (meaning "use the default behaviour") or a dialling string.  If it dies
           this means "I don't know how to dial this number".

           The superclass implementation is to die.

           Note that the meaning of undef is a bit different for this method.

           Why die by default?  Some countries have weird arrangements for dialling some numbers
           domestically. In fact, both the countries I'm most familiar with do, so I assume that
           others do too.

       new Can be called with either one or two parameters.  The *first* is an optional country
           code (see the "country()" method).  The other is a phone number.  If a country code is
           specified, and a subclass for that country is available, the phone number is passed to
           its constructor unchanged.

           If only one parameter is passed, then we try to figure out which is the right country
           subclass to use by pre-pending a + sign to the number if there isn't one, and looking
           the country up using Number::Phone::Country.  That gives us a two letter country code
           that is used to try to load the right module.

           The constructor returns undef if it can not figure out what country you're talking
           about, or an object based on Google's libphonenumber data if there's no complete
           country-specific module available.

           It is generally assumed that numbers are complete and unambiguous - ie you can't pass
           just the local part to the constructor if the number has an area code. Any subclass's
           constructor which contravenes this should document it.


       Sub-classes should implement methods as above, including a "new()" constructor.  The
       constructor should take a single parameter, a phone number, and should validate that.  If
       the number is valid (use your "is_valid()" method!) then you can return a blessed object.
       Otherwise you should return undef.

       The constructor *must* be capable of accepting a number with the + sign and the country's
       numeric code attached, but should also accept numbers in the preferred local format (eg
       01234 567890 in the UK, which is the same number as +44 1234 567890) so that users can go
       straight to your class without going through Number::Phone's magic country detector.

       Subclasses' names should be Number::Phone::XX, where XX is the two letter ISO code for the
       country, in upper case.  So, for example, France would be FR and Ireland would be IE.  As
       usual, the UK is an exception, using UK instead of the ISO-mandated GB.  NANP countries
       are also an exception, going like Number::Phone::NANP::XX.


       Starting in March 2015 I intend to release updates approximately every three months,
       including new data from libphonenumber and OFCOM.


       Please report bugs by at <>,
       including, if possible, a test case.


       There is a mailing list for discussion and help. Please subscribe at

       Kindly hosted by Shadowcat <>.


       <>, a similar project for Java, C++ and
       Javascript. Number::Phone imports its data.




       Copyright 2004 - 2015 David Cantrell <>

       This software is free-as-in-speech software, and may be used, distributed, and modified
       under the terms of either the GNU General Public Licence version 2 or the Artistic
       Licence.  It's up to you which one you use.  The full text of the licences can be found in
       the files GPL2.txt and ARTISTIC.txt, respectively.

       Some files are under the Apache licence, a copy of which can be found in the file


       This module is also free-as-in-mason software.