Provided by: libppix-regexp-perl_0.067-1_all bug

NAME

       PPIx::Regexp - Represent a regular expression of some sort

SYNOPSIS

        use PPIx::Regexp;
        use PPIx::Regexp::Dumper;
        my $re = PPIx::Regexp->new( 'qr{foo}smx' );
        PPIx::Regexp::Dumper->new( $re )
            ->print();

INHERITANCE

       "PPIx::Regexp" is a PPIx::Regexp::Node.

       "PPIx::Regexp" has no descendants.

DESCRIPTION

       The purpose of the PPIx-Regexp package is to parse regular expressions in a manner similar
       to the way the PPI package parses Perl. This class forms the root of the parse tree,
       playing a role similar to PPI::Document.

       This package shares with PPI the property of being round-trip safe. That is,

        my $expr = 's/ ( \d+ ) ( \D+ ) /$2$1/smxg';
        my $re = PPIx::Regexp->new( $expr );
        print $re->content() eq $expr ? "yes\n" : "no\n"

       should print 'yes' for any valid regular expression.

       Navigation is similar to that provided by PPI. That is to say, things like "children",
       "find_first", "snext_sibling" and so on all work pretty much the same way as in PPI.

       The class hierarchy is also similar to PPI. Except for some utility classes (the dumper,
       the lexer, and the tokenizer) all classes are descended from PPIx::Regexp::Element, which
       provides basic navigation. Tokens are descended from PPIx::Regexp::Token, which provides
       content. All containers are descended from PPIx::Regexp::Node, which provides for
       children, and all structure elements are descended from PPIx::Regexp::Structure, which
       provides beginning and ending delimiters, and a type.

       There are two features of PPI that this package does not provide - mutability and operator
       overloading. There are no plans for serious mutability, though something like PPI's
       "prune" functionality might be considered. Similarly there are no plans for operator
       overloading, which appears to the author to represent a performance hit for little
       tangible gain.

NOTICE

       The use of this class to parse non-regexp quote-like strings was an experiment that I
       consider failed. Therefore this use is deprecated in favor of PPIx::QuoteLike. As of
       version 0.058_01, the first use of the "parse" argument to new() resulted in a warning. As
       of version 0.062_01, all uses of the "parse" argument resulted in a warning. After another
       six months, the "parse" argument will become fatal.

       The author will attempt to preserve the documented interface, but if the interface needs
       to change to correct some egregiously bad design or implementation decision, then it will
       change.  Any incompatible changes will go through a deprecation cycle.

       The goal of this package is to parse well-formed regular expressions correctly. A
       secondary goal is not to blow up on ill-formed regular expressions. The correct
       identification and characterization of ill-formed regular expressions is not a goal of
       this package, nor is the consistent parsing of ill-formed regular expressions from release
       to release.

       This policy attempts to track features in development releases as well as public releases.
       However, features added in a development release and then removed before the next
       production release will not be tracked, and any functionality relating to such features
       will be removed. The issue here is the potential re-use (with different semantics) of
       syntax that did not make it into the production release.

       From time to time the Perl regular expression engine changes in ways that change the parse
       of a given regular expression. When these changes occur, "PPIx::Regexp" will be changed to
       produce the more modern parse.  Known examples of this include:

       $( no longer interpolates as of Perl 5.005, per "perl5005delta".
           Newer Perls seem to parse this as "qr{$}" (i.e. and end-of-string or newline
           assertion) followed by an open parenthesis, and that is what "PPIx::Regexp" does.

       $) and $| also seem to parse as the "$" assertion
           followed by the relevant meta-character, though I have no documentation reference for
           this.

       "@+" and "@-" no longer interpolate as of Perl 5.9.4
           per "perl594delta". Subsequent Perls treat "@+" as a quantified literal and "@-" as
           two literals, and that is what "PPIx::Regexp" does. Note that subscripted references
           to these arrays do interpolate, and are so parsed by "PPIx::Regexp".

       Only space and horizontal tab are whitespace as of Perl 5.23.4
           when inside a bracketed character class inside an extended bracketed character class,
           per "perl5234delta". Formerly any white space character parsed as whitespace. This
           change in "PPIx::Regexp" will be reverted if the change in Perl does not make it into
           Perl 5.24.0.

       Unescaped literal left curly brackets
           These are being removed in positions where quantifiers are legal, so that they can be
           used for new functionality. Some of them are gone in 5.25.1, others will be removed in
           a future version of Perl. In situations where they have been removed,
           perl_version_removed() will return the version in which they were removed. When the
           new functionality appears, the parse produced by this software will reflect the new
           functionality.

           NOTE that the situation with a literal left curly after a literal character is
           complicated. It was made an error in Perl 5.25.1, and remained so through all 5.26
           releases, but became a warning again in 5.27.1 due to its use in GNU Autoconf. Whether
           it will ever become illegal again is not clear to me based on the contents of
           perl5271delta. At the moment perl_version_removed() returns "undef", but obviously
           that is not the whole story, and methods accepts_perl() and requirements_for_perl()
           were introduced to deal with this complication.

       "\o{...}"
           is parsed as the octal equivalent of "\x{...}". This is its meaning as of perl 5.13.2.
           Before 5.13.2 it was simply literal 'o' and so on.

       There are very probably other examples of this. When they come to light they will be
       documented as producing the modern parse, and the code modified to produce this parse if
       necessary.

METHODS

       This class provides the following public methods. Methods not documented here are private,
       and unsupported in the sense that the author reserves the right to change or remove them
       without notice.

   new
        my $re = PPIx::Regexp->new('/foo/');

       This method instantiates a "PPIx::Regexp" object from a string, a
       PPI::Token::QuoteLike::Regexp, a PPI::Token::Regexp::Match, or a
       PPI::Token::Regexp::Substitute.  Honestly, any PPI::Element will work, but only the three
       Regexp classes mentioned previously are likely to do anything useful.

       Whatever form the argument takes, it is assumed to consist entirely of a valid match,
       substitution, or "qr<>" string.

       Optionally you can pass one or more name/value pairs after the regular expression. The
       possible options are:

       default_modifiers array_reference
           This option specifies a reference to an array of default modifiers to apply to the
           regular expression being parsed. Each modifier is specified as a string. Any actual
           modifiers found supersede the defaults.

           When applying the defaults, '?' and '/' are completely ignored, and '^' is ignored
           unless it occurs at the beginning of the modifier.  The first dash ('-') causes
           subsequent modifiers to be negated.

           So, for example, if you wish to produce a "PPIx::Regexp" object representing the
           regular expression in

            use re '/smx';
            {
               no re '/x';
               m/ foo /;
            }

           you would (after some help from PPI in finding the relevant statements), do something
           like

            my $re = PPIx::Regexp->new( 'm/ foo /',
                default_modifiers => [ '/smx', '-/x' ] );

       encoding name
           This option specifies the encoding of the regular expression. This is passed to the
           tokenizer, which will "decode" the regular expression string before it tokenizes it.
           For example:

            my $re = PPIx::Regexp->new( '/foo/',
                encoding => 'iso-8859-1',
            );

       parse parse_type
           This option specifies what kind of parse is to be done. Possible values are 'regex',
           'string', or 'guess'. Any value but 'regex' is experimental.

           As it turns out, I consider parsing non-regexp quote-like things with this class to be
           a failed experiment, and the relevant functionality is being deprecated and removed in
           favor of PPIx::QuoteLike. See above for details.

           If 'regex' is specified, the first argument is expected to be a valid regex, and
           parsed as though it were.

           If 'string' is specified, the first argument is expected to be a valid string literal
           and parsed as such. The return is still a "PPIx::Regexp" object, but the
           regular_expression() and modifier() methods return nothing, and the replacement()
           method returns the content of the string.

           If 'guess' is specified, this method will try to guess what the first argument is. If
           the first argument is a PPI::Element, the guess will reflect the PPI parse. But the
           guess can be wrong if the first argument is a string representing an unusually-
           delimited regex.  For example, 'guess' will parse "foo" as a string, but Perl will
           parse it as a regex if preceded by a regex binding operator (e.g. "$x =~ "foo""), as
           shown by

            perl -MO=Deparse -e '$x =~ "foo"'

           which prints

            $x =~ /foo/u

           under Perl 5.22.0.

           The default is 'regex'.

       postderef boolean
           This option is passed on to the tokenizer, where it specifies whether postfix
           dereferences are recognized in interpolations and code. This experimental feature was
           introduced in Perl 5.19.5.

           The default is the value of $PPIx::Regexp::Tokenizer::DEFAULT_POSTDEREF, which is
           true. When originally introduced this was false, but was documented as becoming true
           when and if postfix dereferencing became mainstream. The  intent to mainstream was
           announced with Perl 5.23.1, and became official (so to speak) with Perl 5.24.0, so the
           default became true with PPIx::Regexp 0.049_01.

           Note that if PPI starts unconditionally recognizing postfix dereferences, this
           argument will immediately become ignored, and will be put through a deprecation cycle
           and removed.

       strict boolean
           This option is passed on to the tokenizer and lexer, where it specifies whether the
           parse should assume "use re 'strict'" is in effect.

           The 'strict' pragma was introduced in Perl 5.22, and its documentation says that it is
           experimental, and that there is no commitment to backward compatibility. The same
           applies to the parse produced when this option is asserted. Also, the usual caveat
           applies: if "use re 'strict'" ends up being retracted, this option and all related
           functionality will be also.

           Given the nature of "use re 'strict'", you should expect that if you assert this
           option, regular expressions that previously parsed without error might no longer do
           so. If an element ends up being declared an error because this option is set, its
           "perl_version_introduced()" will be the Perl version at which "use re 'strict'"
           started rejecting these elements.

           The default is false.

       trace number
           If greater than zero, this option causes trace output from the parse.  The author
           reserves the right to change or eliminate this without notice.

       Passing optional input other than the above is not an error, but neither is it supported.

   new_from_cache
       This static method wraps "new" in a caching mechanism. Only one object will be generated
       for a given PPI::Element, no matter how many times this method is called. Calls after the
       first for a given PPI::Element simply return the same "PPIx::Regexp" object.

       When the "PPIx::Regexp" object is returned from cache, the values of the optional
       arguments are ignored.

       Calls to this method with the regular expression in a string rather than a PPI::Element
       will not be cached.

       Caveat: This method is provided for code like Perl::Critic which might instantiate the
       same object multiple times. The cache will persist until "flush_cache" is called.

   flush_cache
        $re->flush_cache();            # Remove $re from cache
        PPIx::Regexp->flush_cache();   # Empty the cache

       This method flushes the cache used by "new_from_cache". If called as a static method with
       no arguments, the entire cache is emptied. Otherwise any objects specified are removed
       from the cache.

   capture_names
        foreach my $name ( $re->capture_names() ) {
            print "Capture name '$name'\n";
        }

       This convenience method returns the capture names found in the regular expression.

       This method is equivalent to

        $self->regular_expression()->capture_names();

       except that if "$self->regular_expression()" returns "undef" (meaning that something went
       terribly wrong with the parse) this method will simply return.

   delimiters
        print join("\t", PPIx::Regexp->new('s/foo/bar/')->delimiters());
        # prints '//      //'

       When called in list context, this method returns either one or two strings, depending on
       whether the parsed expression has a replacement string. In the case of non-bracketed
       substitutions, the start delimiter of the replacement string is considered to be the same
       as its finish delimiter, as illustrated by the above example.

       When called in scalar context, you get the delimiters of the regular expression; that is,
       element 0 of the array that is returned in list context.

       Optionally, you can pass an index value and the corresponding delimiters will be returned;
       index 0 represents the regular expression's delimiters, and index 1 represents the
       replacement string's delimiters, which may be undef. For example,

        print PPIx::Regexp->new('s{foo}<bar>')->delimiters(1);
        # prints '<>'

       If the object was not initialized with a valid regexp of some sort, the results of this
       method are undefined.

   errstr
       This static method returns the error string from the most recent attempt to instantiate a
       "PPIx::Regexp". It will be "undef" if the most recent attempt succeeded.

   extract_regexps
        my $doc = PPI::Document->new( $path );
        $doc->index_locations();
        my @res = PPIx::Regexp->extract_regexps( $doc )

       This convenience (well, sort-of) static method takes as its argument a PPI::Document
       object and returns "PPIx::Regexp" objects corresponding to all regular expressions found
       in it, in the order in which they occur in the document. You will need to keep a reference
       to the original PPI::Document object if you wish to be able to recover the original
       PPI::Element objects via the PPIx::Regexp source() method.

   failures
        print "There were ", $re->failures(), " parse failures\n";

       This method returns the number of parse failures. This is a count of the number of unknown
       tokens plus the number of unterminated structures plus the number of unmatched right
       brackets of any sort.

   max_capture_number
        print "Highest used capture number ",
            $re->max_capture_number(), "\n";

       This convenience method returns the highest capture number used by the regular expression.
       If there are no captures, the return will be 0.

       This method is equivalent to

        $self->regular_expression()->max_capture_number();

       except that if "$self->regular_expression()" returns "undef" (meaning that something went
       terribly wrong with the parse) this method will too.

   modifier
        my $re = PPIx::Regexp->new( 's/(foo)/${1}bar/smx' );
        print $re->modifier()->content(), "\n";
        # prints 'smx'.

       This method retrieves the modifier of the object. This comes from the end of the
       initializing string or object and will be a PPIx::Regexp::Token::Modifier.

       Note that this object represents the actual modifiers present on the regexp, and does not
       take into account any that may have been applied by default (i.e. via the
       "default_modifiers" argument to "new()"). For something that takes account of default
       modifiers, see modifier_asserted(), below.

       In the event of a parse failure, there may not be a modifier present, in which case
       nothing is returned.

   modifier_asserted
        my $re = PPIx::Regexp->new( '/ . /',
            default_modifiers => [ 'smx' ] );
        print $re->modifier_asserted( 'x' ) ? "yes\n" : "no\n";
        # prints 'yes'.

       This method returns true if the given modifier is asserted for the regexp, whether
       explicitly or by the modifiers passed in the "default_modifiers" argument.

       Starting with version 0.036_01, if the argument is a single-character modifier followed by
       an asterisk (intended as a wild card character), the return is the number of times that
       modifier appears. In this case an exception will be thrown if you specify a multi-
       character modifier (e.g.  'ee*'), or if you specify one of the match semantics modifiers
       (e.g.  'a*').

   regular_expression
        my $re = PPIx::Regexp->new( 's/(foo)/${1}bar/smx' );
        print $re->regular_expression()->content(), "\n";
        # prints '/(foo)/'.

       This method returns that portion of the object which actually represents a regular
       expression.

   replacement
        my $re = PPIx::Regexp->new( 's/(foo)/${1}bar/smx' );
        print $re->replacement()->content(), "\n";
        # prints '${1}bar/'.

       This method returns that portion of the object which represents the replacement string.
       This will be "undef" unless the regular expression actually has a replacement string.
       Delimiters will be included, but there will be no beginning delimiter unless the regular
       expression was bracketed.

   source
        my $source = $re->source();

       This method returns the object or string that was used to instantiate the object.

   type
        my $re = PPIx::Regexp->new( 's/(foo)/${1}bar/smx' );
        print $re->type()->content(), "\n";
        # prints 's'.

       This method retrieves the type of the object. This comes from the beginning of the
       initializing string or object, and will be a PPIx::Regexp::Token::Structure whose
       "content" is one of 's', 'm', 'qr', or ''.

RESTRICTIONS

       By the nature of this module, it is never going to get everything right.  Many of the
       known problem areas involve interpolations one way or another.

   Ambiguous Syntax
       Perl's regular expressions contain cases where the syntax is ambiguous.  A particularly
       egregious example is an interpolation followed by square or curly brackets, for example
       $foo[...]. There is nothing in the syntax to say whether the programmer wanted to
       interpolate an element of array @foo, or whether he wanted to interpolate scalar $foo, and
       then follow that interpolation by a character class.

       The perlop documentation notes that in this case what Perl does is to guess. That is, it
       employs various heuristics on the code to try to figure out what the programmer wanted.
       These heuristics are documented as being undocumented (!) and subject to change without
       notice. As an example of the problems even perl faces in parsing Perl, see
       <https://rt.perl.org/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=133027>.

       Given this situation, this module's chances of duplicating every Perl version's
       interpretation of every regular expression are pretty much nil.  What it does now is to
       assume that square brackets containing only an integer or an interpolation represent a
       subscript; otherwise they represent a character class. Similarly, curly brackets
       containing only a bareword or an interpolation are a subscript; otherwise they represent a
       quantifier.

   Changes in Syntax
       Sometimes the introduction of new syntax changes the way a regular expression is parsed.
       For example, the "\v" character class was introduced in Perl 5.9.5. But it did not
       represent a syntax error prior to that version of Perl, it was simply parsed as "v". So

        $ perl -le 'print "v" =~ m/\v/ ? "yes" : "no"'

       prints "yes" under Perl 5.8.9, but "no" under 5.10.0. "PPIx::Regexp" generally assumes the
       more modern parse in cases like this.

   Equivocation
       Very occasionally, a construction will be removed and then added back -- and then,
       conceivably, removed again. In this case, the plan is for perl_version_introduced() to
       return the earliest version in which the construction appeared, and perl_version_removed()
       to return the version after the last version in which it appeared (whether production or
       development), or "undef" if it is in the highest-numbered Perl.

       The constructions involved in this are:

       Un-escaped literal left curly after literal

       That is, something like "qr<x{>".

       This was made an error in 5.25.1, and it was an error in 5.26.0.  But it became a warning
       again in 5.27.1. The perl5271delta says it was re-instated because the changes broke GNU
       Autoconf, and the warning message says it will be removed in Perl 5.30.

       Accordingly, perl_version_introduced() returns 5.0. At the moment perl_version_removed()
       returns '5.025001'. But if it is present with or without warning in 5.28,
       perl_version_removed() will become "undef". If you need finer resolution than this, see
       PPIx::Regexp::Element methods l<accepts_perl()|PPIx::Regexp::Element/accepts_perl> and
       l<requirements_for_perl()|PPIx::Regexp::Element/requirements_for_perl>

   Static Parsing
       It is well known that Perl can not be statically parsed. That is, you can not completely
       parse a piece of Perl code without executing that same code.

       Nevertheless, this class is trying to statically parse regular expressions. The main
       problem with this is that there is no way to know what is being interpolated into the
       regular expression by an interpolated variable. This is a problem because the interpolated
       value can change the interpretation of adjacent elements.

       This module deals with this by making assumptions about what is in an interpolated
       variable. These assumptions will not be enumerated here, but in general the principal is
       to assume the interpolated value does not change the interpretation of the regular
       expression. For example,

        my $foo = 'a-z]';
        my $re = qr{[$foo};

       is fine with the Perl interpreter, but will confuse the dickens out of this module.
       Similarly and more usefully, something like

        my $mods = 'i';
        my $re = qr{(?$mods:foo)};

       or maybe

        my $mods = 'i';
        my $re = qr{(?$mods)$foo};

       probably sets a modifier of some sort, and that is how this module interprets it. If the
       interpolation is not about modifiers, this module will get it wrong. Another such semi-
       benign example is

        my $foo = $] >= 5.010 ? '?<foo>' : '';
        my $re = qr{($foo\w+)};

       which will parse, but this module will never realize that it might be looking at a named
       capture.

   Non-Standard Syntax
       There are modules out there that alter the syntax of Perl. If the syntax of a regular
       expression is altered, this module has no way to understand that it has been altered, much
       less to adapt to the alteration. The following modules are known to cause problems:

       Acme::PerlML, which renders Perl as XML.

       "Data::PostfixDeref", which causes Perl to interpret suffixed empty brackets as
       dereferencing the thing they suffix. This module by Ben Morrow ("BMORROW") appears to have
       been retracted.

       Filter::Trigraph, which recognizes ANSI C trigraphs, allowing Perl to be written in the
       ISO 646 character set.

       Perl6::Pugs. Enough said.

       Perl6::Rules, which back-ports some of the Perl 6 regular expression syntax to Perl 5.

       Regexp::Extended, which extends regular expressions in various ways, some of which seem to
       conflict with Perl 5.010.

SEE ALSO

       Regexp::Parsertron, which uses Marpa::R2 to parse the regexp, and Tree for navigation.
       Unlike "PPIx::Regexp|PPIx::Regexp", Regexp::Parsertron supports modification of the parse
       tree.

       Regexp::Parser, which parses a bare regular expression (without enclosing "qr{}", "m//",
       or whatever) and uses a different navigation model. After a long hiatus, this module has
       been adopted, and is again supported.

SUPPORT

       Support is by the author. Please file bug reports at <http://rt.cpan.org>, or in
       electronic mail to the author.

AUTHOR

       Thomas R. Wyant, III wyant at cpan dot org

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

       Copyright (C) 2009-2019 by Thomas R. Wyant, III

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl 5.10.0. For more details, see the full text of the licenses in the directory
       LICENSES.

       This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but without any warranty;
       without even the implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.