Provided by: libparse-bbcode-perl_0.15-1_all bug


       Parse::BBCode - Module to parse BBCode and render it as HTML or text


       Parse::BBCode parses common bbcode like

           [b]bold[/b] [size=10]big[/size]

       short tags like


       and custom bbcode tags.

       For the documentation of short tags, see "SHORT TAGS".

       To parse a bbcode string, set up a parser with the default HTML defintions of

           # render bbcode to HTML
           use Parse::BBCode;
           my $p = Parse::BBCode->new();
           my $code = 'some [b]b code[/b]';
           my $rendered = $p->render($code);

           # parse bbcode, manipulate tree and render
           use Parse::BBCode;
           my $p = Parse::BBCode->new();
           my $code = 'some [b]b code[/b]';
           my $tree = $p->parse($code);
           # do something with $tree
           my $rendered = $p->render_tree($tree);

       Or if you want to define your own tags:

           my $p = Parse::BBCode->new({
                   tags => {
                       # load the default tags

                       # add/override tags
                       url => 'url:<a href="%{link}A">%{parse}s</a>',
                       i   => '<i>%{parse}s</i>',
                       b   => '<b>%{parse}s</b>',
                       noparse => '<pre>%{html}s</pre>',
                       code => sub {
                           my ($parser, $attr, $content, $attribute_fallback) = @_;
                           if ($attr eq 'perl') {
                               # use some syntax highlighter
                               $content = highlight_perl($content);
                           else {
                               $content = Parse::BBCode::escape_html($$content);
                       test => 'this is klingon: %{klingon}s',
                   escapes => {
                       klingon => sub {
                           my ($parser, $tag, $text) = @_;
                           return translate_into_klingon($text);
           my $code = 'some [b]b code[/b]';
           my $parsed = $p->render($code);


       If you set up the Parse::BBCode object without arguments, the default tags are loaded, and
       any text outside or inside of parseable tags will go through a default subroutine which
       escapes HTML and replaces newlines with <br> tags. If you need to change this you can set
       the options 'url_finder', 'text_processor' and 'linebreaks'.

       new Constructor. Takes a hash reference with options as an argument.

               my $parser = Parse::BBCode->new({
                   tags => {
                       url => ...,
                       i   => ...,
                   escapes => {
                       link => ...,
                   close_open_tags   => 1, # default 0
                   strict_attributes => 0, # default 1
                   direct_attributes => 1, # default 1
                   url_finder        => 1, # default 0
                   smileys           => 0, # default 0
                   linebreaks        => 1, # default 1

               See "TAG DEFINITIONS"

               See "ESCAPES"

               See "URL FINDER"

               If you want to replace smileys with an icon:

                   my $parser = Parse::BBCode->new({
                           smileys => {
                               base_url => '/your/url/to/icons/',
                               icons => { qw/ :-) smile.png :-( sad.png / },
                               # sprintf format:
                               # first argument url
                               # second argument original text smiley (HTML escaped)
                               format => '<img src="%s" alt="%s">',
                               # if you need the url and text in a different order
                               # see perldoc -f sprintf, e.g.
                               # format => '<img alt="%2$s" src="%1$s">',

               This subroutine will be applied during the url_finder (or first, if url_finder is
               0), and the rest will get processed by the text procesor (default escaping html
               and replacing linebreaks).

               Smileys are only replaced if surrounded by whitespace or start/end of line/text.

                   [b]bold<hr> :-)[/b] :-(

               In this example both smileys will be replaced. The first smiley is at the end of
               the text because the text inside [b][/b] is processed on its own.

               Open to any suggestions here.

               The default text processor replaces linebreaks with <br>\n.  If you don't want
               this, set 'linebreaks' to 0.

               If you need to add any customized text processing (like smiley parsing, for
               example), you can pass a subroutine here. Note that this subroutine also needs to
               do HTML escaping itself!

               See "TEXT PROCESSORS"

               Default: 0

               If set to true (1), it will close open tags at the end or before block tags.

               Default: 1

               If set to true (1), tags with invalid attributes are left unparsed. If set to
               false (0), the attribute for this tags will be empty.

               An invalid attribute:

                   [foo=bar far boo]...[/foo]

               I might add an option to define your own attribute validation. Contact me if you'd
               like to have this.

               Default: 1

               Normal tag syntax is:

                 [tag=val1 attr2=val2 ...]

               If set to 0, tag syntax is

                 [tag attr2=val2 ...]

               You can change how the attribute values shuold be quoted.  Default is a double
               quote (which is still optional):

                 my $parser = Parse::BBCode->new(
                     attribute_quote => '"',
                 [tag="foo" attr="bar" attr2=baz]...[/tag]

               If you set it to single quote:

                 my $parser = Parse::BBCode->new(
                     attribute_quote => "'",
                 [tag='foo' attr=bar attr2='baz']...[/tag]

               You can also set it to both: "'"". Then both quoting types are allowed:

                 my $parser = Parse::BBCode->new(
                     attribute_quote => q/'"/,
                 [tag='foo' attr="bar" attr2=baz]...[/tag]

               You can pass a subref that overrides the default attribute parsing.  See
               "ATTRIBUTE PARSING"

               Default: 1

               Strips linebreaks at start/end of block tags

           Input: The text to parse, optional hashref

           Returns: the rendered text

               my $rendered = $parser->render($bbcode);

           You can pass an optional hashref with information you need inside of your self-defined
           rendering subs.  For example if you want to display code in a codebox with a link to
           download the code you need the id of the article (in a forum) and the number of the
           code tag.

               my $parsed = $parser->render($bbcode, { article_id => 23 });
               # in the rendering sub:
                   my ($parser, $attr, $content, $attribute_fallback, $tag, $info) = @_;
                   my $article_id = $parser->get_params->{article_id};
                   my $code_id = $tag->get_num;
                   # write downloadlink like
                   # in front of the displayed code

           See examples/ for a complete example of how to set up the rendering
           and how to extract the code from the tree. If run as a CGI skript it will give you a
           dialogue to save the code into a file, including a reasonable default filename.

           Input: The text to parse.

           Returns: the parsed tree (a Parse::BBCode::Tag object)

               my $tree = $parser->parse($bbcode);

           Input: the parse tree

           Returns: The rendered text

               my $parsed = $parser->render_tree($tree);

           You can pass an optional hashref, for explanation see "render"

               $parser->forbid(qw/ img url /);

           Disables the given tags.

               $parser->permit(qw/ img url /);

           Enables the given tags if they are in the tag definitions.

           Utility to substitute


           with their HTML entities.

               my $escaped = Parse::BBCode::escape_html($text);

           If the given bbcode is invalid (unbalanced or wrongly nested classes), currently
           Parse::BBCode::render() will either leave the invalid tags unparsed, or, if you set
           the option "close_open_tags", try to add closing tags.  If this happened "error()"
           will return the invalid tag(s), otherwise false.  To get the corrected bbcode (if you
           set "close_open_tags") you can get the tree and return the raw text from it:

               if ($parser->error) {
                   my $tree = $parser->get_tree;
                   my $corrected = $tree->raw_text;

           You can inherit from Parse::BBCode and define your own attribute parsing. See

           Returns a Parse::BBCode::Tag object.  It just does:

           If you want your own tag class, inherit from Parse::BBCode and let it return

       Here is an example of all the current definition possibilities:

           my $p = Parse::BBCode->new({
                   tags => {
                       i   => '<i>%s</i>',
                       b   => '<b>%{parse}s</b>',
                       size => '<font size="%a">%{parse}s</font>',
                       url => 'url:<a href="%{link}A">%{parse}s</a>',
                       wikipedia => 'url:<a href="http://wikipedia.../?search=%{uri}A">%{parse}s</a>',
                       noparse => '<pre>%{html}s</pre>',
                       quote => 'block:<blockquote>%s</blockquote>',
                       code => {
                           code => sub {
                               my ($parser, $attr, $content, $attribute_fallback) = @_;
                               if ($attr eq 'perl') {
                                   # use some syntax highlighter
                                   $content = highlight_perl($$content);
                               else {
                                   $content = Parse::BBCode::escape_html($$content);
                           parse => 0,
                           class => 'block',
                       hr => {
                           class => 'block',
                           output => '<hr>',
                           single => 1,

       The following list explains the above tag definitions:

               i => '<i>%s</i>'

               [i] italic <html> [/i]
               turns out as
               <i> italic &lt;html&gt; </i>

           So %s stands for the tag content. By default, it is parsed itself, so that you can
           nest tags.

               b   => '<b>%{parse}s</b>'

               [b] bold <html> [/b]
               turns out as
               <b> bold &lt;html&gt; </b>

           "%{parse}s" is the same as %s because 'parse' is the default.

               size => '<font size="%a">%{parse}s</font>'

               [size=7] some big text [/size]
               turns out as
               <font size="7"> some big text </font>

           So %a stands for the tag attribute. By default it will be HTML escaped.

       url tag, %A, "%{link}A"
               url => 'url:<a href="%{link}a">%{parse}s</a>'

           the first thing you can see is the "url:" at the beginning - this defines the url tag
           as a tag with the class 'url', and urls must not be nested. So this class definition
           is mainly there to prevent generating wrong HTML. if you nest url tags only the outer
           one will be parsed.

           another thing you can see is how to apply a special escape. The attribute defined with
           "%{link}a" is checked for a valid URL.  "javascript:" will be filtered.

               [url=/foo.html]a link[/url]
               turns out as
               <a href="/foo.html">a link</a>

           Note that a tag like


           will turn out as

               <a href=""></a>

           In the cases where the attribute should be the same as the content you should use %A
           instead of %a which takes the content as the attribute as a fallback. You probably
           need this in all url-like tags:

               url => 'url:<a href="%{link}A">%{parse}s</a>',

           You might want to define your own urls, e.g. for wikipedia references:

               wikipedia => 'url:<a href="http://wikipedia/?search=%{uri}A">%{parse}s</a>',

           "%{uri}A" will uri-encode the searched term:

               [wikipedia]Harold & Maude[/wikipedia]
               [wikipedia="Harold & Maude"]a movie[/wikipedia]
               turns out as
               <a href="http://wikipedia/?search=Harold+%26+Maude">Harold &amp; Maude</a>
               <a href="http://wikipedia/?search=Harold+%26+Maude">a movie</a>

       Don't parse tag content
           Sometimes you need to display verbatim bbcode. The simplest form would be a noparse

               noparse => '<pre>%{html}s</pre>'

               [noparse] [some]unbalanced[/foo] [/noparse]

           With this definition the output would be

               <pre> [some]unbalanced[/foo] </pre>

           So inside a noparse tag you can write (almost) any invalid bbcode.  The only exception
           is the noparse tag itself:

               [noparse] [some]unbalanced[/foo] [/noparse] [b]really bold[/b] [/noparse]


               [some]unbalanced[/foo] <b>really bold</b> [/noparse]

           Because the noparse tag ends at the first closing tag, even if you have an additional
           opening noparse tag inside.

           The "%{html}s" defines that the content should be HTML escaped.  If you don't want any
           escaping you can't say %s because the default is 'parse'. In this case you have to
           write "%{noescape}".

       Block tags
               quote => 'block:<blockquote>%s</blockquote>',

           To force valid html you can add classes to tags. The default class is 'inline'. To
           declare it as a block add "'block:"" to the start of the string.  Block tags inside of
           inline tags will either close the outer tag(s) or leave the outer tag(s) unparsed,
           depending on the option "close_open_tags".

       Define subroutine for tag
           All these definitions might not be enough if you want to define your own code, for
           example to add a syntax highlighter.

           Here's an example:

               code => {
                   code => sub {
                       my ($parser, $attr, $content, $attribute_fallback, $tag, $info) = @_;
                       if ($attr eq 'perl') {
                           # use some syntax highlighter
                           $content = highlight_perl($$content);
                       else {
                           $content = Parse::BBCode::escape_html($$content);
                   parse => 0,
                   class => 'block',

           So instead of a string you define a hash reference with a 'code' key and a sub
           reference.  The other key is "parse" which is 0 by default. If it is 0 the content in
           the tag won't be parsed, just as in the noparse tag above.  If it is set to 1 you will
           get the rendered content as an argument to the subroutine.

           The first argument to the subroutine is the Parse::BBCode object itself.  The second
           argument is the attribute, the third is the already rendered tag content as a scalar
           reference and the fourth argument is the attribute fallback which is set to the
           content if the attribute is empty. The fourth argument is just for convenience.  The
           fifth argument is the tag object (Parse::BBCode::Tag) itself, so if necessary you can
           get the original tag content by using:

               my $original = $tag->raw_text;

           The sixth argument is an info hash. It contains:

               my $info = {
                   tags => $tags,
                   stack => $stack,
                   classes => $classes,

           The variable $tags is a hashref which contains all tag names which are outside the
           current tag, with a count. This is convenient if you have to check if the current
           processed tag is inside a certain tag and you want to behave differently, like

               if ($info->{tags}->{special}) {
                   # we are somewhere inside [special]...[/special]

           The variable $stack contains an array ref with all outer tag names.  So while
           processing the tag 'i' in

               [quote][quote][b]bold [i]italic[/i][/b][/quote][/quote]

           it contains
               [qw/ quote quote b i /]

           The variable $classes contains a hashref with all tag classes and their counts outside
           of the current processed tag.  For example if you want to process URIs with URI::Find,
           and you are already in a tag with the class 'url' then you don't want to use URI::Find

               unless ($info->{classes}->{url}) {
                   # not inside of a url class tag ([url], [wikipedia, etc.)
                   # parse text for urls with URI::Find

           Sometimes you might want single tags like for a horizontal line:

               hr => {
                   class => 'block',
                   output => '<hr>',
                   single => 1,

           The hr-Tag is a block tag (should not be inside inline tags), and it has no closing
           tag (option "single")



           my $p = Parse::BBCode->new({
               escapes => {
                   link => sub {

       You can define or override escapes. Default escapes are html, uri, link, email, htmlcolor,
       num.  An escape functions as a validator and filter. For example, the 'link' escape looks
       if it got a valid URI (starting with "/" or "\w+://") and html-escapes it. It returns the
       empty string if the input is invalid.

       See "default_escapes" in Parse::BBCode::HTML for the detailed list of escapes.


       Usually one wants to also create hyperlinks from any url found in the bbcode, not only in
       url tags.  The following code will use URI::Find to search for all types of urls (unless
       inside of a url tag itself), create a link in the given format and html-escape the rest.
       If the url is longer than 50 chars, it will cut the link title and append three dots.  If
       you set max_length to 0, the title won't be cut.

           my $p = Parse::BBCode->new({
                   url_finder => {
                       max_length  => 50,
                       # sprintf format:
                       format      => '<a href="%s" rel="nofollow">%s</a>',
                   tags => ...

       Note: If you use the special tag '' in the tag definitions you will overwrite the url
       finder and have to do that yourself.


           my $p = Parse::BBCode->new({
                   url_finder => 1,

       This will use the default like shown above (max length 50 chars).

       Default is 0.


       There are two types of tags. The default (option direct_attributes=1):

           [foo=bar a=b c=d]
           [foo="text with space" a=b c=d]

       The parsed attribute structure will look like:

           [ ['bar'], ['a' => 'b'], ['c' => 'd'] ]

       Another bbcode variant doesn't use direct attributes:

           [foo a=b c=d]

       The resulting attribute structure will have an empty first element:

           [ [''], ['a' => 'b'], ['c' => 'd'] ]


       If you have bbcode attributes that don't fit into the two standard syntaxes you can
       inherit from Parse::BBCode and overwrite the parse_attributes method, or you can pass an
       option attribute_parser contaning a subref.


           [size=10]big[/size] [foo|bar|boo]footext[/foo] end

       The size tag should be parsed normally, the foo tag needs different parsing.

           sub parse_attributes {
               my ($self, %args) = @_;
               # $$text contains '|bar|boo]footext[/foo] end
               my $text = $args{text};
               my $tagname = $args{tag}; # 'foo'
               if ($tagname eq 'foo') {
                   # work on $$text
                   # result should be something like:
                   # $$text should contain 'footext[/foo] end'
                   my $valid = 1;
                   my @attr = ( [''], [1 => 'bar'], [2 => 'boo'] );
                   my $attr_string = '|bar|boo';
                   return ($valid, [@attr], $attr_string, ']');
               else {
                   return shift->SUPER::parse_attributes(@_);
           my $parser = Parse::BBCode->new({
               attribute_parser => \&parse_attributes,

       If the attributes are not valid, return

           0, [ [''] ], '|bar|boo', ']'

       If you don't find a closing square bracket, return:

           0, [ [''] ], '|bar|boo', ''


       If you set url_finder and linebreaks to 1, the default text processor will work like this:

           my $post_processor = \&sub_for_escaping_HTML;
           $text = code_to_replace_urls($text, $post_processor);
           $text =~ s/\r?\n|\r/<br>\n/g;
           return $text;

       It will be applied to text outside of bbcode and inside of parseable bbcode tags (and not
       to code tags or other tags with unparsed content).

       If you need an additional post processor this usually cannot be done after the HTML
       escaping and url finding. So if you write a text processor it must do the HTML escaping
       itself.  For example if you want to replace smileys with image tags you cannot simply do:

           $text =~ s/ :-\) /<img src=...>/g;

       because then the image tag would be HTML escaped after that.  On the other hand it's
       usually not possible to do something like that *after* the HTML escaping since that might
       introduce text sequences that look like a smiley (or whatever you want to replace).

       So a simple example for a customized text processor would be:

           url_finder     => 1,
           linebreaks     => 1,
           text_processor => sub {
               # for $info hash description see render() method
               my ($text, $info) = @_;
               my $out = '';
               while ($text =~ s/(.*)( |^)(:\))(?= |$)//mgs) {
                   # match a smiley and anything before
                   my ($pre, $sp, $smiley) = ($1, $2, $3);
                   # escape text and add smiley image tag
                   $out .= Parse::BBCode::escape_html($pre) . $sp . '<img src=...>';
               # leftover text
               $out .= Parse::BBCode::escape_html($text);
               return $out;

       This will result in: Replacing urls, applying your text_processor to the rest of the text
       and after that replace linebreaks with <br> tags.

       If you want to completely define the plain text processor yourself (ignoring the
       'linebreak', 'url_finder', 'smileys' and 'text_processor' options) you define the special
       tag with the empty string:

           my $p = Parse::BBCode->new({
               tags => {
                   '' => sub {
                       my ($parser, $attr, $content, $info) = @_;
                       return frobnicate($content);
                       # remember to escape HTML!


       It can be very convenient to have short tags like [foo://id].  This is not really a part
       of BBCode, but I consider it as quite similar, so I added it to this module.  For example
       to link to threads, cpan modules or wikipedia articles:

           [thread://123|custom title]
           # can be implemented so that it links to thread 123 in the forum
           # and additionally fetch the thread title.

           [cpan://Module::Foo|some useful module]

           [wikipedia://Harold & Maude]

       You can define a short tag by adding the option "short". The tag will work as a classic
       tag and short tag. If you only want to support the short version, set the option "classic"
       to 0.

           my $p = Parse::BBCode->new({
                   tags => {
                       wikipedia => {
                           short   => 1,
                           output  => '<a href="http://wikipedia/?search=%{uri}A">%{parse}s</a>',
                           class   => 'url',
                           classic => 0, # don't support classic [wikipedia]...[/wikipedia]
                       thread => {
                           code => sub {
                               my ($parser, $attr, $content, $attribute_fallback) = @_;
                               my $id = $attribute_fallback;
                               if ($id =~ tr/0-9//c) {
                                   return '[thread]' . encode_entities($id) . '[/thread]';
                               my $name;
                               if ($attr) {
                                   # custom title will be in $attr
                                   # [thread=123]custom title[/thread]
                                   # [thread://123|custom title]
                                   # already escaped
                                   $name = $$content;
                               return qq{<a href="/thread/$id">$name</a>};
                           short   => 1,
                           classic => 1, # default is 1


       I wrote this module because HTML::BBCode is not extendable (or I didn't see how) and
       BBCode::Parser seemed good at the first glance but has some issues, for example it says
       that the following bbode

           [code] foo [b] [/code]

       is invalid, while I think you should be able to write unbalanced code in code tags.  Also
       BBCode::Parser dies if you have invalid code or not-permitted tags, but in a forum you'd
       rather show a partly parsed text then an error message.

       What I also wanted is an easy syntax to define own tags, ideally - for simple tags - as
       plain text, so you can put it in a configuration file.  This allows forum admins to add
       tags easily. Some forums might want a tag for linking to, other forums need
       other tags.

       Another goal was to always output a result and don't die. I might add an option which lets
       the parser die with unbalanced code.


       Some forums and blogs prefer a kind of pseudo HTML for user comments.  The arguments
       against bbcode is usually: "Why should people learn an additional markup language if they
       can just use HTML?" The problem is that many people don't know HTML.

       BBCode is often a bit shorter, for example if you have a code tag with an attribute that
       tells the parser what language the content is in.

           <code language="perl">...</code>

       Also, forum HTML is usually not real HTML. It is usually a subset and sometimes with
       additional tags.  So in the backend you need to parse it anyway to turn it into real HTML.

       BBCode is widely known and used.  Unfortunately though, there is no specification; some
       forums only allow attributes in double quotes, some forums implement only one attribute
       that can be separated by spaces, which makes it difficult to parse if you want to support
       more than one attribute.

       I tried to support the most common syntax (attributes without quotes, in single or double
       quotes) and tags.  If you need additional tags it's relatively easy to implement them.
       For example in my forum I implemented a [more] tag that hides long text or code in thread
       view. Without Javascript you will see the expanded content when clicking on the single
       article, or with Javascript the content will be added inline via Ajax.


       BBCode to Textile|Markdown
           There is a Parse::BBCode::Markdown module which is only roughly tested.

       API The main syntax is likely to stay, only the API for callbacks might change. At the
           moment it is not possible to add callbacks to the parsing process, only for the
           rendering phase.


       perl >= 5.8.0, Class::Accessor::Fast, URI::Escape


       BBCode::Parser - a parser which supplies the parsed tree if necessary. Too strict though
       for using in forums where people write unbalanced bbcode

       HTML::BBCode - simple processor, no parse tree, good enough for processing usual bbcode
       with the most common tags

       HTML::BBReverse - really simple proccessor, just replaces start and end tags independently
       by their HTML aequivalents, so not very useful in many cases

       See "examples/compare.html" for a feature comparison of the modules and feel free to
       report mistakes.

       See "examples/" for a benchmark of the modules.


       Please report bugs at or


       Tina Mueller


       Thanks to Moritz Lenz for his suggestions about the implementation and the test cases.

       Viacheslav Tikhanovskii

       Sascha Kiefer


       Copyright (C) 2014 by Tina Mueller

       This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself, either Perl version 5.6.1 or, at your option, any later version of
       Perl 5 you may have available.