Provided by: libpath-class-perl_0.37-1_all bug


       Path::Class::Dir - Objects representing directories


       version 0.37


         use Path::Class;  # Exports dir() by default

         my $dir = dir('foo', 'bar');       # Path::Class::Dir object
         my $dir = Path::Class::Dir->new('foo', 'bar');  # Same thing

         # Stringifies to 'foo/bar' on Unix, 'foo\bar' on Windows, etc.
         print "dir: $dir\n";

         if ($dir->is_absolute) { ... }
         if ($dir->is_relative) { ... }

         my $v = $dir->volume; # Could be 'C:' on Windows, empty string
                               # on Unix, 'Macintosh HD:' on Mac OS

         $dir->cleanup; # Perform logical cleanup of pathname
         $dir->resolve; # Perform physical cleanup of pathname

         my $file = $dir->file('file.txt'); # A file in this directory
         my $subdir = $dir->subdir('george'); # A subdirectory
         my $parent = $dir->parent; # The parent directory, 'foo'

         my $abs = $dir->absolute; # Transform to absolute path
         my $rel = $abs->relative; # Transform to relative path
         my $rel = $abs->relative('/foo'); # Relative to /foo

         print $dir->as_foreign('Mac');   # :foo:bar:
         print $dir->as_foreign('Win32'); #  foo\bar

         # Iterate with IO::Dir methods:
         my $handle = $dir->open;
         while (my $file = $handle->read) {
           $file = $dir->file($file);  # Turn into Path::Class::File object

         # Iterate with Path::Class methods:
         while (my $file = $dir->next) {
           # $file is a Path::Class::File or Path::Class::Dir object


       The "Path::Class::Dir" class contains functionality for manipulating directory names in a
       cross-platform way.


       $dir = Path::Class::Dir->new( <dir1>, <dir2>, ... )
       $dir = dir( <dir1>, <dir2>, ... )
           Creates a new "Path::Class::Dir" object and returns it.  The arguments specify names
           of directories which will be joined to create a single directory object.  A volume may
           also be specified as the first argument, or as part of the first argument.  You can
           use platform-neutral syntax:

             my $dir = dir( 'foo', 'bar', 'baz' );

           or platform-native syntax:

             my $dir = dir( 'foo/bar/baz' );

           or a mixture of the two:

             my $dir = dir( 'foo/bar', 'baz' );

           All three of the above examples create relative paths.  To create an absolute path,
           either use the platform native syntax for doing so:

             my $dir = dir( '/var/tmp' );

           or use an empty string as the first argument:

             my $dir = dir( '', 'var', 'tmp' );

           If the second form seems awkward, that's somewhat intentional - paths like "/var/tmp"
           or "\Windows" aren't cross-platform concepts in the first place (many non-Unix
           platforms don't have a notion of a "root directory"), so they probably shouldn't
           appear in your code if you're trying to be cross-platform.  The first form is
           perfectly natural, because paths like this may come from config files, user input, or

           As a special case, since it doesn't otherwise mean anything useful and it's convenient
           to define this way, "Path::Class::Dir->new()" (or "dir()") refers to the current
           directory ("File::Spec->curdir").  To get the current directory as an absolute path,
           do "dir()->absolute".

           Finally, as another special case "dir(undef)" will return undef, since that's usually
           an accident on the part of the caller, and returning the root directory would be a
           nasty surprise just asking for trouble a few lines later.

           This method is called internally when a "Path::Class::Dir" object is used in a string
           context, so the following are equivalent:

             $string = $dir->stringify;
             $string = "$dir";

           Returns the volume (e.g. "C:" on Windows, "Macintosh HD:" on Mac OS, etc.) of the
           directory object, if any.  Otherwise, returns the empty string.

           Returns the last directory name of the path as a string.

           Returns a boolean value indicating whether this object represents a directory.  Not
           surprisingly, Path::Class::File objects always return false, and "Path::Class::Dir"
           objects always return true.

           Returns true or false depending on whether the directory refers to an absolute path
           specifier (like "/usr/local" or "\Windows").

           Returns true or false depending on whether the directory refers to a relative path
           specifier (like "lib/foo" or "./dir").

           Performs a logical cleanup of the file path.  For instance:

             my $dir = dir('/foo//baz/./foo')->cleanup;
             # $dir now represents '/foo/baz/foo';

           Performs a physical cleanup of the file path.  For instance:

             my $dir = dir('/foo//baz/../foo')->resolve;
             # $dir now represents '/foo/foo', assuming no symlinks

           This actually consults the filesystem to verify the validity of the path.

       $file = $dir->file( <dir1>, <dir2>, ..., <file> )
           Returns a Path::Class::File object representing an entry in $dir or one of its
           subdirectories.  Internally, this just calls "Path::Class::File->new( @_ )".

       $subdir = $dir->subdir( <dir1>, <dir2>, ... )
           Returns a new "Path::Class::Dir" object representing a subdirectory of $dir.

       $parent = $dir->parent
           Returns the parent directory of $dir.  Note that this is the logical parent, not
           necessarily the physical parent.  It really means we just chop off entries from the
           end of the directory list until we cain't chop no more.  If the directory is relative,
           we start using the relative forms of parent directories.

           The following code demonstrates the behavior on absolute and relative directories:

             $dir = dir('/foo/bar');
             for (1..6) {
               print "Absolute: $dir\n";
               $dir = $dir->parent;

             $dir = dir('foo/bar');
             for (1..6) {
               print "Relative: $dir\n";
               $dir = $dir->parent;

             ########### Output on Unix ################
             Absolute: /foo/bar
             Absolute: /foo
             Absolute: /
             Absolute: /
             Absolute: /
             Absolute: /
             Relative: foo/bar
             Relative: foo
             Relative: .
             Relative: ..
             Relative: ../..
             Relative: ../../..

       @list = $dir->children
           Returns a list of Path::Class::File and/or "Path::Class::Dir" objects listed in this
           directory, or in scalar context the number of such objects.  Obviously, it is
           necessary for $dir to exist and be readable in order to find its children.

           Note that the children are returned as subdirectories of $dir, i.e. the children of
           foo will be foo/bar and foo/baz, not bar and baz.

           Ordinarily "children()" will not include the self and parent entries "." and ".." (or
           their equivalents on non-Unix systems), because that's like I'm-my-own-grandpa
           business.  If you do want all directory entries including these special ones, pass a
           true value for the "all" parameter:

             @c = $dir->children(); # Just the children
             @c = $dir->children(all => 1); # All entries

           In addition, there's a "no_hidden" parameter that will exclude all normally "hidden"
           entries - on Unix this means excluding all entries that begin with a dot ("."):

             @c = $dir->children(no_hidden => 1); # Just normally-visible entries

       $abs = $dir->absolute
           Returns a "Path::Class::Dir" object representing $dir as an absolute path.  An
           optional argument, given as either a string or a "Path::Class::Dir" object, specifies
           the directory to use as the base of relativity - otherwise the current working
           directory will be used.

       $rel = $dir->relative
           Returns a "Path::Class::Dir" object representing $dir as a relative path.  An optional
           argument, given as either a string or a "Path::Class::Dir" object, specifies the
           directory to use as the base of relativity - otherwise the current working directory
           will be used.

       $boolean = $dir->subsumes($other)
           Returns true if this directory spec subsumes the other spec, and false otherwise.
           Think of "subsumes" as "contains", but we only look at the specs, not whether $dir
           actually contains $other on the filesystem.

           The $other argument may be a "Path::Class::Dir" object, a Path::Class::File object, or
           a string.  In the latter case, we assume it's a directory.

             # Examples:
             dir('foo/bar' )->subsumes(dir('foo/bar/baz'))  # True
             dir('/foo/bar')->subsumes(dir('/foo/bar/baz')) # True
             dir('foo/..')->subsumes(dir('foo/../bar))      # True
             dir('foo/bar' )->subsumes(dir('bar/baz'))      # False
             dir('/foo/bar')->subsumes(dir('foo/bar'))      # False
             dir('foo/..')->subsumes(dir('bar'))            # False! Use C<contains> to resolve ".."

       $boolean = $dir->contains($other)
           Returns true if this directory actually contains $other on the filesystem.  $other
           doesn't have to be a direct child of $dir, it just has to be subsumed after both paths
           have been resolved.

       $foreign = $dir->as_foreign($type)
           Returns a "Path::Class::Dir" object representing $dir as it would be specified on a
           system of type $type.  Known types include "Unix", "Win32", "Mac", "VMS", and "OS2",
           i.e. anything for which there is a subclass of "File::Spec".

           Any generated objects (subdirectories, files, parents, etc.) will also retain this

       $foreign = Path::Class::Dir->new_foreign($type, @args)
           Returns a "Path::Class::Dir" object representing $dir as it would be specified on a
           system of type $type.  Known types include "Unix", "Win32", "Mac", "VMS", and "OS2",
           i.e. anything for which there is a subclass of "File::Spec".

           The arguments in @args are the same as they would be specified in "new()".

       @list = $dir->dir_list([OFFSET, [LENGTH]])
           Returns the list of strings internally representing this directory structure.  Each
           successive member of the list is understood to be an entry in its predecessor's
           directory list.  By contract, "Path::Class->new( $dir->dir_list )" should be
           equivalent to $dir.

           The semantics of this method are similar to Perl's "splice" or "substr" functions;
           they return "LENGTH" elements starting at "OFFSET".  If "LENGTH" is omitted, returns
           all the elements starting at "OFFSET" up to the end of the list.  If "LENGTH" is
           negative, returns the elements from "OFFSET" onward except for "-LENGTH" elements at
           the end.  If "OFFSET" is negative, it counts backward "OFFSET" elements from the end
           of the list.  If "OFFSET" and "LENGTH" are both omitted, the entire list is returned.

           In a scalar context, "dir_list()" with no arguments returns the number of entries in
           the directory list; "dir_list(OFFSET)" returns the single element at that offset;
           "dir_list(OFFSET, LENGTH)" returns the final element that would have been returned in
           a list context.

           Identical to "dir_list()".  It exists because there's an analogous method "dir_list()"
           in the "Path::Class::File" class that also returns the basename string, so this method
           lets someone call "components()" without caring whether the object is a file or a

       $fh = $dir->open()
           Passes $dir to "IO::Dir->open" and returns the result as an IO::Dir object.  If the
           opening fails, "undef" is returned and $! is set.

       $dir->mkpath($verbose, $mode)
           Passes all arguments, including $dir, to "File::Path::mkpath()" and returns the result
           (a list of all directories created).

       $dir->rmtree($verbose, $cautious)
           Passes all arguments, including $dir, to "File::Path::rmtree()" and returns the result
           (the number of files successfully deleted).

           Removes the directory, which must be empty.  Returns a boolean value indicating
           whether or not the directory was successfully removed.  This method is mainly provided
           for consistency with "Path::Class::File"'s "remove()" method.

           An interface to File::Temp's "tempfile()" function.  Just like that function, if you
           call this in a scalar context, the return value is the filehandle and the file is
           "unlink"ed as soon as possible (which is immediately on Unix-like platforms).  If
           called in a list context, the return values are the filehandle and the filename.

           The given directory is passed as the "DIR" parameter.

           Here's an example of pretty good usage which doesn't allow race conditions, won't
           leave yucky tempfiles around on your filesystem, etc.:

             my $fh = $dir->tempfile;
             print $fh "Here's some data...\n";
             seek($fh, 0, 0);
             while (<$fh>) { do something... }

           Or in combination with a "fork":

             my $fh = $dir->tempfile;
             print $fh "Here's some more data...\n";
             seek($fh, 0, 0);
             if ($pid=fork()) {
             } else {
               something($_) while <$fh>;

       $dir_or_file = $dir->next()
           A convenient way to iterate through directory contents.  The first time "next()" is
           called, it will "open()" the directory and read the first item from it, returning the
           result as a "Path::Class::Dir" or Path::Class::File object (depending, of course, on
           its actual type).  Each subsequent call to "next()" will simply iterate over the
           directory's contents, until there are no more items in the directory, and then the
           undefined value is returned.  For example, to iterate over all the regular files in a

             while (my $file = $dir->next) {
               next unless -f $file;
               my $fh = $file->open('r') or die "Can't read $file: $!";

           If an error occurs when opening the directory (for instance, it doesn't exist or isn't
           readable), "next()" will throw an exception with the value of $!.

       $dir->traverse( sub { ... }, @args )
           Calls the given callback for the root, passing it a continuation function which, when
           called, will call this recursively on each of its children. The callback function
           should be of the form:

             sub {
               my ($child, $cont, @args) = @_;
               # ...

           For instance, to calculate the number of files in a directory, you can do this:

             my $nfiles = $dir->traverse(sub {
               my ($child, $cont) = @_;
               return sum($cont->(), ($child->is_dir ? 0 : 1));

           or to calculate the maximum depth of a directory:

             my $depth = $dir->traverse(sub {
               my ($child, $cont, $depth) = @_;
               return max($cont->($depth + 1), $depth);
             }, 0);

           You can also choose not to call the callback in certain situations:

             $dir->traverse(sub {
               my ($child, $cont) = @_;
               return if -l $child; # don't follow symlinks
               # do something with $child
               return $cont->();

       $dir->traverse_if( sub { ... }, sub { ... }, @args )
           traverse with additional "should I visit this child" callback.  Particularly useful in
           case examined tree contains inaccessible directories.

           Canonical example:

               sub {
                  my ($child, $cont) = @_;
                  # do something with $child
                  return $cont->();
               sub {
                  my ($child) = @_;
                  # Process only readable items
                  return -r $child;

           Second callback gets single parameter: child. Only children for which it returns true
           will be processed by the first callback.

           Remaining parameters are interpreted as in traverse, in particular
           "traverse_if(callback, sub { 1 }, @args" is equivalent to "traverse(callback, @args)".

       $dir->recurse( callback => sub {...} )
           Iterates through this directory and all of its children, and all of its children's
           children, etc., calling the "callback" subroutine for each entry.  This is a lot like
           what the File::Find module does, and of course "File::Find" will work fine on
           Path::Class objects, but the advantage of the "recurse()" method is that it will also
           feed your callback routine "Path::Class" objects rather than just pathname strings.

           The "recurse()" method requires a "callback" parameter specifying the subroutine to
           invoke for each entry.  It will be passed the "Path::Class" object as its first

           "recurse()" also accepts two boolean parameters, "depthfirst" and "preorder" that
           control the order of recursion.  The default is a preorder, breadth-first search, i.e.
           "depthfirst => 0, preorder => 1".  At the time of this writing, all combinations of
           these two parameters are supported except "depthfirst => 0, preorder => 0".

           "callback" is normally not required to return any value. If it returns special
           constant "Path::Class::Entity::PRUNE()" (more easily available as "$item->PRUNE"),  no
           children of analyzed item will be analyzed (mostly as if you set
           "$File::Find::prune=1"). Of course pruning is available only in "preorder", in
           postorder return value has no effect.

       $st = $file->stat()
           Invokes "File::stat::stat()" on this directory and returns a "File::stat" object
           representing the result.

       $st = $file->lstat()
           Same as "stat()", but if $file is a symbolic link, "lstat()" stats the link instead of
           the directory the link points to.

       $class = $file->file_class()
           Returns the class which should be used to create file objects.

           Generally overridden whenever this class is subclassed.


       Ken Williams,


       Path::Class, Path::Class::File, File::Spec