Provided by: librole-basic-perl_0.13-2_all bug

NAME

       Role::Basic - Just roles. Nothing else.

VERSION

       Version 0.13

SYNOPSIS

       In a role:

           package Does::Serialize::AsYAML;
           use Role::Basic;
           use YAML::Syck;
           requires 'as_hash';

           sub serialize {
               my $self = shift;
               return Dump( $self->as_hash );
           }

           1;

       In your class:

           package My::Class;
           use Role::Basic 'with';

           with qw(
               Does::Serialize::AsYAML
           );

           sub as_hash { ... } # because the role requires it

BETA CODE

       This code appears to be stable and currently passes over 300 tests. We've not (yet) heard
       of any bugs. There are no functional changes with this release.  It's merely here to let
       early-adopters know it's safe to give it a spin.

DESCRIPTION

       For an extended discussion, see
       <http://blogs.perl.org/users/ovid/2010/12/rolebasic---when-you-only-want-roles.html>.

       Sometimes you want roles. You're not sure about Moose, Mouse, Moo and what was that damned
       Squirrel thing anyway?  Then there's Class::Trait, but it has a funky syntax and the
       maintainer's deprecated it in favor of Moose::Role and you really don't care that it
       handles overloading, instance application or has a workaround for the SUPER:: bug.  You
       think a meta-object protocol sounds nifty, but you don't understand it.  Maybe you're not
       sure you want the syntactic sugar for object declaration.  Maybe you've convinced your
       colleagues that roles are a good idea but they're leery of dragging in Moose (your author
       has had this happen more than once and heard of others making the same complaint).
       Sometimes you just want good old-fashioned roles which let you separate class
       responsibility from code reuse.

       Whatever your reasons, this is the module you're looking for. It only provides roles and
       its major design goals are safety and simplicity.  It also aims to be a subset of
       Moose::Role behavior so that when/if you're ready to upgrade, there will be minimal pain.

DECLARING A ROLE

       To declare the current package as a role, simply add the following line to the package:

           use Role::Basic;

       You can then use "with" to consume other roles and "requires" to list the methods this
       role requires.  Note that the only methods the role will provide are methods declared
       directly in the role or consumed from other roles. Thus:

           package My::Role;
           use Role::Basic;
           use List::Util 'sum'; # this will not be provided by the role
           with 'Some::Other::Role'; # any methods from this role will be provided

           sub some_method {...} # this will be provided by the role

   Allowed methods in roles
       Warning: this functionality is experimental and is subject to change with no warning.

       As mentioned, methods imported into a role are not provided by that role.  However, this
       can make it very hard when you want to provide simple getters/setters. To get around this
       limitation, a role (and only roles, not classes) may specify one class which they 'allow'
       to provide additional methods:

           package My::Role;
           use Role::Basic allow => 'Class::BuildMethods';
           use Class::BuildMethods qw/foo bar/;

           # your role will now provide foo and bar methods
           # rest of role definition here

       Please note that if you do this, the code which provides these 'extra' methods should not
       provide them in a way which is incompatible with your objects. For example, many
       getter/setters generation classes assume you're using a blessed hashref. Most objects are,
       but the role should not make such an assumption about the class which consumes it. In the
       above example, we use Class::BuildMethods. It's agnostic about your object implementation,
       but it's slow.

       See <http://blogs.perl.org/users/ovid/2011/01/happy-new-yearroles.html> and search for
       'glue' to understand why this is important.

CONSUMING ROLES

       To declare the current package as a class that will use roles, simply add the following
       line to the package:

           use Role::Basic 'with';

       Just as with Moose, you can have "-alias", "-excludes", and "-version".

       Unlike Moose, we also provide a "-rename" target.  It combines "-alias" and "-excludes".
       This code:

           package My::Class;
           use Role::Basic 'with';

           with 'My::Role' => {
               -rename => { foo => 'baz', bar => 'gorch' },
           };

       Is identical to this code:

           package My::Class;
           use Role::Basic 'with';

           with 'My::Role' => {
               -alias    => { foo => 'baz', bar => 'gorch' },
               -excludes => [qw/foo bar/],
           };

EXPORT

       Both roles and classes will receive the following methods:

       ·   "with"

           "with" accepts a list and may only be called once per role or class. This is because
           calling it multiple times removes composition safety.  Just as with Moose::Role, any
           class may also have "-alias" or "-excludes".

               package My::Class;
               use Role::Basic 'with';

               with 'Does::Serialize::AsYAML' => { -alias => { serialize => 'as_yaml' } };

           And later:

               print $object->as_yaml;

       ·   "DOES"

           Returns true if the class or role consumes a role of the given name:

            if ( $class->DOES('Does::Serialize::AsYAML') ) {
               ...
            }

           Every role "DOES" itself.

       Further, if you're a role, you can also specify methods you require:

       ·   "requires"

               package Some::Role;
               use Role::Basic;

               # roles can consume other roles
               with 'Another::Role';

               requires qw(
                   first_method
                   second_method
                   another_method
               );

           In the example above, if "Another::Role" has methods it requires, they will be added
           to the requirements of "Some::Role".

DESIGN GOALS AND LIMITATIONS

       There are two overriding design goals for "Role::Basic": simplicity and safety.  We make
       it a bit harder to shoot yourself in the foot and we aim to keep the code as simple as
       possible.  Feature requests are welcomed, but will not be acted upon if they violate
       either of these two design goals.

       Thus, if you need something which "Role::Basic" does not support, you're strongly
       encouraged to consider Moose or Mouse.

       The following list details the outcomes of this module's goals.

       ·   Basic role support

           This includes composing into your class, composing roles from other roles, roles
           declaring requirements and conflict resolution.

       ·   Moose-like syntax

           To ease migration difficulties, we use a Moose-like syntax. If you wish to upgrade to
           Moose later, or you find that others on your project are already familiar with Moose,
           this should make "Role::Basic" easier to learn.

       ·   No handling of SUPER:: bug

           A well-known bug in OO Perl is that a SUPER:: method is invoked against the class its
           declared in, not against the class of the invocant. Handling this properly generally
           involves eval'ing a method directly into the correct package:

               eval <<"END_METHOD";
               package $some_package;

               sub some_method { ... }
               END_METHOD

           Or using a different method resolution order (MRO) such as with Class::C3 or friends.
           We alert you to this limitation but make no attempt to address it.  We consider this a
           feature because roles should not know or care how they are composed and probably
           should not know if a superclass exists.  This helps to keep this module simple, a
           primary design goal.

       ·   Composition Safety

           In addition to the normal conflict resolution, only one "with" statement is allowed:

               package Foo;
               use Role::Basic;
               with 'Some::Role';
               with 'Another::Role'; # boom!

           This is because when you have more than one "with" statement, the latter will ignore
           conflicts with the first. We could work around this, but this would be significantly
           different from the behavior of Moose.

       ·   Override Safety

           By default, we aim to behave like Moose::Role.  This means that if a class consuming a
           role has a method with the same name the role provides, the class silently wins.  This
           has been a somewhat contentious issue in the "Moose" community and the "silent"
           behaviour has won. However, there are those who prefer that they don't have their
           methods silently ignored. We provide two optional environment variables to handle
           this:

               $ENV{PERL_ROLE_OVERRIDE_WARN}
               $ENV{PERL_ROLE_OVERRIDE_DIE}

           If you prefer, you can set one of those to true and a class overridding a role's
           method will "warn" or "die", as appropriate.  As you might expect, you can handle this
           with normal role behaviour or exclusion or aliasing.

               package My::Class;
               use Role::Basic 'with';
               with 'My::Role' => { -excludes => 'conflicting_method' };

           From your author's email exchanges with the authors of the original traits paper
           (referenced here with permission), the "class silently wins" behaviour was not
           intended.  About this, Dr. Andrew P. Black wrote the following:

               Yes, it is really important that a programmer can see clearly when a trait
               method is being overridden -- just as it is important that it is clear
               when an inherited method is being overridden.

               In Smalltalk, where a program is viewed as a graph of objects, the obvious
               solution to this problem is to provide an adequate tool to show the
               programmer interesting properties of the program.  The original traits
               browser did this for Smalltalk; the reason that we implemented it is that
               traits were really NOT a good idea (that is,they were not very usable or
               maintainable) without it.  Since then, the same sort of "virtual
               protocols" have been built into the browser for other properties, like
               "overridden methods".

           Note that those are provided as environment variables and not as syntax in the code
           itself to help keep the code closer to the Moose syntax.

       ·   No instance application

           "Role::Basic" does not support applying roles to object instances.  This may change in
           the future.

       ·   No method modifiers

           These have been especially problematic.  Consider a "before" modifier which multiplies
           a value by 2 and another before modifier which divides a value by 3. The order in
           which those modifiers are applied becomes extremely important.  and role-consumption
           is no longer entirely declarative, but becomes partially procedural. This causes
           enough problems that on Sep 14, 2010 on the Moose mailing list, Stevan Little wrote:

               I totally agree [with the described application order problems], and if I
               had to do it over again, I would not have allowed method modifiers in
               roles. They ruin the unordered-ness of roles and bring about edge cases
               like this that are not so easily solved.

           Thus, "Role::Basic" does not and will not support method modifiers. If you need them,
           consider Moose.

AUTHOR

       Curtis 'Ovid' Poe, "<ovid at cpan.org>"

BUGS

       Please report any bugs or feature requests to "bug-role-basic at rt.cpan.org", or through
       the web interface at <http://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/ReportBug.html?Queue=Role-Basic>.  I will
       be notified, and then you'll automatically be notified of progress on your bug as I make
       changes.

SUPPORT

       You can find documentation for this module with the perldoc command.

           perldoc Role::Basic

       You can also look for information at:

       ·   RT: CPAN's request tracker

           <http://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/Bugs.html?Dist=Role-Basic>

       ·   AnnoCPAN: Annotated CPAN documentation

           <http://annocpan.org/dist/Role-Basic>

       ·   CPAN Ratings

           <http://cpanratings.perl.org/d/Role-Basic>

       ·   Search CPAN

           <http://search.cpan.org/dist/Role-Basic/>

SEE ALSO

       ·   Role::Tiny

       ·   Moose::Role

       ·   Mouse::Role

LICENSE AND COPYRIGHT

       Copyright 2010 Curtis 'Ovid' Poe.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of
       either: the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; or
       the Artistic License.

       See http://dev.perl.org/licenses/ for more information.