Provided by: libsoap-lite-perl_1.27-1_all bug


       SOAP::Lite - Perl's Web Services Toolkit


       SOAP::Lite is a collection of Perl modules which provides a simple and lightweight
       interface to the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) both on client and server side.


       As of version SOAP::Lite version 1.05, no perl versions before 5.8 will be supported.

       SOAP::Lite 0.71 will be the last version of SOAP::Lite running on perl 5.005

       Future versions of SOAP::Lite will require at least perl 5.6.0

       If you have not had the time to upgrade your perl, you should consider this now.


           SOAP::Lite - Main class provides all logic

           SOAP::Transport - Transport backend

           SOAP::Data - Data objects

           SOAP::Header - Header Data Objects

           SOAP::Serializer - Serializes data structures to SOAP messages

           SOAP::Deserializer - Deserializes SOAP messages into SOAP::SOM objects

           SOAP::SOM - SOAP Message objects

           SOAP::Constants - Provides access to common constants and defaults

           SOAP::Trace - Tracing facilities

           SOAP::Schema - Provides access and stub(s) for schema(s)

           SOAP::Schema::WSDL - WSDL implementation for SOAP::Schema

           SOAP::Server - Handles requests on server side

           SOAP::Server::Object - Handles objects-by-reference

           SOAP::Fault - Provides support for Faults on server side

           SOAP::Utils - A set of private and public utility subroutines

           SOAP::Packager - Provides an abstract class for implementing custom packagers.

           SOAP::Packager::MIME - Provides MIME support to SOAP::Lite

           SOAP::Packager::DIME - Provides DIME support to SOAP::Lite

           SOAP::Transport::HTTP::Client - Client interface to HTTP transport

           SOAP::Transport::HTTP::Server - Server interface to HTTP transport

           SOAP::Transport::HTTP::CGI - CGI implementation of server interface

           SOAP::Transport::HTTP::Daemon - Daemon implementation of server interface

           SOAP::Transport::HTTP::Apache - mod_perl implementation of server interface

           SOAP::Transport::POP3::Server - Server interface to POP3 protocol

           SOAP::Transport::MAILTO::Client - Client interface to SMTP/sendmail

           SOAP::Transport::LOCAL::Client - Client interface to local transport

           SOAP::Transport::TCP::Server - Server interface to TCP protocol

           SOAP::Transport::TCP::Client - Client interface to TCP protocol

           SOAP::Transport::IO::Server - Server interface to IO transport


       All accessor methods return the current value when called with no arguments, while
       returning the object reference itself when called with a new value.  This allows the set-
       attribute calls to be chained together.

       new(optional key/value pairs)
               $client = SOAP::Lite->new(proxy => $endpoint)

           Constructor. Many of the accessor methods defined here may be initialized at creation
           by providing their name as a key, followed by the desired value.  The example provides
           the value for the proxy element of the client.

       transport(optional transport object)
               $transp = $client->transport( );

           Gets or sets the transport object used for sending/receiving SOAP messages.

           See SOAP::Transport for details.

       serializer(optional serializer object)
               $serial = $client->serializer( )

           Gets or sets the serializer object used for creating XML messages.

           See SOAP::Serializer for details.

       packager(optional packager object)
               $packager = $client->packager( )

           Provides access to the "SOAP::Packager" object that the client uses to manage the use
           of attachments. The default packager is a MIME packager, but unless you specify parts
           to send, no MIME formatting will be done.

           See also: SOAP::Packager.

       proxy(endpoint, optional extra arguments)
               $client->proxy(' endPoint');

           The proxy is the server or endpoint to which the client is going to connect.  This
           method allows the setting of the endpoint, along with any extra information that the
           transport object may need when communicating the request.

           This method is actually an alias to the proxy method of SOAP::Transport.  It is the
           same as typing:

               $client->transport( )->proxy(...arguments);

           Extra parameters can be passed to proxy() - see below.

               See COMPRESSION in HTTP::Transport.

           All initialization options from the underlying transport layer
               The options for HTTP(S) are the same as for LWP::UserAgent's new() method.

               A common option is to create a instance of HTTP::Cookies and pass it as cookie_jar

                my $cookie_jar = HTTP::Cookies->new()
                   cookie_jar => $cookie_jar,

           For example, if you wish to set the HTTP timeout for a SOAP::Lite client to 5 seconds,
           use the following code:

             my $soap = SOAP::Lite
              ->proxy($proxyUrl, timeout => 5 );

           See LWP::UserAgent.

       endpoint(optional new endpoint address)
               $client->endpoint(' newPoint')

           It may be preferable to set a new endpoint without the additional work of examining
           the new address for protocol information and checking to ensure the support code is
           loaded and available. This method allows the caller to change the endpoint that the
           client is currently set to connect to, without reloading the relevant transport code.
           Note that the proxy method must have been called before this method is used.

       service(service URL)

           "SOAP::Lite" offers some support for creating method stubs from service descriptions.
           At present, only WSDL support is in place. This method loads the specified WSDL schema
           and uses it as the basis for generating stubs.


           When set to a true value, the raw XML is returned by the call to a remote method.

           The default is to return a SOAP::SOM object (false).


           This method is a shortcut for:


           By default, the serializer tries to automatically deduce types for the data being sent
           in a message. Setting a false value with this method disables the behavior.


           This method is a shortcut for:


           When this is used to set a true value for this property, the generated XML sent to the
           endpoint has extra characters (spaces and new lines) added in to make the XML itself
           more readable to human eyes (presumably for debugging).  The default is to not send
           any additional characters.

       headerattr(hash reference of attributes)
               $obj->headerattr({ attr1 => 'value' });

           Allows for the setting of arbitrary attributes on the header object. Keep in mind the
           requirement that
            any attributes not natively known to SOAP must be namespace-qualified.  If using
           $session->call ($method, $callData, $callHeader), SOAP::Lite serializes information as

                 <myMethod xmlns="">
                   <foo />

           The attributes, given to headerattr are placed into the Header as

               <soap:Header attr1="value">

       bodyattr(hash reference of attributes)
               $obj->bodyattr({ attr1 => 'value' });

           Allows for the setting of arbitrary attributes on the body object. Keep in mind the
           requirement that
            any attributes not natively known to SOAP must be namespace-qualified.  See

           Sets the default namespace for the request to the specified uri. This overrides any
           previous namespace declaration that may have been set using a previous call to "ns()"
           or "default_ns()". Setting the default namespace causes elements to be serialized
           without a namespace prefix, like this:

                 <myMethod xmlns="">
                   <foo />

           Some .NET web services have been reported to require this XML namespace idiom.

           Sets the namespace uri and optionally the namespace prefix for the request to the
           specified values. This overrides any previous namespace declaration that may have been
           set using a previous call to "ns()" or "default_ns()".

           If a prefix is not specified, one will be generated for you automatically.  Setting
           the namespace causes elements to be serialized with a declared namespace prefix, like

                 <my:myMethod xmlns:my="">
                   <my:foo />

           Deprecated. Use the "ns()" and "default_ns" methods described above.

           Shortcut for "serializer->use_prefix()". This lets you turn on/off the use of a
           namespace prefix for the children of the /Envelope/Body element.  Default is 'true'.

           When use_prefix is set to 'true', serialized XML will look like this:

             <SOAP-ENV:Envelope ...attributes skipped>
                 <namesp1:mymethod xmlns:namesp1="urn:MyURI" />

           When use_prefix is set to 'false', serialized XML will look like this:

             <SOAP-ENV:Envelope ...attributes skipped>
                 <mymethod xmlns="urn:MyURI" />

           Some .NET web services have been reported to require this XML namespace idiom.

       soapversion(optional value)

           If no parameter is given, returns the current version of SOAP that is being used by
           the client object to encode requests. If a parameter is given, the method attempts to
           set that as the version of SOAP being used.

           The value should be either 1.1 or 1.2.


           This method is a shortcut for:


           Gets or sets the namespace prefix for the SOAP namespace. The default is SOAP.

           The prefix itself has no meaning, but applications may wish to chose one explicitly to
           denote different versions of SOAP or the like.


           This method is a shortcut for:


           Gets or sets the namespace prefix for the encoding rules namespace.  The default value
           is SOAP-ENC.

       While it may seem to be an unnecessary operation to set a value that isn't relevant to the
       message, such as the namespace labels for the envelope and encoding URNs, the ability to
       set these labels explicitly can prove to be a great aid in distinguishing and debugging
       messages on the server side of operations.

       encoding(encoding URN)

           This method is a shortcut for:


           Where the earlier method dealt with the label used for the attributes related to the
           SOAP encoding scheme, this method actually sets the URN to be specified as the
           encoding scheme for the message. The default is to specify the encoding for SOAP 1.1,
           so this is handy for applications that need to encode according to SOAP 1.2 rules.


           This method is a shortcut for:


           Gives the application access to the type-lookup table from the serializer object. See
           the section on SOAP::Serializer.

       uri(service specifier)
           Deprecated - the "uri" subroutine is deprecated in order to provide a more intuitive
           naming scheme for subroutines that set namespaces. In the future, you will be required
           to use either the "ns()" or "default_ns()" subroutines instead of "uri()".


           This method is a shortcut for:


           The URI associated with this accessor on a client object is the service-specifier for
           the request, often encoded for HTTP-based requests as the SOAPAction header. While the
           names may seem confusing, this method doesn't specify the endpoint itself. In most
           circumstances, the "uri" refers to the namespace used for the request.

           Often times, the value may look like a valid URL. Despite this, it doesn't have to
           point to an existing resource (and often doesn't). This method sets and retrieves this
           value from the object. Note that no transport code is triggered by this because it has
           no direct effect on the transport of the object.


           This method is a shortcut for:


           Controls how the serializer handles values that have multiple references to them.
           Recall from previous SOAP chapters that a value may be tagged with an identifier, then
           referred to in several places. When this is the case for a value, the serializer
           defaults to putting the data element towards the top of the message, right after the
           opening tag of the method-specification. It is serialized as a standalone entity with
           an ID that is then referenced at the relevant places later on. If this method is used
           to set a true value, the behavior is different. When the multirefinplace attribute is
           true, the data is serialized at the first place that references it, rather than as a
           separate element higher up in the body. This is more compact but may be harder to read
           or trace in a debugging environment.

       parts( ARRAY )
           Used to specify an array of MIME::Entity's to be attached to the transmitted SOAP
           message. Attachments that are returned in a response can be accessed by

               $ref = SOAP::Lite->self;

           Returns an object reference to the default global object the "SOAP::Lite" package
           maintains. This is the object that processes many of the arguments when provided on
           the use line.

       The following method isn't an accessor style of method but neither does it fit with the
       group that immediately follows it:

               $client->call($method => @arguments);

           As has been illustrated in previous chapters, the "SOAP::Lite" client objects can
           manage remote calls with auto-dispatching using some of Perl's more elaborate
           features. call is used when the application wants a greater degree of control over the
           details of the call itself. The method may be built up from a SOAP::Data object, so as
           to allow full control over the namespace associated with the tag, as well as other
           attributes like encoding. This is also important for calling methods that contain
           characters not allowable in Perl function names, such as A.B.C.

       The next four methods used in the "SOAP::Lite" class are geared towards handling the types
       of events than can occur during the message lifecycle. Each of these sets up a callback
       for the event in question:

               $client->on_action(sub { qq("$_[0]") });

           Triggered when the transport object sets up the SOAPAction header for an HTTP-based
           call. The default is to set the header to the string, uri#method, in which URI is the
           value set by the uri method described earlier, and method is the name of the method
           being called. When called, the routine referenced (or the closure, if specified as in
           the example) is given two arguments, uri and method, in that order.

           .NET web services usually expect "/" as separator for "uri" and "method".  To change
           SOAP::Lite's behaviour to use uri/method as SOAPAction header, use the following code:

               $client->on_action( sub { join '/', @_ } );

               $client->on_fault(sub { popup_dialog($_[1]) });

           Triggered when a method call results in a fault response from the server.  When it is
           called, the argument list is first the client object itself, followed by the object
           that encapsulates the fault. In the example, the fault object is passed (without the
           client object) to a hypothetical GUI function that presents an error dialog with the
           text of fault extracted from the object (which is covered shortly under the SOAP::SOM

               $client->on_nonserialized(sub { die "$_[0]?!?" });

           Occasionally, the serializer may be given data it can't turn into SOAP-savvy XML; for
           example, if a program bug results in a code reference or something similar being
           passed in as a parameter to method call. When that happens, this callback is
           activated, with one argument. That argument is the data item that could not be
           understood. It will be the only argument. If the routine returns, the return value is
           pasted into the message as the serialization. Generally, an error is in order, and
           this callback allows for control over signaling that error.

               $client->on_debug(sub { print @_ });

           Deprecated. Use the global +debug and +trace facilities described in SOAP::Trace

           Note that this method will not work as expected: Instead of affecting the debugging
           behaviour of the object called on, it will globally affect the debugging behaviour for
           all objects of that class.


       This chapter guides you to writing a SOAP client by example.

       The SOAP service to be accessed is a simple variation of the well-known hello world
       program. It accepts two parameters, a name and a given name, and returns "Hello
       $given_name $name".

       We will use "Martin Kutter" as the name for the call, so all variants will print the
       following message on success:

        Hello Martin Kutter!

   SOAP message styles
       There are three common (and one less common) variants of SOAP messages.

       These address the message style (positional parameters vs. specified message documents)
       and encoding (as-is vs. typed).

       The different message styles are:

       ·   rpc/encoded

           Typed, positional parameters. Widely used in scripting languages.  The type of the
           arguments is included in the message.  Arrays and the like may be encoded using SOAP
           encoding rules (or others).

       ·   rpc/literal

           As-is, positional parameters. The type of arguments is defined by some pre-exchanged
           interface definition.

       ·   document/encoded

           Specified message with typed elements. Rarely used.

       ·   document/literal

           Specified message with as-is elements. The message specification and element types are
           defined by some pre-exchanged interface definition.

       As of 2008, document/literal has become the predominant SOAP message variant. rpc/literal
       and rpc/encoded are still in use, mainly with scripting languages, while document/encoded
       is hardly used at all.

       You will see clients for the rpc/encoded and document/literal SOAP variants in this

   Example implementations

       Rpc/encoded is most popular with scripting languages like perl, php and python without the
       use of a WSDL. Usual method descriptions look like this:

        Method: sayHello(string, string)
           name: string
           givenName: string

       Such a description usually means that you can call a method named "sayHello" with two
       positional parameters, "name" and "givenName", which both are strings.

       The message corresponding to this description looks somewhat like this:

        <sayHello xmlns="urn:HelloWorld">
          <s-gensym01 xsi:type="xsd:string">Kutter</s-gensym01>
          <s-gensym02 xsi:type="xsd:string">Martin</s-gensym02>

       Any XML tag names may be used instead of the "s-gensym01" stuff - parameters are
       positional, the tag names have no meaning.

       A client producing such a call is implemented like this:

        use SOAP::Lite;
        my $soap = SOAP::Lite->new( proxy => 'http://localhost:81/soap-wsdl-test/');
        my $som = $soap->call('sayHello', 'Kutter', 'Martin');
        die $som->faultstring if ($som->fault);
        print $som->result, "\n";

       You can of course use a one-liner, too...

       Sometimes, rpc/encoded interfaces are described with WSDL definitions.  A WSDL accepting
       "named" parameters with rpc/encoded looks like this:

        <definitions xmlns:soap=""
            <s:schema targetNamespace="urn:HelloWorld">
          <message name="sayHello">
            <part name="name" type="s:string" />
            <part name="givenName" type="s:string" />
          <message name="sayHelloResponse">
            <part name="sayHelloResult" type="s:string" />

          <portType name="Service1Soap">
            <operation name="sayHello">
              <input message="s0:sayHello" />
              <output message="s0:sayHelloResponse" />

          <binding name="Service1Soap" type="s0:Service1Soap">
            <soap:binding transport=""
                style="rpc" />
            <operation name="sayHello">
              <soap:operation soapAction="urn:HelloWorld#sayHello"/>
                <soap:body use="encoded"
                <soap:body use="encoded"
          <service name="HelloWorld">
            <port name="HelloWorldSoap" binding="s0:Service1Soap">
              <soap:address location="http://localhost:81/soap-wsdl-test/" />

       The message corresponding to this schema looks like this:

        <sayHello xmlns="urn:HelloWorld">
          <name xsi:type="xsd:string">Kutter</name>
          <givenName xsi:type="xsd:string">Martin</givenName>

       A web service client using this schema looks like this:

        use SOAP::Lite;
        my $soap = SOAP::Lite->service("file:say_hello_rpcenc.wsdl");
        eval { my $result = $soap->sayHello('Kutter', 'Martin'); };
        if ($@) {
            die $@;
        print $som->result();

       You may of course also use the following one-liner:

        perl -MSOAP::Lite -e 'print SOAP::Lite->service("file:say_hello_rpcenc.wsdl")\
          ->sayHello('Kutter', 'Martin'), "\n";'

       A web service client (without a service description) looks like this.

        use SOAP::Lite;
        my $soap = SOAP::Lite->new( proxy => 'http://localhost:81/soap-wsdl-test/');
        my $som = $soap->call('sayHello',
        die $som->faultstring if ($som->fault);
        print $som->result, "\n";


       SOAP web services using the document/literal message encoding are usually described by
       some Web Service Definition. Our web service has the following WSDL description:

        <definitions xmlns:soap=""
            <s:schema targetNamespace="urn:HelloWorld">
              <s:complexType name="sayHello">
                  <s:element minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" name="name"
                     type="s:string" />
                  <s:element minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" name="givenName"
                     type="s:string" nillable="1" />

              <s:complexType name="sayHelloResponse">
                  <s:element minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" name="sayHelloResult"
                     type="s:string" />
          <message name="sayHello">
            <part name="parameters" type="s0:sayHello" />
          <message name="sayHelloResponse">
            <part name="parameters" type="s0:sayHelloResponse" />

          <portType name="Service1Soap">
            <operation name="sayHello">
              <input message="s0:sayHello" />
              <output message="s0:sayHelloResponse" />

          <binding name="Service1Soap" type="s0:Service1Soap">
            <soap:binding transport=""
                style="rpc" />
            <operation name="sayHello">
              <soap:operation soapAction="urn:HelloWorld#sayHello"/>
                <soap:body use="literal" namespace="urn:HelloWorld"/>
                <soap:body use="literal" namespace="urn:HelloWorld"/>
          <service name="HelloWorld">
            <port name="HelloWorldSoap" binding="s0:Service1Soap">
              <soap:address location="http://localhost:80//" />

       The XML message (inside the SOAP Envelope) look like this:

        <ns0:sayHello xmlns:ns0="urn:HelloWorld">

        <sayHelloResponse xmlns:ns0="urn:HelloWorld">
               <sayHelloResult>Hello Martin Kutter!</sayHelloResult>

       This is the SOAP::Lite implementation for the web service client:

        use SOAP::Lite +trace;
        my $soap = SOAP::Lite->new( proxy => 'http://localhost:80/');

        $soap->on_action( sub { "urn:HelloWorld#sayHello" });

        my $som = $soap->call('sayHello', SOAP::Data->name('parameters')->value(
               SOAP::Data->name('name')->value( 'Kutter' ),

        die $som->fault->{ faultstring } if ($som->fault);
        print $som->result, "\n";


       SOAP web services using the document/literal message encoding are usually described by
       some Web Service Definition. Our web service has the following WSDL description:

        <definitions xmlns:soap=""
            <s:schema targetNamespace="urn:HelloWorld">
              <s:element name="sayHello">
                     <s:element minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" name="name" type="s:string" />
                      <s:element minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" name="givenName" type="s:string" nillable="1" />

               <s:element name="sayHelloResponse">
                     <s:element minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" name="sayHelloResult" type="s:string" />
           <message name="sayHelloSoapIn">
             <part name="parameters" element="s0:sayHello" />
           <message name="sayHelloSoapOut">
             <part name="parameters" element="s0:sayHelloResponse" />

           <portType name="Service1Soap">
             <operation name="sayHello">
               <input message="s0:sayHelloSoapIn" />
               <output message="s0:sayHelloSoapOut" />

           <binding name="Service1Soap" type="s0:Service1Soap">
             <soap:binding transport=""
                 style="document" />
             <operation name="sayHello">
               <soap:operation soapAction="urn:HelloWorld#sayHello"/>
                 <soap:body use="literal" />
                 <soap:body use="literal" />
           <service name="HelloWorld">
             <port name="HelloWorldSoap" binding="s0:Service1Soap">
               <soap:address location="http://localhost:80//" />

       The XML message (inside the SOAP Envelope) look like this:

        <sayHello xmlns="urn:HelloWorld">

          <sayHelloResult>Hello Martin Kutter!</sayHelloResult>

       You can call this web service with the following client code:

        use SOAP::Lite;
        my $soap = SOAP::Lite->new( proxy => 'http://localhost:80/');

        $soap->on_action( sub { "urn:HelloWorld#sayHello" });

        my $som = $soap->call("sayHello",
           SOAP::Data->name('name')->value( 'Kutter' ),

        die $som->fault->{ faultstring } if ($som->fault);
        print $som->result, "\n";

   Differences between the implementations
       You may have noticed that there's little difference between the rpc/encoded, rpc/literal
       and the document/literal example's implementation. In fact, from SOAP::Lite's point of
       view, the only differences between rpc/literal and document/literal that parameters are
       always named.

       In our example, the rpc/encoded variant already used named parameters (by using two
       messages), so there's no difference at all.

       You may have noticed the somewhat strange idiom for passing a list of named parameters in
       the rpc/literal example:

        my $som = $soap->call('sayHello', SOAP::Data->name('parameters')->value(
               SOAP::Data->name('name')->value( 'Kutter' ),

       While SOAP::Data provides full control over the XML generated, passing hash-like
       structures require additional coding.


       See SOAP::Server, or SOAP::Transport.


       "SOAP::Lite" features support for the SOAP with Attachments specification.  Currently,
       SOAP::Lite only supports MIME based attachments. DIME based attachments are yet to be
       fully functional.


       Client sending an attachment

       "SOAP::Lite" clients can specify attachments to be sent along with a request by using the
       "SOAP::Lite::parts()" method, which takes as an argument an ARRAY of "MIME::Entity"'s.

         use SOAP::Lite;
         use MIME::Entity;
         my $ent = build MIME::Entity
           Type        => "image/gif",
           Encoding    => "base64",
           Path        => "somefile.gif",
           Filename    => "saveme.gif",
           Disposition => "attachment";
         my $som = SOAP::Lite
           ->parts([ $ent ])
           ->some_method(SOAP::Data->name("foo" => "bar"));

       Client retrieving an attachment

       A client accessing attachments that were returned in a response by using the
       "SOAP::SOM::parts()" accessor.

         use SOAP::Lite;
         use MIME::Entity;
         my $soap = SOAP::Lite
         my $som = $soap->foo();
         foreach my $part (${$som->parts}) {
           print $part->stringify;

       Server receiving an attachment

       Servers, like clients, use the SOAP::SOM module to access attachments transmitted to it.

         package Attachment;
         use SOAP::Lite;
         use MIME::Entity;
         use strict;
         use vars qw(@ISA);
         @ISA = qw(SOAP::Server::Parameters);
         sub someMethod {
           my $self = shift;
           my $envelope = pop;
           foreach my $part (@{$envelope->parts}) {
             print "AttachmentService: attachment found! (".ref($part).")\n";
           # do something

       Server responding with an attachment

       Servers wishing to return an attachment to the calling client need only return
       "MIME::Entity" objects along with SOAP::Data elements, or any other data intended for the

         package Attachment;
         use SOAP::Lite;
         use MIME::Entity;
         use strict;
         use vars qw(@ISA);
         @ISA = qw(SOAP::Server::Parameters);
         sub someMethod {
           my $self = shift;
           my $envelope = pop;
           my $ent = build MIME::Entity
           'Id'          => "<1234>",
           'Type'        => "text/xml",
           'Path'        => "some.xml",
           'Filename'    => "some.xml",
           'Disposition' => "attachment";
           return SOAP::Data->name("foo" => "blah blah blah"),$ent;

       Though this feature looks similar to autodispatch they have (almost) nothing in common.
       This capability allows you specify default settings so that all objects created after that
       will be initialized with the proper default settings.

       If you wish to provide common "proxy()" or "uri()" settings for all "SOAP::Lite" objects
       in your application you may do:

         use SOAP::Lite
           proxy => 'http://localhost/cgi-bin/soap.cgi',
           uri => '';

         my $soap1 = new SOAP::Lite; # will get the same proxy()/uri() as above
         print $soap1->getStateName(1)->result;

         my $soap2 = SOAP::Lite->new; # same thing as above
         print $soap2->getStateName(2)->result;

         # or you may override any settings you want
         my $soap3 = SOAP::Lite->proxy('http://localhost/');
         print $soap3->getStateName(1)->result;

       Any "SOAP::Lite" properties can be propagated this way. Changes in object copies will not
       affect global settings and you may still change global settings with "SOAP::Lite->self"
       call which returns reference to global object. Provided parameter will update this object
       and you can even set it to "undef":


       The "use SOAP::Lite" syntax also lets you specify default event handlers for your code. If
       you have different SOAP objects and want to share the same "on_action()" (or "on_fault()"
       for that matter) handler. You can specify "on_action()" during initialization for every
       object, but you may also do:

         use SOAP::Lite
           on_action => sub {sprintf '%s#%s', @_};

       and this handler will be the default handler for all your SOAP objects. You can override
       it if you specify a handler for a particular object. See t/*.t for example of on_fault()

       Be warned, that since "use ..." is executed at compile time all "use" statements will be
       executed before script execution that can make unexpected results. Consider code:

         use SOAP::Lite proxy => 'http://localhost/';
         print SOAP::Lite->getStateName(1)->result;

         use SOAP::Lite proxy => 'http://localhost/cgi-bin/soap.cgi';
         print SOAP::Lite->getStateName(1)->result;

       Both SOAP calls will go to 'http://localhost/cgi-bin/soap.cgi'. If you want to execute
       "use" at run-time, put it in "eval":

         eval "use SOAP::Lite proxy => 'http://localhost/cgi-bin/soap.cgi'; 1" or die;

       Or alternatively,


       One feature of "SOAP::Lite" is the ability to control the maximum size of a message a
       SOAP::Lite server will be allowed to process. To control this feature simply define
       $SOAP::Constants::MAX_CONTENT_SIZE in your code like so:

         use SOAP::Transport::HTTP;
         use MIME::Entity;
         $SOAP::Constants::MAX_CONTENT_SIZE = 10000;

       "SOAP::Lite" gives you access to all parameters (both in/out and out) and also does some
       additional work for you. Lets consider following example:


       In that case:

         $result = $r->result; # gives you 'name1'
         $paramout1 = $r->paramsout;      # gives you 'name2', because of scalar context
         $paramout1 = ($r->paramsout)[0]; # gives you 'name2' also
         $paramout2 = ($r->paramsout)[1]; # gives you 'name3'


         @paramsout = $r->paramsout; # gives you ARRAY of out parameters
         $paramout1 = $paramsout[0]; # gives you 'res2', same as ($r->paramsout)[0]
         $paramout2 = $paramsout[1]; # gives you 'res3', same as ($r->paramsout)[1]

       Generally, if server returns "return (1,2,3)" you will get 1 as the result and 2 and 3 as
       out parameters.

       If the server returns "return [1,2,3]" you will get an ARRAY reference from "result()" and
       "undef" from "paramsout()".

       Results can be arbitrary complex: they can be an array references, they can be objects,
       they can be anything and still be returned by "result()" . If only one parameter is
       returned, "paramsout()" will return "undef".

       Furthermore, if you have in your output parameters a parameter with the same signature
       (name+type) as in the input parameters this parameter will be mapped into your input
       automatically. For example:

       Server Code:

         sub mymethod {
           shift; # object/class reference
           my $param1 = shift;
           my $param2 = SOAP::Data->name('myparam' => shift() * 2);
           return $param1, $param2;

       Client Code:

         $a = 10;
         $b = SOAP::Data->name('myparam' => 12);
         $result = $soap->mymethod($a, $b);

       After that, "$result == 10 and $b->value == 24"! Magic? Sort of.

       Autobinding gives it to you. That will work with objects also with one difference: you do
       not need to worry about the name and the type of object parameter. Consider the "PingPong"
       example (examples/My/ and examples/

       Server Code:

         package My::PingPong;

         sub new {
           my $self = shift;
           my $class = ref($self) || $self;
           bless {_num=>shift} => $class;

         sub next {
           my $self = shift;

       Client Code:

         use SOAP::Lite +autodispatch =>
           uri => 'urn:',
           proxy => 'http://localhost/';

         my $p = My::PingPong->new(10); # $p->{_num} is 10 now, real object returned
         print $p->next, "\n";          # $p->{_num} is 11 now!, object autobinded

       Let us scrutinize the deployment process. When designing your SOAP server you can consider
       two kind of deployment: static and dynamic. For both, static and dynamic,  you should
       specify "MODULE", "MODULE::method", "method" or "PATH/" when creating "use"ing the
       SOAP::Lite module. The difference between static and dynamic deployment is that in case of
       'dynamic', any module which is not present will be loaded on demand. See the "SECURITY"
       section for detailed description.

       When statically deploying a SOAP Server, you need to know all modules handling SOAP
       requests before.

       Dynamic deployment allows extending your SOAP Server's interface by just installing
       another module into the dispatch_to path (see below).


         use SOAP::Transport::HTTP;
         use My::Examples;           # module is preloaded

            # deployed module should be present here or client will get
            # 'access denied'
           -> dispatch_to('My::Examples')
           -> handle;

       For static deployment you should specify the MODULE name directly.

       You should also use static binding when you have several different classes in one file and
       want to make them available for SOAP calls.


         use SOAP::Transport::HTTP;
         # name is unknown, module will be loaded on demand

           # deployed module should be present here or client will get 'access denied'
           -> dispatch_to('/Your/Path/To/Deployed/Modules', 'My::Examples')
           -> handle;

       For dynamic deployment you can specify the name either directly (in that case it will be
       "require"d without any restriction) or indirectly, with a PATH. In that case, the ONLY
       path that will be available will be the PATH given to the dispatch_to() method). For
       information how to handle this situation see "SECURITY" section.


           # dynamic dispatch that allows access to ALL modules in specified directory
           # 1. specifies directory
           # -- AND --
           # 2. gives access to ALL modules in this directory without limits

           # static dispatch that allows access to ALL methods in particular MODULE
           #  1. gives access to particular module (all available methods)
           #  PREREQUISITES:
           #    module should be loaded manually (for example with 'use ...')
           #    -- OR --
           #    you can still specify it in PATH/TO/MODULES

           # static dispatch that allows access to particular method ONLY
           # same as MODULE, but gives access to ONLY particular method,
           # so there is not much sense to use both MODULE and MODULE::method
           # for the same MODULE

       In addition to this "SOAP::Lite" also supports an experimental syntax that allows you to
       bind a specific URL or SOAPAction to a CLASS/MODULE or object.

       For example:

           URI => MODULE,        # '' => 'My::Class',
           SOAPAction => MODULE, # '' => 'Another::Class',
           URI => object,        # '' => My::Class->new,

       "URI" is checked before "SOAPAction". You may use both the "dispatch_to()" and
       "dispatch_with()" methods in the same server, but note that "dispatch_with()" has a higher
       order of precedence. "dispatch_to()" will be checked only after "URI" and "SOAPAction" has
       been checked.


       "SOAP::Lite" provides you option to enable transparent compression over the wire.
       Compression can be enabled by specifying a threshold value (in the form of kilobytes) for
       compression on both the client and server sides:

       Note: Compression currently only works for HTTP based servers and clients.

       Client Code

         print SOAP::Lite
           ->proxy('http://localhost/', options => {compress_threshold => 10000})
           ->echo(1 x 10000)

       Server Code

         my $server = SOAP::Transport::HTTP::CGI
           ->options({compress_threshold => 10000})

       For more information see COMPRESSION in HTTP::Transport.


       For security reasons, the existing path for Perl modules (@INC) will be disabled once you
       have chosen dynamic deployment and specified your own "PATH/". If you wish to access other
       modules in your included package you have several options:

       1.  Switch to static linking:

              use MODULE;

           Which can also be useful when you want to import something specific from the deployed

              use MODULE qw(import_list);

       2.  Change "use" to "require". The path is only unavailable during the initialization
           phase. It is available once more during execution. Therefore, if you utilize "require"
           somewhere in your package, it will work.

       3.  Wrap "use" in an "eval" block:

              eval 'use MODULE qw(import_list)'; die if $@;

       4.  Set your include path in your package and then specify "use". Don't forget to put @INC
           in a "BEGIN{}" block or it won't work. For example,

              BEGIN { @INC = qw(my_directory); use MODULE }


   Microsoft .NET client with SOAP::Lite Server
       In order to use a .NET client with a SOAP::Lite server, be sure you use fully qualified
       names for your return values. For example:

         return SOAP::Data->name('myname')

       In addition see comment about default encoding in .NET Web Services below.

   SOAP::Lite client with a .NET server
       If experiencing problems when using a SOAP::Lite client to call a .NET Web service, it is
       recommended you check, or adhere to all of the following recommendations:

       Declare a proper soapAction in your call
           For example, use "on_action( sub { '';
           } )".

       Disable charset definition in Content-type header
           Some users have said that Microsoft .NET prefers the value of the Content-type header
           to be a mimetype exclusively, but SOAP::Lite specifies a character set in addition to
           the mimetype. This results in an error similar to:

             Server found request content type to be 'text/xml; charset=utf-8',
             but expected 'text/xml'

           To turn off this behavior specify use the following code:

             use SOAP::Lite;
             $SOAP::Constants::DO_NOT_USE_CHARSET = 1;
             # The rest of your code

       Use fully qualified name for method parameters
           For example, the following code is preferred:

             SOAP::Data->name(Query  => 'biztalk')

           As opposed to:

             SOAP::Data->name('Query'  => 'biztalk')

       Place method in default namespace
           For example, the following code is preferred:

             my $method = SOAP::Data->name('add')
                                    ->attr({xmlns => ''});
             my @rc = $soap->call($method => @parms)->result;

           As opposed to:

             my @rc = $soap->call(add => @parms)->result;
             # -- OR --
             my @rc = $soap->add(@parms)->result;

       Disable use of explicit namespace prefixes
           Some user's have reported that .NET will simply not parse messages that use namespace
           prefixes on anything but SOAP elements themselves. For example, the following XML
           would not be parsed:

             <SOAP-ENV:Envelope ...attributes skipped>
                 <namesp1:mymethod xmlns:namesp1="urn:MyURI" />

           SOAP::Lite allows users to disable the use of explicit namespaces through the
           "use_prefix()" method. For example, the following code:

             $som = SOAP::Lite->uri('urn:MyURI')

           Will result in the following XML, which is more palatable by .NET:

             <SOAP-ENV:Envelope ...attributes skipped>
                 <mymethod xmlns="urn:MyURI" />

       Modify your .NET server, if possible
           Stefan Pharies <>:

           SOAP::Lite uses the SOAP encoding (section 5 of the soap 1.1 spec), and the default
           for .NET Web Services is to use a literal encoding. So elements in the request are
           unqualified, but your service expects them to be qualified. .Net Web Services has a
           way for you to change the expected message format, which should allow you to get your
           interop working.  At the top of your class in the asmx, add this attribute (for Beta


           Another source said it might be this attribute (for Beta 2):


           Full Web Service text may look like:

             <%@ WebService Language="C#" Class="Test" %>
             using System;
             using System.Web.Services;
             using System.Xml.Serialization;

             public class Test : WebService {
               public int add(int a, int b) {
                 return a + b;

           Another example from Kirill Gavrylyuk <>:

           "You can insert [SoapRpcService()] attribute either on your class or on operation

             <%@ WebService Language=CS class="DataType.StringTest"%>

             namespace DataType {

               using System;
               using System.Web.Services;
               using System.Web.Services.Protocols;
               using System.Web.Services.Description;

              public class StringTest: WebService {
                public string RetString(string x) {

           Example from Yann Christensen <>:

             using System;
             using System.Web.Services;
             using System.Web.Services.Protocols;

             namespace Currency {
               public class Exchange {
                 public double getRate(String country, String country2) {
                   return 122.69;

       Special thanks goes to the following people for providing the above description and
       details on .NET interoperability issues:

       Petr Janata <>,

       Stefan Pharies <>,

       Brian Jepson <>, and others


       SOAP::Lite serializes "18373" as an integer, but I want it to be a string!
           SOAP::Lite guesses datatypes from the content provided, using a set of common-sense
           rules. These rules are not 100% reliable, though they fit for most data.

           You may force the type by passing a SOAP::Data object with a type specified:

            my $proxy = SOAP::Lite->proxy('');
            my $som = $proxy->myMethod(

           You may also change the precedence of the type-guessing rules. Note that this means
           fiddling with SOAP::Lite's internals - this may not work as expected in future

           The example above forces everything to be encoded as string (this is because the
           string test is normally last and always returns true):

             my @list = qw(-1 45 foo bar 3838);
             my $proxy = SOAP::Lite->uri($uri)->proxy($proxyUrl);
             my $lookup = $proxy->serializer->typelookup;
             $lookup->{string}->[0] = 0;

           See SOAP::Serializer for more details.

       "+autodispatch" doesn't work in Perl 5.8
           There is a bug in Perl 5.8's "UNIVERSAL::AUTOLOAD" functionality that prevents the
           "+autodispatch" functionality from working properly. The workaround is to use
           "dispatch_from" instead. Where you might normally do something like this:

              use Some::Module;
              use SOAP::Lite +autodispatch =>
                  uri => 'urn:Foo'
                  proxy => 'http://...';

           You would do something like this:

              use SOAP::Lite dispatch_from(Some::Module) =>
                  uri => 'urn:Foo'
                  proxy => 'http://...';

       Problems using SOAP::Lite's COM Interface
           Can't call method "server" on undefined value
               You probably did not register Lite.dll using "regsvr32 Lite.dll"

           Failed to load PerlCtrl Runtime
               It is likely that you have install Perl in two different locations and the
               location of ActiveState's Perl is not the first instance of Perl specified in your
               PATH. To rectify, rename the directory in which the non-ActiveState Perl is
               installed, or be sure the path to ActiveState's Perl is specified prior to any
               other instance of Perl in your PATH.

       Dynamic libraries are not found
           If you are using the Apache web server, and you are seeing something like the
           following in your webserver log file:

             Can't load '/usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/.../XML/Parser/Expat/'
               for module XML::Parser::Expat: dynamic linker: /usr/local/bin/perl:
      is NEEDED, but object does not exist at
               /usr/local/lib/perl5/.../ line 200.

           Then try placing the following into your httpd.conf file and see if it fixes your

            <IfModule mod_env.c>
                PassEnv LD_LIBRARY_PATH

       SOAP client reports "500 unexpected EOF before status line seen
           See "Apache is crashing with segfaults"

       Apache is crashing with segfaults
           Using "SOAP::Lite" (or XML::Parser::Expat) in combination with mod_perl causes random
           segmentation faults in httpd processes. To fix, try configuring Apache with the


           If you are using Apache 1.3.20 and later, try configuring Apache with the following

            ./configure --disable-rule=EXPAT

           See for more details and lot of
           thanks to Robert Barta <> for explaining this weird behavior.

           If this doesn't address the problem, you may wish to try "-Uusemymalloc", or a similar
           option in order to instruct Perl to use the system's own "malloc".

           Thanks to Tim Bunce <>.

       CGI scripts do not work under Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS)
           CGI scripts may not work under IIS unless scripts use the ".pl" extension, opposed to

       Java SAX parser unable to parse message composed by SOAP::Lite
           In some cases SOAP messages created by "SOAP::Lite" may not be parsed properly by a
           SAX2/Java XML parser. This is due to a known bug in
           "org.xml.sax.helpers.ParserAdapter". This bug manifests itself when an attribute in an
           XML element occurs prior to the XML namespace declaration on which it depends.
           However, according to the XML specification, the order of these attributes is not


           Thanks to Steve Alpert ( for pointing on it.


       Processing of XML encoded fragments
           "SOAP::Lite" is based on XML::Parser which is basically wrapper around James Clark's
           expat parser. Expat's behavior for parsing XML encoded string can affect processing
           messages that have lot of encoded entities, like XML fragments, encoded as strings.
           Providing low-level details, parser will call char() callback for every portion of
           processed stream, but individually for every processed entity or newline. It can lead
           to lot of calls and additional memory manager expenses even for small messages. By
           contrast, XML messages which are encoded as base64Binary, don't have this problem and
           difference in processing time can be significant. For XML encoded string that has
           about 20 lines and 30 tags, number of call could be about 100 instead of one for the
           same string encoded as base64Binary.

           Since it is parser's feature there is NO fix for this behavior (let me know if you
           find one), especially because you need to parse message you already got (and you
           cannot control content of this message), however, if your are in charge for both ends
           of processing you can switch encoding to base64 on sender's side. It will definitely
           work with SOAP::Lite and it may work with other toolkits/implementations also, but
           obviously I cannot guarantee that.

           If you want to encode specific string as base64, just do "SOAP::Data->type(base64 =>
           $string)" either on client or on server side. If you want change behavior for specific
           instance of SOAP::Lite, you may subclass "SOAP::Serializer", override "as_string()"
           method that is responsible for string encoding (take a look into "as_base64Binary()")
           and specify new serializer class for your SOAP::Lite object with:

             my $soap = new SOAP::Lite
               serializer => My::Serializer->new,
               ..... other parameters

           or on server side:

             my $server = new SOAP::Transport::HTTP::Daemon # or any other server
               serializer => My::Serializer->new,
               ..... other parameters

           If you want to change this behavior for all instances of SOAP::Lite, just substitute
           "as_string()" method with "as_base64Binary()" somewhere in your code after "use
           SOAP::Lite" and before actual processing/sending:

             *SOAP::Serializer::as_string = \&SOAP::XMLSchema2001::Serializer::as_base64Binary;

           Be warned that last two methods will affect all strings and convert them into base64
           encoded. It doesn't make any difference for SOAP::Lite, but it may make a difference
           for other toolkits.


       ·   No support for multidimensional, partially transmitted and sparse arrays (however
           arrays of arrays are supported, as well as any other data structures, and you can add
           your own implementation with SOAP::Data).

       ·   Limited support for WSDL schema.

       ·   XML::Parser::Lite relies on Unicode support in Perl and doesn't do entity decoding.

       ·   Limited support for mustUnderstand and Actor attributes.


           Information about XML::Parser for MacPerl could be found here:


           Compiled XML::Parser for MacOS could be found here:



   Transport Modules
       SOAP::Lite allows one to add support for additional transport protocols, or server
       handlers, via separate modules implementing the SOAP::Transport::* interface. The
       following modules are available from CPAN:

       ·   SOAP-Transport-HTTP-Nginx

           SOAP::Transport::HTTP::Nginx provides a transport module for nginx


       You can download the latest version SOAP::Lite for Unix or SOAP::Lite for Win32 from the
       following sources:

        * CPAN:      

       You are welcome to send e-mail to the maintainers of SOAP::Lite with your comments,
       suggestions, bug reports and complaints.


       Special thanks to Randy J. Ray, author of Programming Web Services with Perl, who has
       contributed greatly to the documentation effort of SOAP::Lite.

       Special thanks to O'Reilly publishing which has graciously allowed SOAP::Lite to republish
       and redistribute the SOAP::Lite reference manual found in Appendix B of Programming Web
       Services with Perl.

       And special gratitude to all the developers who have contributed patches, ideas, time,
       energy, and help in a million different forms to the development of this software.


       Latest development takes place on Come on by and fork it.

       Also see the HACKING file.

       Actively recruiting maintainers for this module. Come and get it on!


       Please use or github to report bugs. Pull requests are preferred.


       Copyright (C) 2000-2007 Paul Kulchenko. All rights reserved.

       Copyright (C) 2007-2008 Martin Kutter

       Copyright (C) 2013 Fred Moyer


       This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself.

       This text and all associated documentation for this library is made available under the
       Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 2.0 license.


       Paul Kulchenko (

       Randy J. Ray (

       Byrne Reese (

       Martin Kutter (

       Fred Moyer (