Provided by: libsql-statement-perl_1.412-1_all bug


        SQL::Parser -- validate and parse SQL strings


        use SQL::Parser;                                     # CREATE A PARSER OBJECT
        my $parser = SQL::Parser->new();

        $parser->feature( $class, $name, $value );           # SET OR FIND STATUS OF
        my $has_feature = $parser->feature( $class, $name ); # A PARSER FEATURE

        $parser->dialect( $dialect_name );                   # SET OR FIND STATUS OF
        my $current_dialect = $parser->dialect;              # A PARSER DIALECT


       SQL::Parser is part of the SQL::Statement distribution and, most interaction with the
       parser should be done through SQL::Statement.  The methods shown above create and modify a
       parser object.  To use the parser object to parse SQL and to examine the resulting
       structure, you should use SQL::Statement.

       Important Note: Previously SQL::Parser had its own hash-based interface for parsing, but
       that is now deprecated and will eventually be phased out in favor of the object-oriented
       parsing interface of SQL::Statement.  If you are unable to transition some features to the
       new interface or have concerns about the phase out, please contact me.  See "The Parse
       Structure" for details of the now-deprecated hash method if you still need them.


       Create a new parser object

        use SQL::Parser;
        my $parser = SQL::Parser->new();

       The new() method creates a SQL::Parser object which can then be used to parse and validate
       the syntax of SQL strings. It takes two optional parameters - 1) the name of the SQL
       dialect that will define the syntax rules for the parser and 2) a reference to a hash
       which can contain additional attributes of the parser.  If no dialect is specified,
       'AnyData' is the default.

        use SQL::Parser;
        my $parser = SQL::Parser->new( $dialect_name, \%attrs );

       The dialect_name parameter is a string containing any valid dialect such as 'ANSI',
       'AnyData', or 'CSV'.  See the section on the dialect() method below for details.

       The "attrs" parameter is a reference to a hash that can contain error settings for the
       PrintError and RaiseError attributes.

       An example:

         use SQL::Parser;
         my $parser = SQL::Parser->new('AnyData', {RaiseError=>1} );

         This creates a new parser that uses the grammar rules
         contained in the .../SQL/Dialects/ file and which
         sets the RaiseError attribute to true.

        $parser->dialect( $dialect_name );     # load a dialect configuration file
        my $dialect = $parser->dialect;        # get the name of the current dialect

        For example:

          $parser->dialect('AnyData');  # loads the AnyData config file
          print $parser->dialect;       # prints 'AnyData'

       The $dialect_name parameter may be the name of any dialect configuration file on your
       system.  Use the $parser->list('dialects') method to see a list of available dialects.  At
       a minimum it will include "ANSI", "CSV", and "AnyData".  For backwards compatibility
       'Ansi' is accepted as a synonym for 'ANSI', otherwise the names are case sensitive.

       Loading a new dialect configuration file erases all current parser features and resets
       them to those defined in the configuration file.

       Features define the rules to be used by a specific parser instance.  They are divided into
       the following classes:

           * valid_commands
           * valid_options
           * valid_comparison_operators
           * valid_data_types
           * reserved_words

       Within each class a feature name is either enabled or disabled. For example, under
       "valid_data_types" the name "BLOB" may be either disabled or enabled.  If it is not
       enabled (either by being specifically disabled, or simply by not being specified at all)
       then any SQL string using "BLOB" as a data type will throw a syntax error "Invalid data
       type: 'BLOB'".

       The feature() method allows you to enable, disable, or check the status of any feature.

        $parser->feature( $class, $name, 1 );             # enable a feature

        $parser->feature( $class, $name, 0 );             # disable a feature

        my $feature = $parser->feature( $class, $name );  # return status of a feature

        For example:

        $parser->feature('reserved_words','FOO',1);       # make 'FOO' a reserved word

        $parser->feature('valid_data_types','BLOB',0);    # disallow 'BLOB' as a
                                                          # data type

                                                          # determine if the LIKE
                                                          # operator is supported
        my $LIKE = $parser->feature('valid_comparison_operators','LIKE');

       See the section below on "Backwards Compatibility" for use of the feature() method with
       SQL::Statement 0.1x style parameters.

Supported SQL syntax

       The SQL::Statement distribution can be used to either just parse SQL statements or to
       execute them against actual data.  A broader set of syntax is supported in the parser than
       in the executor.  For example the parser allows you to specify column constraints like
       PRIMARY KEY.  Currently, these are ignored by the execution engine.  Likewise syntax such
       as RESTRICT and CASCADE on DROP statements or LOCAL GLOBAL TEMPORARY tables in CREATE are
       supported by the parser but ignored by the executor.

       To see the list of Supported SQL syntax formerly kept in this pod, see SQL::Statement.

Subclassing SQL::Parser

       In the event you need to either extend or modify SQL::Parser's default behavior, the
       following methods may be overridden:

           Processes the BETWEEN...AND... predicates; default converts to 2 range predicates.

           Process the IN (...list...) predicates; default converts to a series of OR'd '='
           predicate, or AND'd '<>' predicates for NOT IN.

           Abstract method; default simply returns the original string.  Called after repl_btwn()
           and repl_in(), but before any further predicate processing is applied. Possible uses
           include converting other predicate syntax not recognized by SQL::Parser into user-
           defined functions.

The parse structure

       This section outlines the now-deprecated hash interface to the parsed structure.  It is
       included for backwards compatibility only.  You should use the SQL::Statement object
       interface to the structure instead.  See SQL::Statement.

       Parse Structures

       Here are some further examples of the data structures returned by the structure() method
       after a call to parse().  Only specific details are shown for each SQL instance, not the
       entire structure.


       Once a SQL::Parser object has been created with the new() method, the parse() method can
       be used to parse any number of SQL strings.  It takes a single required parameter -- a
       string containing a SQL command.  The SQL string may optionally be terminated by a
       semicolon.  The parse() method returns a true value if the parse is successful and a false
       value if the parse finds SQL syntax errors.


         1) my $success = $parser->parse('SELECT * FROM foo');

         2) my $sql = 'SELECT * FROM foo';
            my $success = $parser->parse( $sql );

         3) my $success = $parser->parse(qq!
                SELECT id,phrase
                  FROM foo
                 WHERE id < 7
                   AND phrase <> 'bar'
              ORDER BY phrase;

         4) my $success = $parser->parse('SELECT * FRoOM foo ');

       In examples #1,#2, and #3, the value of $success will be true because the strings passed
       to the parse() method are valid SQL strings.

       In example #4, however, the value of $success will be false because the string contains a
       SQL syntax error ('FRoOM' instead of 'FROM').

       In addition to checking the return value of parse() with a variable like $success, you may
       use the PrintError and RaiseError attributes as you would in a DBI script:

        * If PrintError is true, then SQL syntax errors will be sent as
          warnings to STDERR (i.e. to the screen or to a file if STDERR
          has been redirected).  This is set to true by default which
          means that unless you specifically turn it off, all errors
          will be reported.

        * If RaiseError is true, then SQL syntax errors will cause the
          script to die, (i.e. the script will terminate unless wrapped
          in an eval).  This is set to false by default which means
          that unless you specifically turn it on, scripts will
          continue to operate even if there are SQL syntax errors.

       Basically, you should leave PrintError on or else you will not be warned when an error
       occurs.  If you are simply validating a series of strings, you will want to leave
       RaiseError off so that the script can check all strings regardless of whether some of them
       contain SQL errors.  However, if you are going to try to execute the SQL or need to depend
       that it is correct, you should set RaiseError on so that the program will only continue to
       operate if all SQL strings use correct syntax.

       IMPORTANT NOTE #1: The parse() method only checks syntax, it does NOT verify if the
       objects listed actually exist.  For example, given the string "SELECT model FROM cars",
       the parse() method will report that the string contains valid SQL but that will not tell
       you whether there actually is a table called "cars" or whether that table contains a
       column called 'model'.  Those kinds of verifications are performed by the SQL::Statement
       module, not by SQL::Parser by itself.

       IMPORTANT NOTE #2: The parse() method uses rules as defined by the selected dialect
       configuration file and the feature() method.  This means that a statement that is valid in
       one dialect may not be valid in another.  For example the 'CSV' and 'AnyData' dialects
       define 'BLOB' as a valid data type but the 'ANSI' dialect does not.  Therefore the
       statement 'CREATE TABLE foo (picture BLOB)' would be valid in the first two dialects but
       would produce a syntax error in the 'ANSI' dialect.


       After a SQL::Parser object has been created and the parse() method used to parse a SQL
       string, the structure() method returns the data structure of that string.  This data
       structure may be passed on to other modules (e.g. SQL::Statement) or it may be printed out
       using, for example, the Data::Dumper module.

       The data structure contains all of the information in the SQL string as parsed into its
       various components.  To take a simple example:

        $parser->parse('SELECT make,model FROM cars');
        use Data::Dumper;
        print Dumper $parser->structure;

       Would produce:

        $VAR1 = {
                 'column_defs' => [
                                     { 'type'  => 'column',
                                       'value' => 'make', },
                                     { 'type'  => 'column',
                                       'value' => 'model', },
                 'command' => 'SELECT',
                 'table_names' => [

        'SELECT make,model, FROM cars'

             command => 'SELECT',
             table_names => [ 'cars' ],
             column_names => [ 'make', 'model' ],

        'CREATE TABLE cars ( id INTEGER, model VARCHAR(40) )'

             column_defs => {
                 id    => { data_type => INTEGER     },
                 model => { data_type => VARCHAR(40) },

        'SELECT DISTINCT make FROM cars'

             set_quantifier => 'DISTINCT',

        'SELECT MAX (model) FROM cars'

           set_function   => {
               name => 'MAX',
               arg  => 'models',

        'SELECT * FROM cars LIMIT 5,10'

           limit_clause => {
               offset => 5,
               limit  => 10,

        'SELECT * FROM vars ORDER BY make, model DESC'

           sort_spec_list => [
               { make  => 'ASC'  },
               { model => 'DESC' },

        "INSERT INTO cars VALUES ( 7, 'Chevy', 'Impala' )"

           values => [ 7, 'Chevy', 'Impala' ],


       You can find documentation for this module with the perldoc command.

           perldoc SQL::Parser
           perldoc SQL::Statement

       You can also look for information at:

       ·   RT: CPAN's request tracker


       ·   AnnoCPAN: Annotated CPAN documentation


       ·   CPAN Ratings


       ·   Search CPAN


   Where can I go for help?
       For questions about installation or usage, please ask on the mailing
       list or post a question on PerlMonks (<>, where Jeff is known as
       jZed).  Jens does not visit PerlMonks on a regular basis.

       If you have a bug report, a patch or a suggestion, please open a new report ticket at CPAN
       (but please check previous reports first in case your issue has already been addressed).
       You can mail any of the module maintainers, but you are more assured of an answer by
       posting to the dbi-users list or reporting the issue in RT.

       Report tickets should contain a detailed description of the bug or enhancement request and
       at least an easily verifiable way of reproducing the issue or fix. Patches are always
       welcome, too.

   Where can I go for help with a concrete version?
       Bugs and feature requests are accepted against the latest version only. To get patches for
       earlier versions, you need to get an agreement with a developer of your choice - who may
       or not report the the issue and a suggested fix upstream (depends on the license you have

   Business support and maintenance
       For business support you can contact Jens via his CPAN email address
       Please keep in mind that business support is neither available for free nor are you
       eligible to receive any support based on the license distributed with this package.


        This module is

        copyright (c) 2001,2005 by Jeff Zucker and
        copyright (c) 2007-2017 by Jens Rehsack.

        All rights reserved.

       The module may be freely distributed under the same terms as Perl itself using either the
       "GPL License" or the "Artistic License" as specified in the Perl README file.

       Jeff can be reached at: Jens can be reached at: or via