Provided by: libtangram-perl_2.12-2_all bug


       Tangram::Schema - describe a system of persistent classes


          use Tangram;

          $schema = Tangram::Schema->new( $hashref );

          Tangram::Relational->connect( $schema, ... );

          # write SQL to FILE
          $schema->deploy( \*FILE );

          # write SQL to STDOUT


       A Schema contains all the information about the persistent aspects of a system of classes.
       That information is used to perform the mapping between OO constructs and a relational

       Schema objects are initialized from a nested data structure called a schema hash. The
       general structure of the schema hash is described here.

       The resulting Schema object becomes the owner of the schema hash passed to new(). The hash
       may not be modified afterwards, and no assumptions can be made regarding its content.

       note: No corresponding Perl classes are generated from calling "Tangram::Schema->new".  If
       you want that, and like the behaviour of the separately distributed "Class::Tangram"
       module, then you should pass the $hashref in the above example to the
       "Class::Tangram::Generator->new()" constructor.  See Class::Tangram::Generator for more


          $schema = Tangram::Schema->new( $hash );

       Returns a new Schema object.

       The newly created Schema object becomes the owner of the hash, which can no longer be
       modified nor reused by client code.

       The schema hash describes the persistent aspects of a system of classes. It is a
       multilevel data structure.

       1.  The first level of the hash contains information that is relevant to the system as a

       2.  The second level contains information on a per-class basis.

       3.  The third level contains information about the individual fields in a class. That
           information depends on the type of the field and is not documented here; see "field
           hash" for a list of predefined persistent types.

   Global properties
       The first level of the schema hash describes aspects that are global to a system of
       persistent classes. It has the following aspect:

             classes =>
               Identity =>
                   table => 'IdentityState',
                abstract => 1

                NaturalPerson =>
                   bases => [ qw( Identity ) ],

                LegalPerson =>
                   bases => [ qw( Identity ) ],

             make_object => sub { ... },
             set_id => sub { ... }
             get_id => sub { ... }
             normalize => sub { ... },

             control => '...'

             sql => { ... },

       "classes" is an array called the "class registry". It contains a description of each
       persistent class.

       "make_object" contains a reference to a closure that returns a new object of a given
       class. This field is optional: by default, Tangram calls class method new().

       "set_id" and "get_id" are used together to associate an object ID with a persistent
       object. By default, Tangram converts a reference to an object to a unique integer value by
       evaluating the expression "0 + $obj". The result is used as a key in a hash contained in
       the Storage object. The values in that hash are the object IDs.

       If any of your classes use overloading, this approach will not work and you will need to
       supply your own get/set_id methods.

       "control" is the name of a table that has a single row, containing the major and minor
       version numbers of the Tangram that created the storage, and the highest allocated object
       id. It defaults to 'Tangram'.

       Optional field "normalize" contains a subroutine that's called to transform classnames and
       fieldnames into table and column names. The function is called with two arguments; the
       name to be transformed, and a 'type' argument (currently one of 'tablename' or
       'fieldname'). The return value should be the transformed string.

       Note that it is expected that the normalize sub will return identical strings with
       identical arguments, that "normalize(normalize($string, $flag), $flag) eq
       normalize($string, $flag)"

       Optional field "sql" contains a hash that can be used to customize some of the SQL
       generated by Tangram.  The available options are:

       ·   default_null

           "default_null" can be used to deal with those databases that don't support the
           explicit 'NULL' specifier in column definitions.  Defaults to 'NULL'.  Note that this
           does not get automatically appended to attributes that have a SQL type explicitly

       ·   id

           Object ids encode the type of the object. Tangram assigns a class id to each
           persistent concrete class within a Schema. When an object is inserted, Tangram
           allocates a unique integer from a class-specific allocator, then appends the class id
           to it. Thus the object id for a NaturalPerson may look like 270005, where 0005 is the
           class id.

           Field "id" contains the SQL type that is used to map the rowid part of the object id.
           It defaults to 'INTEGER'.

       ·   oid_sequence

           If set, this is the name of a sequence to use as the default OID generator, should a
           particular class not define one.

           Sequences are an alternate way of generating unique identifiers for rows.  They are
           more scalable when you have high concurrency, but most people won't notice that.

           It is also possible to define an OID sequence on a per-class level; see below for

           Sequences are emulated on pretend databases like MySQL.

       ·   make_id

           This is a closure that is expected to return an unique ID.  It is called like this:

              $make_id->($class_id, $storage, $object)

           Where $class_id is the Class identifier for_the newly created object, and $storage is
           the Tangram::Storage object.  The $object is the instance of the object to be

       ·   cid

           Field "cid" contains the SQL type that is used to map the class id part of the object
           id. It defaults to 'INTEGER'.

       ·   cid_size

           Field "cid_size" contains the number of decimal positions that the class id occupies
           within the object id. It defaults to '4'.  This does not affect the database, only the
           in-memory representation of object IDs.

       ·   oid

           Historical spurious documentation bug.  Documentation described the function that the
           "id" option performs.

       ·   table_type

           Field "table_type" is a string that if set, will be appended to all CREATE TABLE
           commands with TYPE=x.  For instance, to use transactions with a MySQL database with
           InnoDB enabled, set "table_type" to "InnoDB", and (re)deploy your database.

       ·   dumper

           This field sets the default mechanism by which arbitrary structures are serialised to
           columns, in the absence of a portion of the Tangram schema covering their mapping.

           The default value is "Storable" (see Storable), seeing as Storable is something like
           the "native" serialisation mechanism for Perl.  Currently, this setting only applies
           to the idbif mapping type (see Tangram::Type::Dump::Any).

           It would make more sense for the default to be "YAML", but unfortunately YAML doesn't
           support dumping the entire range of native Perl data types, which sucks immensely.

       The other fields are related to the SQL types that Tangram uses to store meta-information.

   class registry
       The class registry is an array containing one entry per persistent class.  The array
       contains a list of "key => value" pairs.  The key is the class name, the value is a
       reference to a hash called the class hash. It contains information on how to map the

       The class hash can have the following fields:

       ·   abstract

       ·   bases

       ·   fields

       ·   table

       ·   table_type

       ·   id

       ·   oid_sequence

       ·   make_id

       Field "abstract" contains a boolean that should be true if the class is abstract. If this
       field is not present, the class is considered to be concrete.

       Field "bases" contains a reference to an array of base classes.

       Field "fields" contains a reference to the "field hash".

       Field "table" sets the name of the table that Tangram should use to store the state of
       objects pertaining to this class. This field is optional: it defaults to the class name.
       If the class name is not an acceptable SQL table identifier, you will need to set this

       Field "table_type" sets the type of the table, for instance, the storage back-end to the
       RDBMS or storage format; it specifies on a per-table basis what the "table_type" attribute
       of the schema defines.  You almost certainly don't want to set this on a per-table basis.

       Field "id" contains an integer identifier for this class. That identifier must be unique
       within the same schema. If this field is not present, Tangram sets it to the last class id
       plus one.

       Fields "oid_sequence" and "make_id" are per-class versions of their schema-wide versions
       documented above.  These should be inherited by their subclasses, but currently (as of
       2.07_06) aren't.  To be safe, until this documentation is fixed, define them in all

   field hash
       Each persistent type is identified by a 'typetag', e.g. "int", "string" or "array".

       All the persistent fields of a given type are grouped together inside the field hash,
       where the typetag is used as a key. The individual fields are specified in an array or a
       hash, whose layout is type-dependant. For example:

          fields =>
             string   => [ qw( firstName name ) ],
             int      => [ qw( age ) ],
             ref      => { partner => { null => 1 } },
             array    => { children => 'NaturalPerson' },

       The typetag not only specifies the type of a field, but also the way in which it should be
       mapped to SQL constructs. Sometimes the same Perl type lends itself to more than one
       mapping, for example there are at least two plausible ways of mapping a Perl array (see
       Tangram::Type::Array::FromMany and Tangram::Type::Array::FromOne).

       Tangram's persistent type system is extensible, allowing you to mount your own types and
       make them persistent. All you have to do is to register your type and provide mapping
       code. See Tangram::Type.

       Tangram comes with built-in support for the following types:

       * string, int, real: see Tangram::Type::Scalar

       * reference : see Tangram::Type::Ref::FromMany

       * array : see Tangram::Type::Array::FromMany, Tangram::Type::Array::FromOne

       * Set::Object : see Tangram::Type::Set::FromMany, Tangram::Type::Set::FromOne


       This method is deprecated. See Tangram::Relational.

       This method is deprecated. See Tangram::Relational.