Provided by: libtest-mockobject-perl_1.20180705-1_all bug


       Test::MockObject - Perl extension for emulating troublesome interfaces


         use Test::MockObject;
         my $mock = Test::MockObject->new();
         $mock->set_true( 'somemethod' );
         ok( $mock->somemethod() );

         $mock->set_true( 'veritas')
              ->set_false( 'ficta' )
              ->set_series( 'amicae', 'Sunny', 'Kylie', 'Bella' );


       It's a simple program that doesn't use any other modules, and those are easy to test.
       More often, testing a program completely means faking up input to another module, trying
       to coax the right output from something you're not supposed to be testing anyway.

       Testing is a lot easier when you can control the entire environment.  With
       Test::MockObject, you can get a lot closer.

       Test::MockObject allows you to create objects that conform to particular interfaces with
       very little code.  You don't have to reimplement the behavior, just the input and the

       Before you go wild with your testing powers, consider three caveats:

       ·   It is possible to write highly detailed unit tests that pass even when your
           integration tests may fail.  Testing the pieces individually does not excuse you from
           testing the whole thing together.

       ·   In cases where you only need to mock one or two pieces of an existing module, consider
           Test::MockObject::Extends instead.

       ·   If the code under testing produces strange errors about type checks, pass the "-debug"
           flag when using "Test::MockObject" or "Test::MockObject::Extends". This will load both
           UNIVERSAL::isa and UNIVERSAL::can to perform additional debugging on the incorrect use
           of both methods from the UNIVERSAL package. (This behavior used to be active by
           default, but that was, however correct, probably a burden to onerous for the CPAN.)


       The most important thing a Mock Object can do is to conform sufficiently to an interface.
       For example, if you're testing something that relies on, you may find it easier to
       create a mock object that returns controllable results at given times than to fake query
       string input.

       The Basics

       ·   "new"

           Creates a new mock object.  By default, this is a blessed hash.  Pass a reference to
           bless that reference.

               my $mock_array  = Test::MockObject->new( [] );
               my $mock_scalar = Test::MockObject->new( \( my $scalar ) );
               my $mock_code   = Test::MockObject->new( sub {} );
               my $mock_glob   = Test::MockObject->new( \*GLOB );


       Your mock object is nearly useless if you don't tell it what it's mocking.  This is done
       by installing methods.  You control the output of these mocked methods.  In addition, any
       mocked method is tracked.  You can tell not only what was called, but which arguments were
       passed.  Please note that you cannot track non-mocked method calls.  They will still be
       allowed, though Test::MockObject will carp() about them.  This is considered a feature,
       though it may be possible to disable this in the future.

       As implied in the example above, it's possible to chain these calls together.  Thanks to a
       suggestion from the fabulous Piers Cawley (CPAN RT #1249), this feature came about in
       version 0.09.  Shorter testing code is nice!

       ·   "mock(name, coderef)"

           Adds a coderef to the object.  This allows code to call the named method on the
           object.  For example, this code:

               my $mock = Test::MockObject->new();
               $mock->mock( 'fluorinate',
                   sub { 'impurifying precious bodily fluids' } );
               print $mock->fluorinate;

           will print a helpful warning message.  Please note that methods are only added to a
           single object at a time and not the class.  (There is no small similarity to the Self
           programming language or the Class::Prototyped module.)

           This method forms the basis for most of Test::MockObject's testing goodness.

           Please Note: this method used to be "add()".  Due to its ambiguity, it now has a
           different spelling.  For backwards compatibility purposes, add() is available, though
           version 0.07 deprecated it.  It goes to some contortions to try to do what you mean,
           but I make few guarantees.

       ·   "fake_module(module name), [ subname =" coderef, ... ]

           Note: See Test::MockModule for an alternate (and better) approach.

           Lies to Perl that it has already loaded a named module.  This is handy when providing
           a mockup of a real module if you'd like to prevent the actual module from interfering
           with the nice fakery.  If you're mocking Regexp::English, say:

               $mock->fake_module( 'Regexp::English' );

           This is both a class and as an object method.  Beware that this must take place before
           the actual module has a chance to load.  Either wrap it in a BEGIN block before a use
           or require or place it before a "use_ok()" or "require_ok()" call.

           You can optionally add functions to the mocked module by passing them as name =>
           coderef pairs to "fake_module()".  This is handy if you want to test an "import()":

               my $import;
                   import => sub { $import = caller }
               use_ok( 'Regexp::Esperanto' );
               is( $import, 'Regexp::Esperanto',
                   'Regexp::Esperanto should use() Regexp::English' );

           If you use "fake_module()" to mock a module that already exists in memory -- one
           you've loaded elsewhere perhaps, but do not pass any subroutines to mock, this method
           will throw an exception.  This is because if you call the constructor later on, you
           probably won't get a mock object back and you'll be confused.

       ·   "fake_new(module name)"

           Note: see Test::MockObject::Extends for a better alternative to this method.

           Provides a fake constructor for the given module that returns the invoking mock
           object.  Used in conjunction with "fake_module()", you can force the tested unit to
           work with the mock object instead.

               $mock->fake_module( 'CGI' );
               $mock->fake_new( 'CGI' );

               use_ok( 'Some::Module' );
               my $s = Some::Module->new();
               is( $s->{_cgi}, $mock,
                   'new() should create and store a new CGI object' );

       ·   "set_always(name, value)"

           Adds a method of the specified name that always returns the specified value.

       ·   "set_true(name_1, name_2, ... name_n)"

           Adds a method of the specified name that always returns a true value.  This can take a
           list of names.

       ·   "set_false(name_1, name_2, ... name_n)"

           Adds a method of the specified name that always returns a false value.  (Since it
           installs an empty subroutine, the value should be false in both scalar and list
           contexts.)  This can take a list of names.

       ·   "set_list(name, [ item1, item2, ... ]"

           Adds a method that always returns a given list of values.  It takes some care to
           provide a list and not an array, if that's important to you.

       ·   "set_series(name, [ item1, item2, ... ]"

           Adds a method that will return the next item in a series on each call.  This can help
           to test error handling, by forcing a failure on the first method call and then
           subsequent successes.  Note that the series does not repeat; it will eventually run

       ·   "set_bound(name, reference)"

           Adds a method bound to a variable.  Pass in a reference to a variable in your test.
           When you change the variable, the return value of the new method will change as well.
           This is often handier than replacing mock methods.

       ·   "set_isa( name1, name2, ... namen )"

           Adds an apparent parent to the module, so that calling "isa()" on the mock will return
           true appropriately.  Sometimes you really need this.

       ·   "remove(name)"

           Removes a named method.

       Checking Your Mocks

       ·   "can( $method_name )"

           Returns a subroutine reference if this particular mocked object can handle the named
           method, false otherwise.

       ·   "isa( $class_name )"

           Returns true if the invocant object mocks a particular class.  You must have used
           "set_isa()" first.

       ·   "called(name)"

           Checks to see if something has called a named method on the object.  This returns a
           boolean value.  The current implementation does not scale especially well, so use this
           sparingly if you need to search through hundreds of calls.

       ·   "clear()"

           Clears the internal record of all method calls on the object.  It's handy to do this
           every now and then.  Note that this does not affect the mocked methods, only all of
           the methods called on the object to this point.

           It's handy to "clear()" methods in between series of tests.  That makes it much easier
           to call "next_method()" without having to skip over the calls from the last set of

       ·   "next_call([ position ])"

           Returns the name and argument list of the next mocked method called on an object, in
           list context.  In scalar context, returns only the method name.  There are two
           important things to know about this method.  First, it starts at the beginning of the
           call list.  If your code runs like this:

               $mock->set_true( 'foo' );
               $mock->set_true( 'bar' );
               $mock->set_true( 'baz' );

               $mock->bar( 3, 4 );
               $mock->foo( 1, 2 );

           Then you might see output of:

               my ($name, $args) = $mock->next_call();
               print "$name (@$args)";

               # prints 'foo'

               $name = $mock->next_call();
               print $name;

               # prints 'bar'

               ($name, $args) = $mock->next_call();
               print "$name (@$args)";

               # prints 'foo 1 2'

           If you provide an optional number as the position argument, the method will skip that
           many calls, returning the data for the last one skipped.


               $name = $mock->next_call();
               print $name;

               # prints 'foo'

               $name = $mock->next_call( 2 );
               print $name

               # prints 'baz'

           When it reaches the end of the list, it returns undef.  This is probably the most
           convenient method in the whole module, but for the sake of completeness and backwards
           compatibility (it takes me a while to reach the truest state of laziness!), there are
           several other methods.

       ·   "call_pos(position)"

           Returns the name of the method called on the object at a specified position.  This is
           handy if you need to test a certain order of calls.  For example:

               Some::Function( $mock );
               is( $mock->call_pos(1),  'setup',
                   'Function() should first call setup()' );
               is( $mock->call_pos(-1), 'end',
                   '... and last call end()' );

           Positions can be positive or negative.  Please note that the first position is, in
           fact, 1.  (This may change in the future.  I like it, but am willing to reconsider.)

       ·   "call_args(position)"

           Returns a list of the arguments provided to the method called at the appropriate
           position.  Following the test above, one might say:

               is( ($mock->call_args(1))[0], $mock,
                   '... passing the object to setup()' );
               is( scalar $mock->call_args(-1), 0,
                   '... and no args to end()' );

       ·   "call_args_pos(call position, argument position)"

           Returns the argument at the specified position for the method call at the specified
           position.  One might rewrite the first test of the last example as:

               is( $mock->call_args_pos(1, 1), $mock,
                   '... passing the object to setup()');

       ·   "call_args_string(position, [ separator ])"

           Returns a stringified version of the arguments at the specified position.  If no
           separator is given, they will not be separated.  This can be used as:

               is( $mock->call_args_string(1), "$mock initialize",
                   '... passing object, initialize as arguments' );

       ·   "called_ok(method name, [ test name ])"

           Tests to see whether a method of the specified name has been called on the object.
           This and the following methods use Test::Builder, so they integrate nicely with a test
           suite built around Test::Simple, Test::More, or anything else compatible:

               $mock->called_ok( 'foo' );

           A generic default test name is provided.

       ·   "called_pos_ok(position, method name, [ test name ])"

           Tests to see whether the named method was called at the specified position.  A default
           test name is provided.

       ·   "called_args_pos_is(method position, argument position, expected, [ test name ])"

           Tests to see whether the argument at the appropriate position of the method in the
           specified position equals a specified value.  A default, rather non-descript test name
           is provided.

       ·   "called_args_string_is(method position, separator, expected, [ test name ])"

           Joins together all of the arguments to a method at the appropriate position and
           matches against a specified string.  A generically bland test name is provided by
           default.  You can probably do much better.

       ·   "check_class_loaded( $class_name )"

           Attempts to determine whether you have a class of the given name loaded and compiled.
           Returns true or false.


       Test::MockObject logs all mocked methods by default.  Sometimes you don't want to do this.
       To prevent logging all calls to a given method, prepend the name of the method with "-"
       when mocking it.

       That is:

           $mock->set_true( '-foo', 'bar' );

       will set mock both "foo()" and "bar()", causing both to return true.  However, the object
       will log only calls to "bar()", not "foo()".  To log "foo()" again, merely mock it again
       without the leading "-":

           $mock->set_true( 'foo' );

       $mock will log all subsequent calls to "foo()" again.


       There are two methods provided for subclassing:

       ·   "dispatch_mocked_method( $method_name, @_ )"

           This method determines how to call a method (named as $method_name) not available in
           this class.  It also controls logging.  You may or may not find it useful, but I
           certainly take advantage of it for Test::MockObject::Extends.

       ·   "log_call( $method_name, @_ )"

           This method tracks the call of the named method and its arguments.


       ·   Add a factory method to avoid namespace collisions (soon)

       ·   Add more useful methods (catch "import()"?)


       chromatic, <chromatic at wgz dot org>

       Thanks go to Curtis 'Ovid' Poe, as well as ONSITE! Technology, Inc., for finding several
       bugs and providing several constructive suggestions.

       Jay Bonci also found a false positive in "called_ok()".  Thanks!

       Chris Winters was the first to report I'd accidentally scheduled 0.12 for deletion without
       uploading a newer version.  He also gave useful feedback on Test::MockObject::Extends.

       Stevan Little provided the impetus and code for "set_isa()".

       Nicholas Clark found a documentation error.

       Mutant suggested a potential problem with fake_module().


       perl, Test::Tutorial, Test::More,, and


       Copyright (c) 2002 - 2016 by chromatic <chromatic at wgz dot org>.

       This program is free software; you can use, modify, and redistribute it under the same
       terms as Perl 5.24 itself.