Provided by: libtime-stopwatch-perl_1.00-6_all bug


       Time::Stopwatch - Use tied scalars as timers


           use Time::Stopwatch;
           tie my $timer, 'Time::Stopwatch';

           print "Did something in $timer seconds.\n";

           my @times = map {
               $timer = 0;
           } 1 .. 5;


       The Time::Stopwatch module provides a convenient interface to timing functions through
       tied scalars.  From the point of view of the user, scalars tied to the module simply
       increase their value by one every second.

       Using the module should mostly be obvious from the synopsis.  You can provide an initial
       value for the timers either by assigning to them or by passing the value as a third
       argument to tie().

       If you have the module Time::HiRes installed, the timers created by Time::Stopwatch will
       automatically count fractional seconds.  Do not assume that the values of the timers are
       always integers.  You may test the constant "Time::Stopwatch::HIRES" to find out whether
       high resolution timing is enabled.

   A note on timing short intervals
       Time::Stopwatch is primarily designed for timing moderately long intervals (i.e. several
       seconds), where the overhead imposed by the tie() interface does not matter.  With
       Time::HiRes installed, it can nonetheless be used for even microsecond timing, provided
       that appropriate care is taken.

       ·   Explicitly initialize the timer by assignment.  The first measurement taken before
           resetting the timer will be a few microseconds longer due to the overhead of the tie()

       ·   Always subtract the overhead of the timing code.  This is true in general even if
           you're not using Time::Stopwatch.  (High-level benchmarking tools like do
           this automatically.)  See the code example below.

       ·   Take as many measurements as you can to minimize random errors.  The
           Statistics::Descriptive module may be useful for analyzing the data.  This advice is
           also true for all benchmarking.

       ·   Remember that a benchmark measures the time take to run the benchmark.  Any
           generalizations to real applications may or may not be valid.  If you want real world
           data, profile the real code in real use.

       The following sample code should give a relatively reasonable measurement of a the time
       taken by a short operation:

           use Time::HiRes;  # high resolution timing required
           use Time::Stopwatch;

           use Statistics::Descriptive;
           my $stat = Statistics::Descriptive::Sparse->new();

           tie my $time, 'Time::Stopwatch';  # code timer
           tie my $wait, 'Time::Stopwatch';  # loop timer

           while ($wait < 60) {  # run for one minute
               my $diff = 0;
               $time = 0; do_whatever(); $diff += $time;
               $time = 0;                $diff -= $time;

           print("count: ", $stat->count(), " iterations\n",
                 "mean:  ", $stat->mean(), " seconds\n",
                 "s.d.:  ", $stat->standard_deviation(), " seconds\n");

       Note that the above code includes the time of the subroutine call in the measurement.


       Since tied scalars do not (yet?) support atomic modification, use of operators like "$t++"
       or "$t *= 2" on timers will cause them to lose the time it takes to fetch, modify and
       store the value.  I might be able to get around this by overloading the return value of
       "FETCH", but I doubt if it's worth the trouble.  Just don't do that.

       There is no way to force low-resolution timing if Time::HiRes has been installed.  I'm not
       sure why anyone would want to, since int() will do just fine if you want whole seconds,
       but still..


       1.00 (15 Mar 2001)
           Explicitly localized $SIG{__DIE__} when testing for Time::HiRes availability.  Added
           "A note on timing short intervals" to the POD documentation.  Bumped version to 1, no
           longer beta.

       0.03 (27 Feb 2001)
           Modified tests to give more information, reduced subsecond accuracy test to 1/10
           seconds to allow for inaccurate select() implementations.  Tweaked synopsis and


       Time::HiRes, "tie" in perlfunc

       For a higher-level approach to timing, try (among others) the modules Time::SoFar,
       Devel::Timer, or Benchmark.  Also see the profiling modules Devel::DProf, Devel::SmallProf
       and Devel::OpProf.


       Copyright 2000-2001, Ilmari Karonen.  All rights reserved.

       This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself.

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