Provided by: libvm-ec2-perl_1.28-2build1_all bug


       VM::EC2::Staging::Volume - High level functions for provisioning and populating EC2


        use VM::EC2::Staging::manager;

        # get a new staging manager
        my $ec2     = VM::EC2->new;
        my $staging = $ec2->staging_manager();                                         );

        my $vol1 = $staging->get_volume(-name => 'Backup',
                                        -fstype => 'ext4',
                                        -size   => 11,
                                        -zone   => 'us-east-1a');

        # make a couple of directories in new volume

        # use rsync to copy local files onto a subdirectory of this volume
        $vol1->put('/usr/local/my_pictures/' =>'pictures');
        $vol1->put('/usr/local/my_videos/'   =>'videos');

        # use rsync to to copy a set of files on the volume to a local directory

        # note that these commands are executed on the remote server as root!
        @listing = $vol1->ls('-r','pictures');

        # get some information about the volume
        my $mtpt     = $vol->mtpt;
        my $mtdev    = $vol->mtdev;
        my $mounted  = $vol->mounted;
        my $server   = $vol->server;

        # detach the volume

        # delete the volume entirely


       This is a high-level interface to EBS volumes which is used in conjunction with
       VM::EC2::Staging::Manager and VM::EC2::Staging::Server. It is intended to ease the process
       of allocating and managing EBS volumes, and provides for completely automated filesystem
       creation, directory management, and data transfer to and from the volume.

       You can use staging volumes without having to manually create and manage the instances
       needed to manipulate the volumes. As needed, the staging manager will create the server(s)
       needed to execute the desired actions on the volumes.

       Staging volumes are wrappers around VM::EC2::Volume, and have all the methods associated
       with those objects. In addition to the standard EC2 volume characteristics, each staging
       volume in an EC2 region has a symbolic name, which can be used to retrieve previously-
       created volumes without remembering their volume ID. This symbolic name is stored in the
       tag StagingName. Volumes also have a filesystem type (stored in the tag StagingFsType).
       When a volume is mounted on a staging server, it will also have a mount point on the file
       system, and a mounting device (e.g. /dev/sdf1).

Staging Volume Creation

       Staging volumes are created via a staging manager's get_volume() or provision_volume()
       methods. See VM::EC2::Staging::Manager. One typical invocation is:

        my $ec2     = VM::EC2->new;
        my $manager = $ec2->staging_manager();                                         );
        my $vol = $manager->get_volume(-name => 'Backup',
                                       -fstype => 'ext4',
                                       -size   => 5,
                                       -zone   => 'us-east-1a');

       This will either retrieve an existing volume named "Backup", or, if none exists, create a
       new one using the provided specification. Behind the scenes, a staging server will be
       allocated to mount the volume. The manager tries to conserve resources, and so will reuse
       a suitable running staging server if one is available.

       The other typical invocation is:

        my $vol = $manager->provision_volume(-name => 'Backup',
                                             -fstype => 'ext4',
                                             -size   => 5,
                                             -zone   => 'us-east-1a');

       This forces creation of a new volume with the indicated characteristics. If a volume of
       the same name already exists, this method will die with a fatal error (to avoid this,
       either wrap in an eval, or leave off the -name argument and let the manager pick a unique
       name for you).

Volume Information

       The methods in this section return status information about the staging volume.

   $name = $vol->name([$newname])
       Get/set the symbolic name associated with this volume.

   $mounted = $vol->mounted
       Returns true if the volume is currently mounted on a server.

   $type = $vol->fstype
       Return the filesystem type requested at volume creation time.

   $server = $vol->server
       Get the server associated with this volume, if any.

   $device = $vol->mtdev
       Get the device that the volume is attached to, e.g. /dev/sdf1. If the volume is not
       attached to a server, returns undef.

   $device = $vol->mtpt
       Get the mount point for this volume on the attached server. If the volume is not mounted,
       returns undef.

   $ebs_vol = $vol->ebs
       Get the underlying EBS volume associated with the staging volume object.

   $manager = $vol->manager
       Return the VM::EC2::Staging::Manager which manages this volume.

   $string = $vol->fstab_line();
       This method returns the line in /etc/fstab that would be necessary to mount this volume on
       the server to which it is currently attached at boot time. For example:

        /dev/sdf1 /mnt/staging/Backups ext4 defaults,nobootwait 0 2

       You can add this to the current server's fstab using the following code fragment:

        my $server = $vol->server;
        my $fh = $server->scmd_write('sudo -s "cat >>/etc/fstab"');
        print $fh $vol->fstab,"\n";
        close $fh;

   $type = $vol->get_fstype
       Return the volume's actual filesystem type. This can be different from the requested type
       if it was later altered by running mkfs on the volume, or the contents of the disk were
       overwritten by a block-level dd command. As a side effect, this method sets fstype() to
       the current correct value.

Lifecycle Methods

       The methods in this section control the state of the volume.

   $snapshot = $vol->create_snapshot('description')
       Create a VM::EC2::Snapshot of the volume with an optional description. This differs from
       the VM::EC2::Volume method of the same name in that it is aware of the mount state of the
       volume and will first try to unmount it so that the snapshot is clean. After the snapshot
       is started, the volume is remounted.

   $snapshot = $vol->snapshot('description')
       Identical to create_snapshot(), but the method name is shorter.

   $vol->mount($server [,$mtpt])
       Mount the volume on the indicated VM::EC2::Staging::Server, optionally at a named mount
       point on the file system. If the volume is already attached to a different server, it will
       be detached first. If any of these step fails, the method will die with a fatal error.

       When called with no arguments, the volume is automounted on a staging server, creating or
       starting the server if necessary.

       Unmount the volume from wherever it is, but leave it attached to the staging server. If
       the volume is not already mounted, nothing happens.

       Note that it is possible for a volume to be mounted on a stopped server, in which case the
       server will be started and the volume only unmounted when it is up and running.

       Unmount and detach the volume from its current server, if any.

       Note that it is possible for a volume to be mounted on a stopped server, in which case the
       server will be started and the volume only unmounted when it is up and running.

       Delete the volume entirely. If it is mounted and/or attached to a server, it will be
       unmounted/detached first. If any steps fail, the method will die with a fatal error.

Data Operations

       The methods in this section operate on the contents of the volume.  By and large, they
       operate with root privileges on the server machine via judicious use of sudo. Elevated
       permissions on the local machine (on which the script is running) are not needed.

       Invoke rsync() on the server to copy files & directories from the indicated source
       locations on the staging volume to the destination. Source paths can be relative paths,
       such as "media/photos/vacation", in which case they are relative to the top level of the
       mounted volume, or absolute paths, such as "/usr/local/media/photos/vacation", in which
       case they are treated as absolute paths on the server on which the volume is mounted.

       The destination can be a path on the local machine, a host:/path on a remote machine, a
       staging server and path in the form $server:/path, or a staging volume and path in the
       form "$volume/path". See "Instance Methods for Managing Staging Volumes" in
       VM::EC2::Staging::Manager for more formats you can use.

       As a special case, if you invoke get() with a single argument:


       Then the entire volume will be rsynced into the destination directory /tmp/foo.

       This is an alias for get(). It is intended to make it easier to read the intent of this


       Which basically makes a copy of $source_volume onto $destination_volume.

       Invoke rsync() on the server to copy files & directories from the indicated source
       locations a destination located on the staging volume. The rules for paths are the same as
       for the get() method and as described in "Instance Methods for Managing Staging Volumes"
       in VM::EC2::Staging::Manager .

       As a special case, if you invoke put() with a single argument:


       Then the local directory /tmp/foo will be copied onto the top level of the staging volume.
       To do something similar with multiple source directories, use '/' or '.' as the

        $vol->put('/tmp/pictures','/tmp/audio' => '/');

       The dd() method performs a block level copy of the volume's disk onto the destination. The
       destination must be another staging volume.

   $output = $vol->cmd($cmd,@args)
       This method runs command $cmd on the server that is mounting the volume using ssh. Before
       the command is run, the working directory is changed to the top level of the volume's
       mount point. Any arguments, switches, etc you wish to pass to the command can be provided
       as @args. The output of the command is returned as a string in a scalar context, or an
       array of lines in a list context.


        @log = $volume->cmd('tar cvf /tmp/archive.tar .');

   $result = $vol->ssh($cmd,@args)
       This is similar to cmd(), except that the output of the command is sent to STDOUT and the
       method returns true if the command executed succcessfully on the remote machine. The cmd()
       and ssh() methods are equivalent to backticks are system() respectively.


        $volume->ssh('gzip /tmp/archive.tar') or die "couldn't compress archive";

   $output  = $vol->df(@args)
   $output  = $vol->ls(@args)
   $success = $vol->mkdir(@args)
   $success = $vol->chown(@args)
   $success = $vol->chgrp(@args)
   $success = $vol->chmod(@args)
   $success = $vol->cp(@args)
   $success = $vol->mv(@args)
   $success = $vol->rm(@args)
   $success = $vol->rmdir(@args)
       Each of these methods performs the same function as the like-named command-line function,
       after first changing the working directory to the top level of the volume. They behave as
       shown in the pseudocode below:

        chdir $vol->mtpt;
        sudo  $method @args

       The df() and ls() methods return the output of their corresponding commands. In a scalar
       context each method returns a string corresponding to the output of running the command on
       the server to which the volume is attached. In a list context, the methods return one
       element per line of output.

       For example:

        my $free      = $volume->df('.');  # free on current directory
        my ($percent) = $free =~ /(\d+)%/;
        warn "almost out of space" if $percent > 90;

       The other methods return a boolean value indicating successful execution of the command on
       the remote machine.

       Command line switches can be passed along with other arguments:


       With the exception of df, each of these commands runs as the superuser, so be careful how
       you call them.

       You may run your own commands using the cmd() and ssh() methods. The former returns the
       output of the command. The latter returns a success code:

        @log = $volume->cmd('tar cvf /tmp/archive.tar .');
        $volume->ssh('gzip /tmp/archive.tar') or die "couldn't compress archive";

       Before calling any of these methods, the volume must be mounted and its server running. A
       fatal error will occur otherwise.


       VM::EC2 VM::EC2::Staging::Manager VM::EC2::Staging::Server VM::EC2::Instance
       VM::EC2::Volume VM::EC2::Snapshot


       Lincoln Stein <>.

       Copyright (c) 2012 Ontario Institute for Cancer Research

       This package and its accompanying libraries is free software; you can redistribute it
       and/or modify it under the terms of the GPL (either version 1, or at your option, any
       later version) or the Artistic License 2.0.  Refer to LICENSE for the full license text.
       In addition, please see DISCLAIMER.txt for disclaimers of warranty.