Provided by: libxml-compile-perl_1.61-1_all bug

NAME

       XML::Compile::Schema - Compile a schema into CODE

INHERITANCE

        XML::Compile::Schema
          is a XML::Compile

        XML::Compile::Schema is extended by
          XML::Compile::Cache

SYNOPSIS

        # compile tree yourself
        my $parser = XML::LibXML->new;
        my $tree   = $parser->parse...(...);
        my $schema = XML::Compile::Schema->new($tree);

        # get schema from string
        my $schema = XML::Compile::Schema->new($xml_string);

        # get schema from file (most used)
        my $schema = XML::Compile::Schema->new($filename);
        my $schema = XML::Compile::Schema->new([glob "*.xsd"]);

        # the "::Cache" extension has more power
        my $schema = XML::Compile::Cache->new(\@xsdfiles);

        # adding more schemas, from parsed XML
        $schema->addSchemas($tree);

        # adding more schemas from files
        # three times the same: well-known url, filename in schemadir, url
        # Just as example: usually not needed.
        $schema->importDefinitions('http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema');
        $schema->importDefinitions('2001-XMLSchema.xsd');
        $schema->importDefinitions(SCHEMA2001);  # from ::Util

        # alternatively
        my @specs  = ('one.xsd', 'two.xsd', $schema_as_string);
        my $schema = XML::Compile::Schema->new(\@specs); # ARRAY!

        # see what types are defined
        $schema->printIndex;

        # create and use a reader
        use XML::Compile::Util qw/pack_type/;
        my $elem   = pack_type 'my-namespace', 'my-local-name';
                       # $elem eq "{my-namespace}my-local-name"
        my $read   = $schema->compile(READER => $elem);
        my $data   = $read->($xmlnode);
        my $data   = $read->("filename.xml");

        # when you do not know the element type beforehand
        use XML::Compile::Util qw/type_of_node/;
        my $elem   = type_of_node $xml->documentElement;
        my $reader = $reader_cache{$type}               # either exists
                 ||= $schema->compile(READER => $elem); #   or create
        my $data   = $reader->($xmlmsg);

        # create and use a writer
        my $doc    = XML::LibXML::Document->new('1.0', 'UTF-8');
        my $write  = $schema->compile(WRITER => '{myns}mytype');
        my $xml    = $write->($doc, $hash);
        $doc->setDocumentElement($xml);

        # show result
        print $doc->toString(1);

        # to create the type nicely
        use XML::Compile::Util qw/pack_type/;
        my $type   = pack_type 'myns', 'mytype';
        print $type;  # shows  {myns}mytype

        # using a compiled routines cache
        use XML::Compile::Cache;   # separate distribution
        my $schema = XML::Compile::Cache->new(...);

        # Show which data-structure is expected
        print $schema->template(PERL => $type);

        # Error handling tricks with Log::Report
        use Log::Report mode => 'DEBUG';  # enable debugging
        dispatcher SYSLOG => 'syslog';    # errors to syslog as well
        try { $reader->($data) };         # catch errors in $@

DESCRIPTION

       This module collects knowledge about one or more schemas.  The most important method
       provided is compile(), which can create XML file readers and writers based on the schema
       information and some selected element or attribute type.

       Various implementations use the translator, and more can be added later:

       "$schema->compile('READER'...)" translates XML to HASH
           The XML reader produces a HASH from a XML::LibXML::Node tree or an XML string.  Those
           represent the input data.  The values are checked.  An error produced when a value or
           the data-structure is not according to the specs.

           The CODE reference which is returned can be called with anything accepted by
           dataToXML().

           Example: create an XML reader

            my $msgin  = $rules->compile(READER => '{myns}mytype');
            # or  ...  = $rules->compile(READER => pack_type('myns', 'mytype'));
            my $xml    = $parser->parse("some-xml.xml");
            my $hash   = $msgin->($xml);

           or

            my $hash   = $msgin->('some-xml.xml');
            my $hash   = $msgin->($xml_string);
            my $hash   = $msgin->($xml_node);

           with XML::Compile::Cache as schema object:

            $rules->addPrefix(m => 'myns');
            my $hash   = $rules->reader('m:mytype')->($xml);

       "$schema->compile('WRITER', ...)" translates HASH to XML
           The writer produces schema compliant XML, based on a Perl HASH.  To get the data
           encoding correctly, you are required to pass a document object in which the XML nodes
           may get a place later.

           Create an XML writer

            my $doc    = XML::LibXML::Document->new('1.0', 'UTF-8');
            my $write  = $schema->compile(WRITER => '{myns}mytype');
            my $xml    = $write->($doc, $hash);
            print $xml->toString;

           alternative

            my $write  = $schema->compile(WRITER => 'myns#myid');

           with XML::Compile::Cache as schema object:

            $rules->addPrefix(m => 'myns');
            my $xml    = $rules->writer('m:mytype')->($doc, $hash);

       "$schema->template('XML', ...)" creates an XML example
           Based on the schema, this produces an XML message as example.  Schemas are usually so
           complex that people loose overview.  This example may put you back on track, and used
           as starting point for many creating the XML version of the message.

       "$schema->template('PERL', ...)" creates an Perl example
           Based on the schema, this produces an Perl HASH structure (a bit like the output by
           Data::Dumper), which can be used as template for creating messages.  The output
           contains documentation, and is usually much clearer than the schema itself.

       "$schema->template('TREE', ...)" creates a parse tree
           To be able to produce Perl-text and XML examples, the templater generates an abstract
           tree from the schema.  That tree is returned here.  Be warned that the structure is
           not fixed over releases: add regression tests for this to your project.

       Be warned that the schema is not validated; you can develop schemas which do work well
       with this module, but are not valid according to W3C.  In many cases, however, the
       translater will refuse to accept mistakes: mainly because it cannot produce valid code.

       The values (both for reading as for writing) are strictly validated.  However, the reader
       is sloppy with unexpected attributes, and many other things: that's too expensive to
       check.

       Extends "DESCRIPTION" in XML::Compile.

METHODS

       Extends "METHODS" in XML::Compile.

   Constructors
       Extends "Constructors" in XML::Compile.

       XML::Compile::Schema->new( [$xmldata], %options )
           Details about many name-spaces can be organized with only a single schema object
           (actually, the data is administered in an internal XML::Compile::Schema::NameSpaces
           object)

           The initial information is extracted from the $xmldata source.  The $xmldata can be
           anything what is acceptable by importDefinitions(), which is everything accepted by
           dataToXML() or an ARRAY of those things.  You may also add any OPTION accepted by
           addSchemas() to guide the understanding of the schema.  When no $xmldata is provided,
           you can add it later with importDefinitions()

           You can specify the hooks before you define the schemas the hooks work on: all schema
           information and all hooks are only used when the readers and writers get compiled.

            -Option            --Defined in     --Default
             block_namespace                      []
             hook                                 undef
             hooks                                []
             ignore_unused_tags                   <false>
             key_rewrite                          []
             parser_options      XML::Compile     <many>
             schema_dirs         XML::Compile     undef
             typemap                              {}

           block_namespace => NAMESPACE|TYPE|HASH|CODE|ARRAY
             See blockNamespace()

           hook => $hook|ARRAY
             See addHook().  Adds one $hook (HASH) or more at once.

           hooks => ARRAY
             Add one or more hooks.  See addHooks().

           ignore_unused_tags => BOOLEAN|REGEXP
             (WRITER) Usually, a "mistake" warning is produced when a user provides a data
             structure which contains more data than is needed for the XML message which is
             created; this will show structural problems.  However, in some cases, you may want
             to play tricks with the data-structure and therefore disable this precausion.

             With a REGEXP, you can have more control.  Only keys which do match the expression
             will be ignored silently.  Other keys (usually typos and other mistakes) will get
             reported.  See "Typemaps"

           key_rewrite => HASH|CODE|ARRAY
             Translate XML element local-names into different Perl keys.  See "Key rewrite".

           parser_options => HASH|ARRAY
           schema_dirs => $directory|ARRAY-OF-directories
           typemap => HASH
             HASH of Schema type to Perl object or Perl class.  See "Typemaps", the serialization
             of objects.

   Accessors
       Extends "Accessors" in XML::Compile.

       $obj->addHook($hook|LIST|undef)
           A $hook is specified as HASH or a LIST of PAIRS.  When "undef", this call is ignored.
           See addHooks() and "Schema hooks" below.

       $obj->addHooks( $hook, [$hook, ...] )
           Add multiple hooks at once.  These must all be HASHes. See "Schema hooks" and
           addHook(). "undef" values are ignored.

       $obj->addKeyRewrite($predef|CODE|HASH, ...)
           Add new rewrite rules to the existing list (initially provided with new(key_rewrite)).
           The whole list of rewrite rules is returned.

           "PREFIXED" rules will be applied first.  Special care is taken that the prefix will
           not be called twice.  The last added set of rewrite rules will be applied first.  See
           "Key rewrite".

       $obj->addSchemaDirs(@directories|$filename)
       XML::Compile::Schema->addSchemaDirs(@directories|$filename)
           Inherited, see "Accessors" in XML::Compile

       $obj->addSchemas($xml, %options)
           Collect all the schemas defined in the $xml data.  The $xml parameter must be a
           XML::LibXML node, therefore it is advised to use importDefinitions(), which has a much
           more flexible way to specify the data.

           When the object extends XML::Compile::Cache, the prefixes declared on the schema
           element will be taken as default prefixes.

            -Option                --Default
             attribute_form_default  <undef>
             element_form_default    <undef>
             filename                undef
             source                  undef
             target_namespace        <undef>

           attribute_form_default => 'qualified'|'unqualified'
           element_form_default => 'qualified'|'unqualified'
             Overrule the default as found in the schema.  Many old schemas (like WSDL11 and
             SOAP11) do not specify the correct default element form in the schema but only in
             the text.

           filename => FILENAME
             Explicitly state from which file the data is coming.

           source => STRING
             An indication where this schema data was found.  If you use dataToXML() in LIST
             context, you get such an indication.

           target_namespace => NAMESPACE
             Overrule (or set) the target namespace in the schema.

       $obj->addTypemap(PAIR)
           Synonym for addTypemap().

       $obj->addTypemaps(PAIRS)
           Add new XML-Perl type relations.  See "Typemaps".

       $obj->blockNamespace($ns|$type|HASH|CODE|ARRAY)
           Block all references to a $ns or full $type, as if they do not appear in the schema.
           Specially useful if the schema includes references to old (deprecated) versions of
           itself which are not being used.  It can also be used to block inclusion of huge
           structures which are not used, for increased compile performance, or to avoid buggy
           constructs.

           These values can also be passed with new(block_namespace) and
           compile(block_namespace).

       $obj->hooks( [<'READER'|'WRITER'>] )
           Returns the LIST of defined hooks (as HASHes).  [1.36] When an action parameter is
           provided, it will only return a list with hooks added with that action value or no
           action at all.

       $obj->useSchema( $schema, [$schema, ...] )
           Pass a XML::Compile::Schema object, or extensions like XML::Compile::Cache, to be used
           as definitions as well.  First, elements are looked-up in the current schema
           definition object.  If not found the other provided $schema objects are checked in the
           order as they were added.

           Searches for definitions do not recurse into schemas which are used by the used
           schema.

           example: use other Schema

             my $wsdl = XML::Compile::WSDL->new($wsdl);
             my $geo  = Geo::GML->new(version => '3.2.1');
             # both $wsdl and $geo extend XML::Compile::Schema

             $wsdl->useSchema($geo);

   Compilers
       Extends "Compilers" in XML::Compile.

       $obj->compile( <'READER'|'WRITER'>, $type, %options )
           Translate the specified ELEMENT (found in one of the read schemas) into a CODE
           reference which is able to translate between XML-text and a HASH.  When the $type is
           "undef", an empty LIST is returned.

           The indicated $type is the starting-point for processing in the data-structure, a
           toplevel element or attribute name.  The name must be specified in "{url}name" format,
           there the url is the name-space.  An alternative is the "url#id" which refers to an
           element or type with the specific "id" attribute value.

           When a READER is created, a CODE reference is returned which needs to be called with
           XML, as accepted by XML::Compile::dataToXML().  Returned is a nested HASH structure
           which contains the data from contained in the XML.  The transformation rules are
           explained below.

           When a WRITER is created, a CODE reference is returned which needs to be called with
           an XML::LibXML::Document object and a HASH, and returns a XML::LibXML::Node.

           Many %options below are explained in more detailed in the manual-page
           XML::Compile::Translate, which implements the compilation.

            -Option                        --Default
             abstract_types                  'ERROR'
             any_attribute                   undef
             any_element                     undef
             any_type                        <returns string or node>
             attributes_qualified            <undef>
             block_namespace                 []
             check_occurs                    <true>
             check_values                    <true>
             default_values                  <depends on backend>
             elements_qualified              <undef>
             hook                            undef
             hooks                           undef
             ignore_facets                   <false>
             ignore_unused_tags              <false>
             include_namespaces              <true>
             interpret_nillable_as_optional  <false>
             json_friendly                   <false>
             key_rewrite                     []
             mixed_elements                  'ATTRIBUTES'
             namespace_reset                 <false>
             output_namespaces               undef
             path                            <expanded name of type>
             permit_href                     <false>
             prefixes                        {}
             sloppy_floats                   <false>
             sloppy_integers                 <false>
             typemap                         {}
             use_default_namespace           <false>
             validation                      <true>
             xsi_type                        {}
             xsi_type_everywhere             <false>

           abstract_types => 'ERROR'|'ACCEPT'
             How to handle the use abstract types.  Of course, they should not be used, but
             sometime they accidentally are.  When set to "ERROR", an error will be produced
             whenever an abstract type is encountered.  "ACCEPT" will ignore the fact that the
             types are abstract, and treat them as non-abstract types.

           any_attribute => CODE|'TAKE_ALL'|'SKIP_ALL'
             [0.89, reader] In general, "anyAttribute" schema components cannot be handled
             automatically.  If  you need to create or process anyAttribute information, then
             read about wildcards in the DETAILS chapter of the manual-page for the specific
             back-end.  [pre-0.89] this option was named "anyElement", which will still work.

           any_element => CODE|'TAKE_ALL'|'SKIP_ALL'
             [0.89, reader] In general, "any" schema components cannot be handled automatically.
             If  you need to create or process any information, then read about wildcards in the
             DETAILS chapter of the manual-page for the specific back-end.  [pre-0.89] this
             option was named "anyElement", which will still work.

           any_type => CODE
             [1.07] how to handle "anyType" type elements.  Supported values depends on the
             backend, specializations of XML::Compile::Translate.

           attributes_qualified => "ALL"|"NONE"|BOOLEAN
             [1.44] Like option "elements_qualified", but then for attributes.

           block_namespace => NAMESPACE|TYPE|HASH|CODE|ARRAY
             [reader] See blockNamespace().

           check_occurs => BOOLEAN
             Whether code will be produced to do bounds checking on elements and blocks which may
             appear more than once. When the schema says that maxOccurs is 1, then that element
             becomes optional.  When the schema says that maxOccurs is larger than 1, then the
             output is still always an ARRAY, but now of unrestricted length.

           check_values => BOOLEAN
             Whether code will be produce to check that the XML fields contain the expected data
             format.

             Turning this off will improve the processing speed significantly, but is (of course)
             much less safe.  Do not set it off when you expect data from external sources:
             validation is a crucial requirement for XML.

           default_values => 'MINIMAL'|'IGNORE'|'EXTEND'
             [reader] How to treat default values as provided by the schema.  With "IGNORE" (the
             writer default), you will see exactly what is specified in the XML or HASH.  With
             "EXTEND" (the reader default) will show the default and fixed values in the result.
             "MINIMAL" does remove all fields which are the same as the default setting:
             simplifies.  See "Default Values".

           elements_qualified => "TOP"|"ALL"|"NONE"|BOOLEAN
             When defined, this will overrule the use of namespaces (as prefix) on elements in
             all schemas.  When "ALL" or a true value is given, then all elements will be used
             qualified.  When "NONE" or a false value is given, the XML will not produce or
             process prefixes on any element.

             All top-level elements (and attributes) will be used in a name-space qualified way,
             if they have a targetNamespace.  Some applications require some global element with
             qualification, so refuse global elements which have no qualification.  Using the
             "TOP" setting, the compiler checks that the targetNamespace exists.

             The "form" attributes in the schema will be respected; overrule the effects of this
             option.  Use hooks when you need to fix name-space use in more subtile ways.

             With "element_form_default", you can correct whole schema's about their name-space
             behavior.

             Change in [1.44]: "TOP" before enforced a name-space on the top-level.  There should
             always be a name-space on the top element.  It got changed into that "TOP" checks
             that the globals have a targetNamespace.

           hook => $hook|ARRAY-OF-hooks
             Define one or more processing $hooks.  See "Schema hooks" below.  These hooks are
             only active for this compiled entity, where addHook() and addHooks() can be used to
             define hooks which are used for all results of compile().  The hooks specified with
             the "hook" or "hooks" option are run before the global definitions.

           hooks => $hook|ARRAY-OF-hooks
             Alternative for option "hook".

           ignore_facets => BOOLEAN
             Facets influence the formatting and range of values. This does not come cheap, so
             can be turned off.  It affects the restrictions set for a simpleType.  The
             processing speed will improve, but validation is a crucial requirement for XML:
             please do not turn this off when the data comes from external sources.

           ignore_unused_tags => BOOLEAN|REGEXP
             [writer] Overrules what is set with new(ignore_unused_tags).

           include_namespaces => BOOLEAN|CODE
             [writer] Indicates whether the namespace declaration should be included on the top-
             level element.  If not, you may continue with the same name-space table to combine
             various XML components into one, and add the namespaces later.  No namespace
             definition can be added the production rule produces an attribute.

             When a CODE reference is passed, it will be called for each namespace to decide
             whether it should be included or not. When true, it will we added. The CODE is
             called with a namespace, its prefix, and the number of times it was used for that
             schema element translator.

           interpret_nillable_as_optional => BOOLEAN
             Found in the schema wild-life: people who think that nillable means optional.  Not
             too hard to fix.  For the WRITER, you still have to state NIL explicitly, but the
             elements are not constructed.  The READER will output NIL when the nillable elements
             are missing.

           json_friendly => BOOLEAN
             [1.55] When enabled, booleans will be blessed in Types::Serialiser booleans.  Floats
             get nummified.  Together, this will make the output of the reader usable as JSON
             without any further conversion.

           key_rewrite => HASH|CODE|ARRAY
             Add key rewrite rules to the front of the list of rules, as set by new(key_rewrite)
             and addKeyRewrite().  See "Key rewrite"

           mixed_elements => CODE|PREDEFINED
             [reader] What to do when mixed schema elements are to be processed.  Read more in
             the "DETAILS" section below.

           namespace_reset => BOOLEAN
             [writer] Use the same prefixes in "prefixes" as with some other compiled piece, but
             reset the counts to zero first.

           output_namespaces => HASH|ARRAY-of-PAIRS
             [Pre-0.87] name for the "prefixes" option.  Deprecated.

           path => STRING
             Prepended to each error report, to indicate the location of the error in the XML-
             Scheme tree.

           permit_href => BOOLEAN
             [reader] When parsing SOAP-RPC encoded messages, the elements may have a "href"
             attribute pointing to an object with "id".  The READER will return the unparsed,
             unresolved node when the attribute is detected, and the SOAP-RPC decoder will have
             to discover and resolve it.

           prefixes => HASH|ARRAY-of-PAIRS
             Can be used to pre-define prefixes for namespaces (for 'WRITER' or key rewrite) for
             instance to reserve common abbreviations like "soap" for external use.  Each entry
             in the hash has as key the namespace uri.  The value is a hash which contains "uri",
             "prefix", and "used" fields.  Pass a reference to a private hash to catch this
             index.  An ARRAY with prefix, uri PAIRS is simpler.

              prefixes => [ mine => $myns, two => $twons ]
              prefixes => { $myns => 'mine', $twons => 'two' }

              # the previous is short for:
              prefixes => { $myns  => [ uri => $myns, prefix => 'mine', used => 0 ]
                          , $twons => [ uri => $twons, prefix => 'two', ...] };

           sloppy_floats => BOOLEAN
             [reader] The float types of XML are all quite big, and support NaN, INF, and -INF.
             Perl's normal floats do not, and therefore Math::BigFloat is used.  This, however,
             is slow.  When true, you will crash on any value which is not understood by Perl's
             default float... but run much faster.  See also "sloppy_integers".

           sloppy_integers => BOOLEAN
             [reader] The XML "integer" data-types must support at least 18 digits, which is
             larger than Perl's 32 bit internal integers.  Therefore, the implementation will use
             Math::BigInt objects to handle them.  However, often an simple "int" type whould
             have sufficed, but the XML designer was lazy.  A long is much faster to handle.  Set
             this flag to use "int" as fast (but inprecise) replacements.

             Be aware that "Math::BigInt" and "Math::BigFloat" objects are nearly but not fully
             transparently mimicking the behavior of Perl's ints and floats.  See their
             respective manual-pages.  Especially when you wish for some performance, you should
             optimize access to these objects to avoid expensive copying which is exactly the
             spot where the differences are.

             You can also improve the speed of Math::BigInt by installing Math::BigInt::GMP.  Add
             "use Math::BigInt try => 'GMP';" to the top of your main script to get more
             performance.

           typemap => HASH
             Add this typemap to the relations defined by new(typemap) or addTypemaps()

           use_default_namespace => BOOLEAN
             [0.91, writer] When mixing qualified and unqualified namespaces, then the use of a
             default namespace can be quite confusing: a name-space without prefix.  Therefore,
             by default, all qualified elements will have an explicit prefix.

           validation => BOOLEAN
             XML message must be validated, to lower the chance on abuse.  However, of course, it
             costs performance which is only partially compensated by fewer checks in your code.
             This flag overrules the "check_values", "check_occurs", and "ignore_facets".

           xsi_type => HASH
             See "Handling xsi:type".  The HASH maps types as mentioned in the schema, to
             extensions of those types which are addressed via the horrible "xsi:type" construct.
             When you specify "AUTO" as value for some type, the translator tries collect
             possible xsi:type values from the loaded schemas. This may be slow and may produce
             imperfect results.

           xsi_type_everywhere => BOOLEAN
             [1.48, writer] Add an "xsi:type" attribute to all elements, for instance as used in
             SOAP RPC/encoded.  The type added is the type according to the schema, unless the
             "xsi:type" is already present on an element for some other reason.

             Be aware that this option has a different purpose from "xsi_type".  In this case, we
             do add exactly the type specified in the xsd to each element which does not have an
             "xsi:type" attribute yet.  The "xsi_type" on the other hand, implements the
             (mis-)feature that the element's content may get replaced by any extended type with
             this dynamic flag.

       $obj->compileType( <'READER'|'WRITER'>, $type, %options )
           This is a hack to be able to process components of SOAP messages, which are only
           specified by type.  Probably (hopefully) you do no need it.  All %options are the same
           as for compile().

       $obj->dataToXML($node|REF-XML|XML-STRING|$filename|$fh|$known)
       XML::Compile::Schema->dataToXML( $node|REF-XML|XML-STRING|$filename|$fh|$known )
           Inherited, see "Compilers" in XML::Compile

       $obj->initParser(%options)
       XML::Compile::Schema->initParser(%options)
           Inherited, see "Compilers" in XML::Compile

       $obj->template( <'XML'|'PERL'|'TREE'>, $element, %options )
           Schema's can be horribly complex and unreadible.  Therefore, this template method can
           be called to create an example which demonstrates how data of the specified $element
           shown as XML or Perl is organized in practice.

           The 'TREE' template returns the intermediate parse tree, which gets formatted into the
           XML or Perl example.  This is not a very stable interface: it may change without much
           notice.

           Some %options are explained in XML::Compile::Translate.  There are some extra %options
           defined for the final output process.

           The templates produced are not always correct.  Please contribute improvements: read
           and understand the comments in the text.

            -Option              --Default
             abstract_types        'ERROR'
             attributes_qualified  <undef>
             elements_qualified    <undef>
             include_namespaces    <true>
             indent                " "
             key_rewrite           []
             output_style          1
             show_comments         ALL
             skip_header           <false>

           abstract_types => 'ERROR'|'ACCEPT'
             By default, do not show abstract types in the output.

           attributes_qualified => BOOLEAN
           elements_qualified => 'ALL'|'TOP'|'NONE'|BOOLEAN
           include_namespaces => BOOLEAN|CODE
           indent => STRING
             The leading indentation string per nesting.  Must start with at least one blank.

           key_rewrite => HASH|CODE|ARRAY
           output_style => 1|2
             [1.61] Style 2 is a little different.

           show_comments => STRING|'ALL'|'NONE'
             A comma separated list of tokens, which explain what kind of comments need to be
             included in the output.  The available tokens are: "struct", "type", "occur",
             "facets".  A value of "ALL" will select all available comments.  The "NONE" or empty
             string will exclude all comments.

           skip_header => BOOLEAN
             Skip the comment header from the output.

   Administration
       Extends "Administration" in XML::Compile.

       $obj->doesExtend($exttype, $basetype)
           Returns true when the $exttype extends the $basetype. See
           XML::Compile::Schema::NameSpaces::doesExtend()

       $obj->elements()
           List all elements, defined by all schemas sorted alphabetically.

       $obj->findSchemaFile($filename)
       XML::Compile::Schema->findSchemaFile($filename)
           Inherited, see "Administration" in XML::Compile

       $obj->importDefinitions($xmldata, %options)
           Import (include) the schema information included in the $xmldata.  The $xmldata must
           be acceptable for dataToXML().  The resulting node and all the %options are passed to
           addSchemas(). The schema node does not need to be the top element: any schema node
           found in the data will be decoded.

           Returned is a list of XML::Compile::Schema::Instance objects, for each processed
           schema component.

           If your program imports the same string or file definitions multiple times, it will
           re-use the schema information from the first import.  This removal of dupplications
           will not work for open files or pre-parsed XML structures.

           As an extension to the handling dataToXML() provides, you can specify an ARRAY of
           things which are acceptable to "dataToXML".  This way, you can specify multiple
           resources at once, each of which will be processed with the same %options.

            -Option --Default
             details  <from XMLDATA>

           details => HASH
             Overrule the details information about the source of the data.

           example: of use of importDefinitions

             my $schema = XML::Compile::Schema->new;
             $schema->importDefinitions('my-spec.xsd');

             my $other = "<schema>...</schema>";  # use 'HERE' documents!
             my @specs = ('my-spec.xsd', 'types.xsd', $other);
             $schema->importDefinitions(\@specs, @options);

       $obj->knownNamespace($ns|PAIRS)
       XML::Compile::Schema->knownNamespace($ns|PAIRS)
           Inherited, see "Administration" in XML::Compile

       $obj->namespaces()
           Returns the XML::Compile::Schema::NameSpaces object which is used to collect schemas.

       $obj->printIndex( [$fh], %options )
           Print all the elements which are defined in the schemas to the $fh (by default the
           selected handle).  %options are passed to
           XML::Compile::Schema::NameSpaces::printIndex() and
           XML::Compile::Schema::Instance::printIndex().

       $obj->types()
           List all types, defined by all schemas sorted alphabetically.

       $obj->walkTree($node, CODE)
           Inherited, see "Administration" in XML::Compile

DETAILS

       Extends "DETAILS" in XML::Compile.

   Distribution collection overview
       Extends "Distribution collection overview" in XML::Compile.

   Comparison
       Extends "Comparison" in XML::Compile.

   Collecting definitions
       When starting an application, you will need to read the schema definitions.  This is done
       by instantiating an object via XML::Compile::Schema::new() or XML::Compile::WSDL11::new().
       The WSDL11 object has a schema object internally.

       Schemas may contains "import" and "include" statements, which specify other resources for
       definitions.  In the idea of the XML design team, those files should be retrieved
       automatically via an internet connection from the "schemaLocation".  However, this is a
       bad concept; in XML::Compile modules you will have to explicitly provide filenames on
       local disk using importDefinitions() or XML::Compile::WSDL11::addWSDL().

       There are various reasons why I, the author of this module, think the dynamic automatic
       internet imports are a bad idea.  First: you do not always have a working internet
       connection (travelling with a laptop in a train).  Your implementation should work the
       same way under all environmental circumstances!  Besides, I do not trust remote files on
       my system, without inspecting them.  Most important: I want to run my regression tests
       before using a new version of the definitions, so I do not want to have a remote server
       change the agreements without my knowledge.

       So: before you start, you will need to scan (recursively) the initial schema or wsdl file
       for "import" and "include" statements, and collect all these files from their
       "schemaLocation" into files on local disk.  In your program, call importDefinitions() on
       all of them -in any order- before you call compile().

       Organizing your definitions

       One nice feature to help you organize (especially useful when you package your code in a
       distribution), is to add these lines to the beginning of your code:

         package My::Package;
         XML::Compile->addSchemaDirs(__FILE__);
         XML::Compile->knownNamespace('http://myns' => 'myns.xsd', ...);

       Now, if the package file is located at "SomeThing/My/Package.pm", the definion of the
       namespace should be kept in "SomeThing/My/Package/xsd/myns.xsd".

       Somewhere in your program, you have to load these definitions:

         # absolute or relative path is always possible
         $schema->importDefinitions('SomeThing/My/Package/xsd/myns.xsd');

         # relative search path extended by addSchemaDirs
         $schema->importDefinitions('myns.xsd');

         # knownNamespace improves abstraction
         $schema->importDefinitions('http://myns');

       Very probably, the namespace is already in some variable:

         use XML::Compile::Schema;
         use XML::Compile::Util  'pack_type';

         my $myns   = 'http://some-very-long-uri';
         my $schema = XML::Compile::Schema->new($myns);
         my $mytype = pack_type $myns, $myelement;
         my $reader = $schema->compileClient(READER => $mytype);

   Addressing components
       Normally, external users can only address elements within a schema, and types are hidden
       to be used by other schemas only.  For this reason, it is permitted to create an element
       and a type with the same name.

       The compiler requires a starting-point.  This can either be an element name or an
       element's id.  The format of the element name is "{namespace-uri}localname", for instance

        {http://library}book

       You may also start with

        http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#float

       as long as this ID refers to a top-level element, not a type.

       When you use a schema without "targetNamespace" (which is bad practice, but sometimes
       people really do not understand the beneficial aspects of the use of namespaces) then the
       elements can be addressed as "{}name" or simple "name".

   Representing data-structures
       The code will do its best to produce a correct translation. For instance, an accidental
       1.9999 will be converted into 2 when the schema says that the field is an "int".  It will
       also strip superfluous blanks when the data-type permits.  Especially watch-out for the
       "Integer" types, which produce Math::BigInt objects unless compile(sloppy_integers) is
       used.

       Elements can be complex, and themselve contain elements which are complex.  In the Perl
       representation of the data, this will be shown as nested hashes with the same structure as
       the XML.

       You should not take tare of character encodings, whereas XML::LibXML is doing that for us:
       you shall not escape characters like "<" yourself.

       The schemas define kinds of data types.  There are various ways to define them (with
       restrictions and extensions), but for the resulting data structure is that knowledge not
       important.

       simpleType

       A single value.  A lot of single value data-types are built-in (see
       XML::Compile::Schema::BuiltInTypes).

       Simple types may have range limiting restrictions (facets), which will be checked by
       default.  Types may also have some white-space behavior, for instance blanks are stripped
       from integers: before, after, but also inside the number representing string.

       Note that some of the reader hooks will alter the single value of these elements into a
       HASH like used for the complexType/simpleContent (next paragraph), to be able to return
       some extra collected information.

       . Example: typical simpleType

       In XML, it looks like this:

        <test1>42</test1>

       In the HASH structure, the data will be represented as

        test1 => 42

       With reader hook "after => 'XML_NODE'" hook applied, it will become

        test1 => { _ => 42
                 , _XML_NODE => $obj
                 }

       complexType/simpleContent

       In this case, the single value container may have attributes.  The number of attributes
       can be endless, and the value is only one.  This value has no name, and therefore gets a
       predefined name "_".

       When passed to the writer, you may specify a single value (not the whole HASH) when no
       attributes are used.

       . typical simpleContent example

       In XML, this looks like this:

        <test2 question="everything">42</test2>

       As a HASH, this shows as

        test2 => { _ => 42
                 , question => 'everything'
                 }

       When specified in the writer, when no attributes are need, you can use either form:

         test3 => { _ => 7 }
         test3 => 7

       complexType and complexType/complexContent

       These containers not only have attributes, but also multiple values as content.  The
       "complexContent" is used to create inheritance structures in the data-type definition.
       This does not affect the XML data package itself.

       . Example: typical complexType element

       The XML could look like:

        <test3 question="everything" by="mouse">
          <answer>42</answer>
          <when>5 billion BC</when>
        </test3>

       Represented as HASH, this looks like

        test3 => { question => 'everything'
                 , by       => 'mouse'
                 , answer   => 42
                 , when     => '5 billion BC'
                 }

       Manually produced XML NODE

       For a WRITER, you may also specify a XML::LibXML::Node anywhere.

        test1 => $doc->createTextNode('42');
        test3 => $doc->createElement('ariba');

       This data-structure is used without validation, so you are fully on your own with this
       one. Typically, nodes are produced by hooks to implement work-arounds.

       Occurence

       A second factor which determines the data-structure is the element occurrence.  Usually,
       elements have to appear once and exactly once on a certain location in the XML data
       structure.  This order is automatically produced by this module. But elements may appear
       multiple times.

       usual case
           The default behavior for an element (in a sequence container) is to appear exactly
           once.  When missing, this is an error.

       maxOccurs larger than 1
           In this case, the element or particle block can appear multiple times.  Multiple
           values are kept in an ARRAY within the HASH.  Non-schema based XML modules do not
           return a single value as an ARRAY, which makes that code more complicated.  But in our
           case, we know the expected amount beforehand.

           When the maxOccurs larger than 1 is specified for an element, an ARRAY of those
           elements is produced.  When it is specified for a block (sequence, choice, all,
           group), then an ARRAY of HASHes is returned.  See the special section about this
           subject.

           An error is produced when the number of elements found is less than "minOccurs"
           (defaults to 1) or more than "maxOccurs" (defaults to 1), unless compile(check_occurs)
           is "false".

           Example elements with maxOccurs larger than 1. In the schema:

            <element name="a" type="int" maxOccurs="unbounded" />
            <element name="b" type="int" />

           In the XML message:

            <a>12</a><a>13</a><b>14</b>

           In the Perl representation:

            a => [12, 13], b => 14

       value is "NIL"
           When an element is nillable, that is explicitly represented as a "NIL" constant
           string.

       use="optional" or minOccurs="0"
           The element may be skipped.  When found it is a single value.

       use="forbidden"
           When the element is found, an error is produced.

       default="value"
           When the XML does not contain the element, the default value is used... but only if
           this element's container exists.  This has no effect on the writer.

       fixed="value"
           Produce an error when the value is not present or different (after the white-space
           rules where applied).

       Default Values

       [added in v0.91] With compile(default_values) you can control how much information about
       default values defined by the schema will be passed into your program.

       The choices, available for both READER and WRITER, are:

       "IGNORE"   (the WRITER's standard behavior)
           Only include element and attribute values in the result if they are in the XML
           message.  Behaviorally, this treats elements with default values as if they are just
           optional.  The WRITER does not try to be smarter than you.

       "EXTEND"   (the READER's standard behavior)
           If some element or attribute is not in the source but has a default in the schema,
           that value will be produced.  This is very convenient for the READER, because your
           application does not have to hard-code the same constant values as defaults as well.

       "MINIMAL"
           Only produce the values which differ from the defaults.  This choice is useful when
           producing XML, to reduce the size of the output.

       . Example: use of default_values EXTEND

       Let us process a schema using the schema schema.  A schema file can contain lines like
       this:

        <element minOccurs="0" ref="myelem"/>

       In mode "EXTEND" (the READER default), this gets translated into:

        element => { ref => 'myelem', maxOccurs => 1
                   , minOccurs => 0, nillable => 0 };

       With "EXTEND" in the READER, all schema information is used to provide a complete overview
       of available information.  Your code does not need to check whether the attributes were
       available or not: attributes with defaults or fixed values are automatically added.

       Again mode "EXTEND", now for the writer:

        element => { ref => 'myelem', minOccurs => 0 };
        <element minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" ref="myelem" nillable="0"/>

       . Example: use of default_values IGNORE

       With option "default_values" set to "IGNORE" (the WRITER default), you would get

        element => { ref => 'myelem', maxOccurs => 1, minOccurs => 0 }
        <element minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" ref="myelem"/>

       The same in both translation directions.  The nillable attribute is not used, so will not
       be shown by the READER.  The writer does not try to be smart, so does not add the nillable
       default.

       . Example: use of default_values MINIMAL

       With option "default_values" set to "MINIMAL", the READER would do this:

        <element minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" ref="myelem"/>
        element => { ref => 'myelem', minOccurs => 0 }

       The maxOccurs default is "1", so will not be included, minimalizing the size of the HASH.

       For the WRITER:

        element => { ref => 'myelem', minOccurs => 0, nillable => 0 }
        <element minOccurs="0" ref="myelem"/>

       because the default value for nillable is '0', it will not show as attribute value.

       Repetative blocks

       Particle blocks come in four shapes: "sequence", "choice", "all", and "group" (an indirect
       block).  This also affects "substitutionGroups".

       repetative sequence, choice, all

       In situations like this:

         <element name="example">
           <complexType>
             <sequence>
               <element name="a" type="int" />
               <sequence>
                 <element name="b" type="int" />
               </sequence>
               <element name="c" type="int" />
             </sequence>
           </complexType>
         </element>

       (yes, schemas are verbose) the data structure is

         <example> <a>1</a> <b>2</b> <c>3</c> </example>

       the Perl representation is flattened, into

         example => { a => 1, b => 2, c => 3 }

       Ok, this is very simple.  However, schemas can use repetition:

         <element name="example">
           <complexType>
             <sequence>
               <element name="a" type="int" />
               <sequence minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">
                 <element name="b" type="int" />
               </sequence>
               <element name="c" type="int" />
             </sequence>
           </complexType>
         </element>

       The XML message may be:

         <example> <a>1</a> <b>2</b> <b>3</b> <b>4</b> <c>5</c> </example>

       Now, the perl representation needs to produce an array of the data in the repeated block.
       This array needs to have a name, because more of these blocks may appear together in a
       construct.  The name of the block is derived from the type of block and the name of the
       first element in the block, regardless whether that element is present in the data or not.

       So, our example data is translated into (and vice versa)

         example =>
           { a     => 1
           , seq_b => [ {b => 2}, {b => 3}, {b => 4} ]
           , c     => 5
           }

       The following label is used, based on the name of the first element (say "xyz") as defined
       in the schema (not in the actual message):
          seq_xyz    sequence with maxOccurs > 1
          cho_xyz    choice with maxOccurs > 1
          all_xyz    all with maxOccurs > 1

       When you have compile(key_rewrite) option PREFIXED, and you have explicitly assigned the
       prefix "xs" to the schema namespace (See compile(prefixes)), then those names will
       respectively be "seq_xs_xyz", "cho_xs_xyz", "all_xs_xyz".

       . Example: always an array with maxOccurs larger than 1

       Even when there is only one element found, it will be returned as ARRAY (of one element).
       Therefore, you can write

        my $data = $reader->($xml);
        foreach my $a ( @{$data->{a}} ) {...}

       . Example: blocks with maxOccurs larger than 1

       In the schema:
        <sequence maxOccurs="5">
          <element name="a" type="int" />
          <element name="b" type="int" />
        </sequence>

       In the XML message:
        <a>15</a><b>16</b><a>17</a><b>18</b>

       In Perl representation:
        seq_a => [ {a => 15, b => 16}, {a => 17, b => 18} ]

       repetative groups

       [behavioral change in 0.93] In contrast to the normal partical blocks, as described above,
       do the groups have names.  In this case, we do not need to take the name of the first
       element, but can use the group name.  It will still have "gr_" appended, because groups
       can have the same name as an element or a type(!)

       Blocks within the group definition cannot be repeated.

       . Example: groups with maxOccurs larger than 1

        <element name="top">
          <complexType>
            <sequence>
              <group ref="ns:xyz" maxOccurs="unbounded">
            </sequence>
          </complexType>
        </element>

        <group name="xyz">
          <sequence>
            <element name="a" type="int" />
            <element name="b" type="int" />
          </sequence>
        </group>

       translates into

         gr_xyz => [ {a => 42, b => 43}, {a => 44, b => 45} ]

       repetative substitutionGroups

       For substitutionGroups which are repeating, the name of the base element is used (the
       element which has attribute "<abstract="true"">.  We do need this array, because the order
       of the elements within the group may be important; we cannot group the elements based to
       the extended element's name.

       In an example substitutionGroup, the Perl representation will be something like this:

         base-element-name =>
           [ { extension-name  => $data1 }
           , { other-extension => $data2 }
           ]

       Each HASH has only one key.

       . Example: with a list of ints

         <test5>3 8 12</test5>

       as Perl structure:

         test5 => [3, 8, 12]

       . Example: substitutionGroup

        <xs:element name="price"  type="xs:int" abstract="true" />
        <xs:element name="euro"   type="xs:int" substitutionGroup="price" />
        <xs:element name="dollar" type="xs:int" substitutionGroup="price" />

        <xs:element name="product">
          <xs:complexType>
             <xs:element name="name" type="xs:string" />
             <xs:element ref="price" />
          </xs:complexType>
        </xs:element>

       Now, valid XML data is

        <product>
          <name>Ball</name>
          <euro>12</euro>
        </product>

       and

        <product>
          <name>Ball</name>
          <dollar>6</dollar>
        </product>

       The HASH repesentation is respectively

        product => {name => 'Ball', euro  => 12}
        product => {name => 'Ball', dollar => 6}

       . Example: of HOOKs:

        my $hook = { type    => '{my_ns}my_type'
                   , before  => sub { ... }
                   , action  => 'WRITER'
                   };

        my $hook = { path    => qr/\(volume\)/
                   , replace => 'SKIP'
                   , action  => 'READER'
                   };

        # path contains "volume" or id is 'aap' or id is 'noot'
        my $hook = { path    => qr/\bvolume\b/
                   , id      => [ 'aap', 'noot' ]
                   , before  => [ sub {...}, sub { ... } ]
                   , after   => sub { ... }
                   };

       . Example: use of the type selector

        type => 'int'
        type => '{http://www.w3.org/2000/10/XMLSchema}int'
        type => qr/\}xml_/   # type start with xml_
        type => [ qw/int float/ ];

        use XML::Compile::Util qw/pack_type SCHEMA2000/;
        type => pack_type(SCHEMA2000, 'int')

        # with XML::Compile::Cache
        $schema->addPrefixes(xsd => SCHEMA2000);
        type => 'xsd:int'

       . Example: type hook with XML::Compile::Cache

        use XML::Compile::Util qw/SCHEMA2001/;
        my $schemas = XML::Compile::Cache->new(...);
        $schemas->addPrefixes(xsd => SCHEMA2001, mine => 'http://somens');
        $schemas->addHook(type => 'xsd:int', ...);
        $schemas->addHook(type => 'mine:sometype', ...);

       . Example: use of the ID selector

        # default schema types have id's with same name
        id => 'ABC'
        id => 'http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#int'
        id => qr/\#xml_/   # id which start with xml_
        id => [ qw/ABC fgh/ ];

        use XML::Compile::Util qw/pack_id SCHEMA2001/;
        id => pack_id(SCHEMA2001, 'ABC')

       . Example: anyAttribute in a READER

       Say your schema looks like this:

        <schema targetNamespace="http://mine"
           xmlns:me="http://mine" ...>
          <element name="el">
            <complexType>
              <attribute name="a" type="xs:int" />
              <anyAttribute namespace="##targetNamespace"
                 processContents="lax">
            </complexType>
          </element>
          <simpleType name="non-empty">
            <restriction base="NCName" />
          </simpleType>
        </schema>

       Then, in an application, you write:

        my $r = $schema->compile
         ( READER => pack_type('http://mine', 'el')
         , anyAttribute => 'ALL'
         );
        # or lazy: READER => '{http://mine}el'

        my $h = $r->( <<'__XML' );
          <el xmlns:me="http://mine">
            <a>42</a>
            <b type="me:non-empty">
               everything
            </b>
          </el>
        __XML

        use Data::Dumper 'Dumper';
        print Dumper $h;
        __XML__

       The output is something like

        $VAR1 =
         { a => 42
         , '{http://mine}a' => ... # XML::LibXML::Node with <a>42</a>
         , '{http://mine}b' => ... # XML::LibXML::Node with <b>everything</b>
         };

       You can improve the reader with a callback.  When you know that the extra attribute is
       always of type "non-empty", then you can do

        my $read = $schema->compile
         ( READER => '{http://mine}el'
         , anyAttribute => \&filter
         );

        my $anyAttRead = $schema->compile
         ( READER => '{http://mine}non-empty'
         );

        sub filter($$$$)
        {   my ($fqn, $xml, $path, $translator) = @_;
            return () if $fqn ne '{http://mine}b';
            (b => $anyAttRead->($xml));
        }

        my $h = $r->( see above );
        print Dumper $h;

       Which will result in

        $VAR1 =
         { a => 42
         , b => 'everything'
         };

       The filter will be called twice, but return nothing in the first case.  You can implement
       any kind of complex processing in the filter.

       . Example: to trace the paths

        $schema->addHook
          ( action => 'READER'
          , path   => qr/./
          , before => 'PRINT_PATH'
          );

       . Example: specify anyAttribute

        use XML::Compile::Util qw/pack_type/;

        my $attr = $doc->createAttributeNS($somens, $sometype, 42);
        my $h = { a => 12     # normal element or attribute
                , "{$somens}$sometype"        => $attr # anyAttribute
                , pack_type($somens, $mytype) => $attr # nicer
                , "$prefix:$sometype"         => $attr # [1.28]
                };

       . Example: before hook on user-provided HASH.

        sub beforeOnComplex($$$$)
        {   my ($doc, $values, $path, $fulltype) = @_;

            my %copy = %$values;
            $copy{extra} = 42;
            delete $copy{superfluous};
            $copy{count} =~ s/\D//g;    # only digits
            \%copy;
        }

       . Example: before hook on simpleType data

        sub beforeOnSimple($$$$)
        {   my ($doc, $value, $path, $fulltype) = @_;
            $value * 100;    # convert euro to euro-cents
        }

       . Example: before hook with object for complexType

        sub beforeOnObject($$$$)
        {   my ($doc, $obj, $path, $fulltype) = @_;

            +{ name     => $obj->name
             , price    => $obj->euro
             , currency => 'EUR'
             };
        }

       . Example: replace hook

        sub replace($$$$$)
        {  my ($doc, $values, $path, $tag, $r, $fulltype) = @_
           my $node = $doc->createElement($tag);
           $node->appendText($values->{text});
           $node;
        }

       . Example: add an extra sibbling after the usual process

        sub after($$$$)
        {   my ($doc, $node, $path, $values, $fulltype) = @_;
            my $child = $doc->createAttributeNS($myns, earth => 42);
            $node->addChild($child);
            $node;
        }

       . Example: creating nodes with text

        {  my $text;

           sub before($$$)
           {   my ($doc, $values, $path) = @_;
               my %copy = %$values;
               $text = delete $copy{text};
               \%copy;
           }

           sub after($$$)
           {   my ($doc, $node, $path) = @_;
               $node->addChild($doc->createTextNode($text));
               $node;
           }

           $schema->addHook
            ( action => 'WRITER'
            , type   => 'mixed'
            , before => \&before
            , after  => \&after
            );
        }

       List type

       List simpleType objects are also represented as ARRAY, like elements with a minOccurs or
       maxOccurs unequal 1.

       Using substitutionGroup constructs

       A substitution group is kind-of choice between alternative (complex) types.  However, in
       this case roles have reversed: instead a "choice" which lists the alternatives, here the
       alternative elements register themselves as valid for an abstract (head) element.  All
       alternatives should be extensions of the head element's type, but there is no way to check
       that.

       Wildcards via any and anyAttribute

       The "any" and "anyAttribute" elements are referred to as "wildcards": they specify (huge,
       generic) groups of elements and attributes which are accepted, instead of being explicit.

       The author of this module advices against the use of wildcards in schemas: the purpose of
       schemas is to be explicit about the message in the interface, and that basic idea is
       simply thrown away by these wildcards.  Let people cleanly extend the schema with
       inheritance!  There is always a substitutionGroup alternative possible.

       Because wildcards are not explicit about the types to expect, the "XML::Compile" module
       can not prepare for them at run-time.  You need to go read the documentation and do some
       tricky manual work to get it to work.

       Read about the processing of wildcards in the manual page for each of the back-ends
       (XML::Compile::Translate::Reader, XML::Compile::Translate::Writer, ...).

       ComplexType with "mixed" attribute

       [largely improved in 0.86, reader only] ComplexType and ComplexContent components can be
       declared with the "<mixed="true""> attribute.  This implies that text is not limited to
       the content of containers, but may also be used inbetween elements.  Usually, you will
       only find ignorable white-space between elements.

       In this example, the "a" container is marked to be mixed:
         <a> before <b>2</b> after </a>

       Each back-end has its own way of handling mixed elements.  The compile(mixed_elements)
       currently only modifies the reader's behavior; the writer's capabilities are limited.  See
       XML::Compile::Translate::Reader.

       hexBinary and base64Binary

       These are used to include images and such in an XML message. Usually, they are quite large
       with respect to the other elements. When you use SOAP, you may wish to use
       XML::Compile::XOP instead.

       The element values which you need to pass for fields of these types is a binary BLOB,
       something Perl does not have. So, it is a string containing binary data but not specially
       marked that way.

       If you need to store an integer in such a binary field, you first have to promote it into
       a BLOB (string) like this

          { color => pack('N', $i) }          # writer
          my $i = unpack('N', $d->{color});   # reader

       Module Geo::KML implemented a nice hook to avoid the explicit need for this "pack" and
       "unpack". The KML schema designers liked colors to be written as "ffc0c0c0" and abused
       "hexBinary" for that purpose.  The "colorType" fields in KML are treated as binary, but
       just represent an int. Have a look in that Geo::KML code if your schema has some of those
       tricks.  Only available in Backpan, withdrawn from CPAN.

   Schema hooks
       You can use hooks, for instance, to block processing parts of the message, to create work-
       arounds for schema bugs, or to extract more information during the process than done by
       default.

       Defining hooks

       Multiple hooks can active during the compilation process of a type, when "compile()" is
       called.  During Schema translation, each of the hooks is checked for all types which are
       processed.  When multiple hooks select the object to get a modified behavior, then all are
       evaluated in order of definition.

       Defining a global hook (where HOOKDATA is the LIST of PAIRS with hook parameters, and HOOK
       a HASH with such HOOKDATA):

        my $schema = XML::Compile::Schema->new
         ( ...
         , hook  => HOOK
         , hooks => [ HOOK, HOOK ]
         );

        $schema->addHook(HOOKDATA | HOOK);
        $schema->addHooks(HOOK, HOOK, ...);

        my $wsdl   = XML::Compile::WSDL->new(...);
        $wsdl->addHook(HOOKDATA | HOOK);

       local hooks are only used for one reader or writer.  They are evaluated before the global
       hooks.

        my $reader = $schema->compile(READER => $type
         , hook => HOOK, hooks => [ HOOK, HOOK, ...]);

       General syntax

       Each hook has three kinds of parameters:

       . selectors
       . processors
       . action ('READER' or 'WRITER', defaults to both)

       Selectors define the schema component of which the processing is modified.  When one of
       the selectors matches, the processing information for the hook is used.  When no selector
       is specified, then the hook will be used on all elements.

       Available selectors (see below for details on each of them):

       . type
       . extends
       . id
       . path

       As argument, you can specify one element as STRING, a regular expression to select
       multiple elements, or an ARRAY of STRINGs and REGEXes.

       Next to where the hook is placed, we need to known what to do in the case: the hook
       contains processing information.  When more than one hook matches, then all of these
       processors are called in order of hook definition.  However, first the compile hooks are
       taken, and then the global hooks.

       How the processing works exactly depends on the compiler back-end.  There are major
       differences.  Each of those manual-pages lists the specifics.  The label tells us when the
       processing is initiated.  Available labels are "before", "replace", and "after".

       Hooks on matching types

       The "type" selector specifies a complexType of simpleType by name.  Best is to base the
       selection on the full name, like "{ns}type", which will avoid all kinds of name-space
       conflicts in the future.  However, you may also specify only the "local type" (in any
       name-space).  Any REGEX will be matched to the full type name. Be careful with the pattern
       archors.

       If you use XML::Compile::Cache [release 0.90], then you can use "prefix:type" as type
       specification as well.  You have to explicitly define prefix to namespace beforehand.

       Hooks on extended type

       [1.48] This hook will match all elements which use a type which is equal or based on the
       given type.  In the schema, you will find extension and restriction constructs.  You may
       only pass a single full type (no arrays of types or local names) per 'extend' hook.

       Using a hooks on extended types is quite expensive for the compiler.

       example:

        $schemas->addHook(extends => "{ns}local", ...);
        $schemas->addHook(extends => 'mine:sometype', ...);  # need ::Cache

       Hooks on matching ids

       Matching based on IDs can reach more schema elements: some types are anonymous but still
       have an ID.  Best is to base selection on the full ID name, like "ns#id", to avoid all
       kinds of name-space conflicts in the future.

       Hooks on matching paths

       When you see error messages, you always see some representation of the path where the
       problem was discovered.  You can use this path as selector, when you know what it is... BE
       WARNED, that the current structure of the path is not really consequent hence will be
       improved in one of the future releases, breaking backwards compatibility.

   Typemaps
       Often, XML will be used in object oriented programs, where the facts which are transported
       in the XML message are attributes of Perl objects.  Of course, you can always collect the
       data from each of the Objects into the required (huge) HASH manually, before triggering
       the reader or writer.  As alternative, you can connect types in the XML schema with Perl
       objects and classes, which results in cleaner code.

       You can also specify typemaps with new(typemap), addTypemaps(), and compile(typemap). Each
       type will only refer to the last map for that type.  When an "undef" is given for a type,
       then the older definition will be cancelled.  Examples of the three ways to specify
       typemaps:

         my %map = ($x1 => $p1, $x2 => $p2);
         my $schema = XML::Compile::Schema->new(...., typemap => \%map);

         $schema->addTypemaps($x3 => $p3, $x4 => $p4, $x1 => undef);

         my $call = $schema->compile(READER => $type, typemap => \%map);

       The latter only has effect for the type being compiled.  The definitions are cumulative.
       In the second example, the $x1 gets disabled.

       Objects can come in two shapes: either they do support the connection with XML::Compile
       (implementing two methods with predefined names), or they don't, in which case you will
       need to write a little wrapper.

         use XML::Compile::Util qw/pack_type/;
         my $t1 = pack_type $myns, $mylocal;
         $schema->typemap($t1 => 'My::Perl::Class');
         $schema->typemap($t1 => $some_object);
         $schema->typemap($t1 => sub { ... });

       The implementation of the READER and WRITER differs.  In the READER case, the typemap is
       implemented as an 'after' hook which calls a "fromXML" method.  The WRITER is a 'before'
       hook which calls a "toXML" method.  See respectively the XML::Compile::Translate::Reader
       and XML::Compile::Translate::Writer.

       Private variables in objects

       When you design a new object, it is possible to store the information exactly like the
       corresponding XML type definition.  The only thing the "fromXML" has to do, is bless the
       data-structure into its class:

         $schema->typemap($xmltype => 'My::Perl::Class');
         package My::Perl::Class;
         sub fromXML { bless $_[1], $_[0] } # for READER
         sub toXML   { $_[0] }              # for WRITER

       However... the object may also need so need some private variables.  If you store them in
       the same HASH for your object, you will get "unused tags" warnings from the writer.  To
       avoid that, choose one of the following alternatives:

         # never complain about unused tags
         ::Schema->new(..., ignore_unused_tags => 1);

         # only complain about unused tags not matching regexp
         my $not_for_xml = qr/^[A-Z]/;  # my XML only has lower-case
         ::Schema->new(..., ignore_unused_tags => $not_for_xml);

         # only for one compiled WRITER (not used with READER)
         ::Schema->compile(..., ignore_unused_tags => 1);
         ::Schema->compile(..., ignore_unused_tags => $not_for_xml);

       Typemap limitations

       There are some things you need to know:

       .   Many schemas define very complex types.  These may often not translate cleanly into
           objects.  You may need to create a typemap relation for some parent type.  The CODE
           reference may be very useful in this case.

       .   A same kind of problem appears when you have a list in your object, which often is not
           named in the schema.

   Handling xsi:type
       [1.10] The "xsi:type" is an old-fashioned mechanism, and should be avoided!  In this case,
       the schema does tell you that a certain element has a certrain type, but at run-time(!)
       that is changed. When an XML element has a "xsi:type" attribute, it tells you simply to
       have an extension of the original type.  This whole mechanism does bite the "compilation"
       idea of XML::Compile... however with some help, it will work.

       To make "xsi:type" work at run-time, you have to pass a table of which types you expect at
       compile-time.  Example:

         my %xsi_type_table =
           ( $base_type1 => [ $ext1_of_type1, $ext2_of_type2 ]
           , $base_type2 => [ $ext1_of_type2 ]
           );

         my $r = $schema->compile(READER => $type
           , xsi_type => \%xsi_type_table
           );

       When your schema is an XML::Compile::Cache (version at least 0.93), your types look like
       "prefix:local".  With a plain XML::Compile::Schema, they will look like
       "{namespace}local", typically produced with XML::Compile::Util::pack_type().

       When used in a reader, the resulting data-set will contain a "XSI_TYPE" key inbetween the
       facts which were taken from the element.  The type is is long syntax "{$ns}$type".  See
       XML::Compile::Util::unpack_type()

       With the writer, you have to provide such an "XSI_TYPE" value or the element's base type
       will be used (and no "xsi:type" attribute created).  This will probably cause warnings
       about unused tags.  The type can be provided in full (see XML::Compile::Util::pack_type())
       or [1.31] prefixed.

       [1.25] then the value is not an ARRAY, but only the keyword "AUTO", the parser will try to
       auto-detect all types which are valid alternatives.  This currently only works for non-
       builtin types.  The auto-detection might be slow and (because many schemas are broken) not
       produce a complete list.  When debugging is enabled ("use Log::Report mode => 3;") you
       will see to which list this AUTO gets expanded.

         xsi_type => { $base_type => 'AUTO' }   # requires X::C v1.25

       XML::Compile::Cache (since v1.01) makes using "xsi:type" easier.  When you have a ::Cache
       based object (for instance a XML::Compile::WSDL11) you can simply say

         $wsdl->addXsiType( $base_type => 'AUTO' )

       Now, you do not need to pass the xsi table to each compilation call.

   Key rewrite
       [improved with release 1.10] The standard practice is to use the localName of the XML
       elements as key in the Perl HASH; the key rewrite mechanism is used to change that,
       sometimes to separate elements which have the same localName within different name-spaces,
       or when an element and an attribute share a name (key rewrite is applied to elements AND
       attributes) in other cases just for fun or convenience.

       Rewrite rules are interpreted at "compile-time", which means that they do not slow-down
       the XML construction or deconstruction.  The rules work the same for readers and writers,
       because they are applied to name found in the schema.

       Key rewrite rules can be set during schema object initiation with new(key_rewrite) and to
       an existing schema object with addKeyRewrite().  These rules will be used in all calls to
       compile().

       Next, you can use compile(key_rewrite) to add rules which are only used for a single
       compilation.  These are applied before the global rules.  All rules will always be
       attempted, and the rulle will me applied to the result of the previous change.

       The last defined rewrite rules will be applied first, with one major exception: the
       "PREFIXED" rules will be executed before any other rule.

       key_rewrite via table

       When a HASH is provided as rule, then the XML element name is looked-up.  If found, the
       value is used as translated key.

       First full name of the element is tried, and then the localName of the element.  The full
       name can be created with XML::Compile::Util::pack_type() or by hand:

         use XML::Compile::Util qw/pack_type/;

         my %table =
           ( pack_type($myns, 'el1') => 'nice_name1'
           , "{$myns}el2" => 'alsoNice'
           , el3          => 'in any namespace'
           );
         $schema->addKeyRewrite( \%table );

       Rewrite via function

       When a CODE reference is provided, it will get called for each key which is found in the
       schema.  Passed are the name-space of the element and its local-name.  Returned is the
       key, which may be the local-name or something else.

       For instance, some people use capitals in element names and personally I do not like them:

         sub dont_like_capitals($$)
         {   my ($ns, $local) = @_;
             lc $local;
         }
         $schema->addKeyRewrite( \&dont_like_capitals );

       for short:

         my $schema = XML::Compile::Schema->new( ...,
             key_rewrite => sub { lc $_[1] } );

       key_rewrite when localNames collide

       Let's start with an apology: we cannot auto-detect when these rewrite rules are needed,
       because the colliding keys are within the same HASH, but the processing is fragmented over
       various (sequence) blocks: the parser does not have the overview on which keys of the HASH
       are used for which elements.

       The problem occurs when one complex type or substitutionGroup contains multiple elements
       with the same localName, but from different name-spaces.  In the perl representation of
       the data, the name-spaces get ignored (to make the programmer's life simple) but that may
       cause these nasty conflicts.

       Rewrite for convenience

       In XML, we often see names like "my-elem-name", which in Perl would be accessed as

         $h->{'my-elem-name'}

       In this case, you cannot leave-out the quotes in your perl code, which is quite
       inconvenient, because only 'barewords' can be used as keys unquoted.  When you use option
       "key_rewrite" for compile() or new(), you could decide to map dashes onto underscores.

         key_rewrite
            => sub { my ($ns, $local) = @_; $local =~ s/\-/_/g; $local }

         key_rewrite => sub { $_[1] =~ s/\-/_/g; $_[1] }

       then "my-elem-name" in XML will get mapped onto "my_elem_name" in Perl, both in the READER
       as the WRITER.  Be warned that the substitute command returns the success, not the
       modified value!

       Pre-defined key_rewrite rules

       UNDERSCORES
           Replace dashes (-) with underscores (_).

       SIMPLIFIED
           Rewrite rule with the constant name (STRING) "SIMPLIFIED" will replace all dashes with
           underscores, translate capitals into lowercase, and remove all other characters which
           are none-bareword (if possible, I am too lazy to check)

       PREFIXED
           This requires a table for prefix to name-space translations, via compile(prefixes),
           which defines at least one non-empty (default) prefix.  The keys which represent
           elements in any name-space which has a prefix defined will have that prefix and an
           underscore prepended.

           Be warned that the name-spaces which you provide are used, not the once used in the
           schema.  Example:

             my $r = $schema->compile
               ( READER => $type
               , prefixes    => [ mine => $myns ]
               , key_rewrite => 'PREFIXED'
               );

             my $xml = $r->( <<__XML );
           <data xmlns="$myns"><x>42</x></data>
           __XML

             print join ' => ', %$xml;    #   mine_x => 42

       PREFIXED(...)
           Like the previous, but now only use a selected sub-set of the available prefixes.
           This is particular useful in writers, when explicit prefixes are also used to beautify
           the output.

           The prefixes are not checked against the prefix list, and may have surrounding blanks.

             key_rewrite => 'PREFIXED(opt,sar)'

           Above is equivalent to:

             key_rewrite => [ 'PREFIXED(opt)', 'PREFIXED(sar)' ]

           Special care is taken that the prefix will not be added twice.  For instance, if the
           same prefix appears twice, or a "PREFIXED" rule is provided as well, then still only
           one prefix is added.

SEE ALSO

       This module is part of XML-Compile distribution version 1.61, built on November 09, 2018.
       Website: http://perl.overmeer.net/xml-compile/

LICENSE

       Copyrights 2006-2018 by [Mark Overmeer <markov@cpan.org>]. For other contributors see
       ChangeLog.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself.  See http://dev.perl.org/licenses/