Provided by: libxml-compile-perl_1.61-1_all bug


       XML::Compile::Translate::Writer - translate HASH to XML


          is a XML::Compile::Translate


        my $schema = XML::Compile::Schema->new(...);
        my $code   = $schema->compile(WRITER => ...);


       The translator understands schemas, but does not encode that into actions.  This module
       implements those actions to translate from a (nested) Perl HASH structure onto XML.

       Extends "DESCRIPTION" in XML::Compile::Translate.


       Extends "METHODS" in XML::Compile::Translate.


       Extends "DETAILS" in XML::Compile::Translate.

   Translator options
       Extends "Translator options" in XML::Compile::Translate.

   Processing Wildcards
       Complex elements can define "any" (element) and "anyAttribute" components, with
       unpredictable content.  In this case, you are quite on your own in processing those
       constructs.  The use of both schema components should be avoided: please specify your
       data-structures explicit by clean type extensions.

       The procedure for the WRITER is simple: add key-value pairs to your hash, in which the
       value is a fully prepared XML::LibXML::Attr or XML::LibXML::Element.  The keys have the
       form "{namespace}type".  The namespace component is important, because only spec
       conformant namespaces will be used. The elements and attributes are added in random order.

   Mixed elements
       [0.79] ComplexType and ComplexContent components can be declared with the "<mixed="true"">

       XML::Compile does not have a way to express these mixtures of information and text as Perl
       data-structures; the only way you can use those to the full extend, is by juggling with
       XML::LibXML nodes yourself.

       You may provide a XML::LibXML::Element, which is complete, or a HASH which contains
       attributes values and an XML node with key '_'.  When '_' contains a string, it will be
       translated into an XML text node.

       XML::Compile::Schema::compile(mixed_elements) can be set to

       ATTRIBUTES (default)
           Add attributes to the provided node.  When you provide a HASH, it is taken as node
           content with attributes.  The content has to be stored with key '_'.  When it is not a
           HASH, the data is node content.

           There are various ways you can specify content.  Up to [1.51], you could only pass a
           matching XML::LibXML::Element.  Release [1.51] added strings to the spectrum.  If the
           string does not contain encoded entities or < and >, then it is assumed to be a real
           perl string.  When the string contains an XML fragment which has the same localname as
           to be created, that will be used.  When the XML fragment is not wrapped in the
           expected node, this is created for you.

           In any case, attributes provided with the content will get added to the content data.

           [0.89] behaves as if the attribute is not there: a data-structure can be used or an
           XML node.

   Schema hooks
       All writer hooks behave differently.  Be warned that the user values can be a SCALAR or a
       HASH, dependent on the type.  You can intervene on higher data-structure levels, to repair
       lower levels, if you want to.

       [1.48] The hooks get a long list of parameters.  The $fulltype indicates the type of
       object which is being processed, which is especially useful with the 'extends' selector.

       hooks executed before normal processing

       The "before" hook gives you the opportunity to fix the user supplied data structure.  The
       XML generator will complain about missing, superfluous, and erroneous values which you
       probably want to avoid.

       The "before" hook returns new values.  Just must not interfere with the user provided
       data.  When "undef" is returned, the whole node will be cancelled.

       On the moment, the only predefined "before" hook is "PRINT_PATH".

       hooks replacing the usual XML node generation

       Only one "replace" hook can be defined.  It must return a XML::LibXML::Node or "undef".
       The hook must use the "XML::LibXML::Document" node (which is provided as first argument)
       to create a node.

       As parameters, the called replace function will receive the document, user-provided
       values, location in the data tree (for error messages), the tag of the node with prefix
       attached, and a reference to the code which would be executed if the replace hook had not
       been active.

       On the moment, the only predefined "replace" hook is "SKIP".

       hooks executed after the node was created

       The "after" hooks, will each get a chance to modify the produced XML node, for instance to
       encapsulate it.  Each time, the new XML node has to be returned.

       On the moment, the only predefined "after" hook is "PRINT_PATH".

       fixing bad schemas

       When a schema makes a mess out of things, we can fix that with hooks.  Also, when you need
       things that XML::Compile does not support (yet).

       In a typemap, a relation between an XML element type and a Perl class (or object) is made.
       Each translator back-end will implement this a little differently.  This section is about
       how the writer handles typemaps.

       Typemap to Class

       Usually, an XML type will be mapped on a Perl class.  The Perl class implements the
       "toXML" method as serializer.  That method should either return a data structure which
       fits that of the specific type, or an XML::LibXML::Element.

       When translating the data-structure to XML, the process may encounter objects.  Only if
       these objects appear at locations where a typemap is defined, they are treated smartly.
       When some other data than an objects is found on a location which has a typemap
       definition, it will be used as such; objects are optional.

       The object (if present) will be checked to be of the expected class.  It will be a
       compile-time error when the class does not implement the "toXML" method.

        $schema->typemap($sometype => 'My::Perl::Class');

        package My::Perl::Class;
        sub toXML
        {   my ($self, $xmltype, $doc) = @_;
            { a => { b => 42 }, c => 'aaa' };

       The $self is the object found in the data-structure provided by the user.  $doc can be
       used to create your own XML::LibXML::Element.  It is possible to use the same object on
       locations for different types: in this case, the toXML method can distiguisk what kind of
       data to return based on the $xmltype.

       Typemap to Object

       In this case, some helper object arranges the serialization of the provided object.  This
       is especially useful when the provided object does not have the toXML implemented, for
       instance because it is an implementation not under your control.  The helper object works
       like an interface.

        my $object = My::Perl::Class->new(...);
        $schema->typemap($sometype => $object);

        package My::Perl::Class;
        sub toXML
        {   my ($self, $object, $xmltype, $doc) = @_;

       The toXML will only be called then $object is blessed.  If you wish to have access to some
       data-type in any case, then use a simple "before" hook.

       Typemap to CODE

       The light version of an interface object uses CODE references.  The CODE reference is only
       called if a blessed value is found in the user provided data.  It cannot be checked
       automatically whether it is blessed according to the expectation.

        $schema->typemap($t1 => \&myhandler);

        sub myhandler
        {   my ($backend, $object, $xmltype, $doc) = @_;

       Typemap implementation

       The typemap for the writer is implemented as a 'before' hook: just before the writer wants
       to start.

       Of course, it could have been implemented by accepting an object anywhere in the input
       data.  However, this would mean that all the (many) internal parser constructs would need
       to be extended.  That would slow-down the writer considerably.


       This module is part of XML-Compile distribution version 1.61, built on November 09, 2018.


       Copyrights 2006-2018 by [Mark Overmeer <>]. For other contributors see

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself.  See