Provided by: libxml-handler-trees-perl_0.02-7_all bug


       XML::Handler::Trees - PerlSAX handlers for building tree structures


         use XML::Handler::Trees;
         use XML::Parser::PerlSAX;

         my $p=XML::Parser::PerlSAX->new();
         my $h=XML::Handler::Tree->new();
         my $tree=$p->parse(Handler=>$h,Source=>{SystemId=>'file.xml'});

         my $p=XML::Parser::PerlSAX->new();
         my $h=XML::Handler::EasyTree->new(Noempty=>1);
         my $easytree=$p->parse(Handler=>$h,Source=>{SystemId=>'file.xml'});

         my $p=XML::Parser::PerlSAX->new();
         my $h=XML::Handler::TreeBuilder->new();
         my $tree=$p->parse(Handler=>$h,Source=>{SystemId=>'file.xml'});


       XML::Handler::Trees provides three PerlSAX handler classes for building tree structures.
       XML::Handler::Tree builds the same type of tree as the "Tree" style in XML::Parser.
       XML::Handler::EasyTree builds the same type of tree as the "EasyTree" style added to
       XML::Parser by XML::Parser::EasyTree.  XML::Handler::TreeBuilder builds the same type of
       tree as Sean M. Burke's XML::TreeBuilder.  These classes make it possible to construct
       these tree structures from sources other than XML::Parser.

       All three handlers can be driven by either PerlSAX 1 or PerlSAX 2 drivers.  In all cases,
       the end_document() method returns a reference to the constructed tree, which normally
       becomes the return value of the PerlSAX driver.

CLASS XML::Handler::Tree

       This handler builds the same type of tree structure as the "Tree" style in XML::Parser.
       Some modules such as Dan Brian's XML::SimpleObject work with this type of tree.  See the
       documentation for XML::Parser for details.

       $handler = XML::Handler::Tree->new()
           Creates a handler object.

CLASS XML::Handler::EasyTree

       This handler builds a lightweight tree structure representing the XML document.  This
       structure is, at least in this author's opinion, easier to work with than the "standard"
       style of tree.  It is the same type of structure as built by XML::Parser when using
       XML::Parser::EasyTree, or by the get_simple_tree method in XML::Records.

       The tree is returned as a reference to an array of tree nodes, each of which is a hash
       reference. All nodes have a 'type' key whose value is the type of the node: 'e' for
       element nodes, 't' for text nodes, and 'p' for processing instruction nodes. All nodes
       also have a 'content' key whose value is a reference to an array holding the element's
       child nodes for element nodes, the string value for text nodes, and the data value for
       processing instruction nodes. Element nodes also have an 'attrib' key whose value is a
       reference to a hash of attribute names and values and a 'name' key whose value is the
       element's name.  Processing instructions also have a 'target' key whose value is the PI's

       EasyTree nodes are ordinary Perl hashes and are not objects.  Contiguous runs of text are
       always returned in a single node.

       The reason the parser returns an array reference rather than the root element's node is
       that an XML document can legally contain processing instructions outside the root element
       (the xml-stylesheet PI is commonly used this way).

       If namespace information is available (only possible with PerlSAX 2), element and
       attribute names will be prefixed with their (possibly empty) namespace URI enclosed in
       curly brackets, and namespace prefixes will be stripped from names.

       $handler = XML::Handler::EasyTree->new([options])
           Creates a handler object.  Options can be provided hash-style:

               If this is set to a true value, text nodes consisting entirely of whitespace will
               not be stored in the tree.  The default is false.

               If this is set to a true value, characters with Unicode values in the Latin-1
               range (160-255) will be stored in the tree as Latin-1 rather than UTF-8.  The
               default is false.

               If this is set to a true value, the parser will return a tree of
               XML::Handler::EasyTree::Searchable objects rather than bare array references,
               providing access to the navigation methods listed below.  The top-level node
               returned will be a dummy element node with a name of "__TOPLEVEL__".  It is false
               by default.  Setting this option automatically enables the Noempty option.

   XML::Handler::EasyTree::Searchable METHODS
       If the Searchable option is set, all nodes in the tree will be
       XML::Handler::EasyTree::Searchable objects, which have the same structure as EasyTree
       nodes but also implement the following methods similar to those in XML::SimpleObject.

       $name = $node->name()
           Returns the name of the node. Ideally, it should return a "fully qualified" name, but
           it doesn't.

       $val = $node->value()
           Returns the text value associated with a node object.  Returns undef if the node has
           no text children or its first child is not a text node.

       $newobj = $obj->child( $name );
           Returns a child (elements only) of the object with the $name.

           For the case where there is more than one child that match $name, the array context
           semantics haven't been completely worked out: - in an array context, all children are
           returned.  - in scalar context, the first child matching $name is returned.

           In a scalar context, The XML::Parser::SimpleObj class returns an object containing all
           the children matching $name, unless there is only one child in which case it returns
           that child (see commented code). I find that behavior confusing.

       @children = $obj->children( $name );
           Returns a list of all children (elements only) of the $obj that match $name -- in the
           order in which they appeared in the original xml text.

       @children_names = $obj->children_names();
           Returns a list of all the names of the objects children (elements only) in the order
           in which they appeared in the original text.

       $attrib = $obj->attribute( $att_name );
           Returns the string associated with the attribute of the object. If not found returns a
           null string.

       @attribute_list = $obj->attribute_list();
           Returns a list (in no particular order) of the attribute names associated with the

       $text = $obj->dump_tree();
           Returns a textual representation (in xml form) of the object's hierarchy. Only
           elements are processed. The result will be in whatever character encoding the SAX
           driver delivered (which may not be the same encoding as the original source).

       $text = $obj->pretty_dump_tree();
           Identical to dump_tree(), except that newline and indentation embellishments are added

        #! /usr/bin/perl -w

        use XML::Handler::Trees;
        use XML::Parser::PerlSAX;
        use strict;

        my $p=XML::Parser::PerlSAX->new();
        my $h=XML::Handler::EasyTree->new( Searchable=>1 );
        my $easytree=$p->parse( Handler => $h, Source => { SystemId => 'systemB.xml' } );

        my $vme = $easytree->child( "vmesystem" );

        print "\n";
        print "vmesystem config: ", $vme->attribute( "configuration_name" ), "\n";

        print "\n";
        print "vmesystem children: ", join( ', ', $vme->children_names() ), "\n";

        print "\n";
        print "gps model is ", $vme->child( "gps" )->child( "model" )->value(), "\n";
        my $gps = $vme->child( "gps" );
        print "gps slot is ", $gps->child( "slot" )->value(), "\n";

        print "\n";
        print "reconstructed XML: \n";
        print $easytree->dump_tree(), "\n";

        # print "\n";
        # print "recontructed XML (pretty): \n";
        # print $easytree->pretty_dump_tree(), "\n";

        print "\n";

CLASS XML::Handler::TreeBuilder

       This handler builds XML document trees constructed of XML::Element objects (XML::Element
       is a subclass of HTML::Element adapted for XML).  To use it, XML::TreeBuilder and its
       prerequisite HTML::Tree need to be installed.  See the documentation for those modules for
       information on how to work with these tree structures.

       $handler = XML::Handler::TreeBuilder->new()
           Creates a handler which builds a tree rooted in an XML::Element.

           This determines whether comments will be stored in the tree (not all SAX drivers
           generate comment events).  Currently, this is off by default.

           This determines whether markup declarations will be stored in the tree.  Currently,
           this is off by default.  The present implementation does not store markup declarations
           in any case; this method is provided for future use.

           This determines whether processing instructions will be stored in the tree.
           Currently, this is off (false) by default.


       Eric Bohlman (

       PerlSAX 2 compatibility added by Matt Sergeant (

       XML::EasyTree::Searchable written by Stuart McDow (

       Copyright (c) 2001 Eric Bohlman.

       Portions of this code Copyright (c) 2001 Matt Sergeant.

       Portions of this code Copyright (c) 2001 Stuart McDow.

       All rights reserved. This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
       it under the same terms as Perl itself.