Provided by: libzmq-ffi-perl_1.17-2_all bug


       ZMQ::FFI - version agnostic Perl bindings for zeromq using ffi


       version 1.17


           #### send/recv ####

           use v5.10;
           use ZMQ::FFI qw(ZMQ_REQ ZMQ_REP);

           my $endpoint = "ipc://zmq-ffi-$$";
           my $ctx      = ZMQ::FFI->new();

           my $s1 = $ctx->socket(ZMQ_REQ);

           my $s2 = $ctx->socket(ZMQ_REP);


           say $s2->recv();
           # ohhai

           #### pub/sub ####

           use v5.10;
           use ZMQ::FFI qw(ZMQ_PUB ZMQ_SUB);
           use Time::HiRes q(usleep);

           my $endpoint = "ipc://zmq-ffi-$$";
           my $ctx      = ZMQ::FFI->new();

           my $s = $ctx->socket(ZMQ_SUB);
           my $p = $ctx->socket(ZMQ_PUB);


           # all topics

               until ($s->has_pollin) {
                   # compensate for slow subscriber
                   usleep 100_000;

               say $s->recv();
               # ohhai


           # specific topics

               until ($s->has_pollin) {
                   usleep 100_000;
                   $p->send('topic1 ohhai');
                   $p->send('topic2 ohhai');

               while ($s->has_pollin) {
                   say join ' ', $s->recv();
                   # topic1 ohhai
                   # topic2 ohhai

           #### multipart ####

           use v5.10;
           use ZMQ::FFI qw(ZMQ_DEALER ZMQ_ROUTER);

           my $endpoint = "ipc://zmq-ffi-$$";
           my $ctx      = ZMQ::FFI->new();

           my $d = $ctx->socket(ZMQ_DEALER);

           my $r = $ctx->socket(ZMQ_ROUTER);


           $d->send_multipart([qw(ABC DEF GHI)]);

           say join ' ', $r->recv_multipart;
           # dealer ABC DEF GHI

           #### nonblocking ####

           use v5.10;
           use ZMQ::FFI qw(ZMQ_PUSH ZMQ_PULL);
           use AnyEvent;
           use EV;

           my $endpoint = "ipc://zmq-ffi-$$";
           my $ctx      = ZMQ::FFI->new();
           my @messages = qw(foo bar baz);

           my $pull = $ctx->socket(ZMQ_PULL);

           my $fd = $pull->get_fd();

           my $recv = 0;
           my $w = AE::io $fd, 0, sub {
               while ( $pull->has_pollin ) {
                   say $pull->recv();
                   # foo, bar, baz

                   if ($recv == 3) {

           my $push = $ctx->socket(ZMQ_PUSH);

           my $sent = 0;
           my $t;
           $t = AE::timer 0, .1, sub {

               if ($sent == 3) {
                   undef $t;


           #### specifying versions ####

           use ZMQ::FFI;

           # 2.x context
           my $ctx = ZMQ::FFI->new( soname => '' );
           my ($major, $minor, $patch) = $ctx->version;

           # 3.x context
           my $ctx = ZMQ::FFI->new( soname => '' );
           my ($major, $minor, $patch) = $ctx->version;


       ZMQ::FFI exposes a high level, transparent, OO interface to zeromq independent of the
       underlying libzmq version.  Where semantics differ, it will dispatch to the appropriate
       backend for you.  As it uses ffi, there is no dependency on XS or compilation.

       As of 1.00 ZMQ::FFI is implemented using FFI::Platypus. This version has substantial
       performance improvements and you are encouraged to use 1.00 or newer.


           my $ctx = ZMQ::FFI->new(%options);

       returns a new context object, appropriate for the version of libzmq found on your system.
       It accepts the following optional attributes:


           zeromq thread pool size. Default: 1

           requires zmq >= 3.x

           max number of sockets allowed for context. Default: 1024

               ZMQ::FFI->new( soname => '/path/to/' );
               ZMQ::FFI->new( soname => '' );

           specify the libzmq library name to load.  By default ZMQ::FFI will first try the
           generic soname for the system, then the soname for each version of zeromq (e.g.
  "soname" can also be the path to a particular libzmq so file

           It is technically possible to have multiple contexts of different versions in the same
           process, though the utility of doing such a thing is dubious

           my ($major, $minor, $patch) = $ctx->version();

       return the libzmq version as the list "($major, $minor, $patch)"

       requires zmq >= 3.x

           my $threads = $ctx->get(ZMQ_IO_THREADS)

       get a context option value

       requires zmq >= 3.x

           $ctx->set(ZMQ_MAX_SOCKETS, 42)

       set a context option value

           my $socket = $ctx->socket(ZMQ_REQ)

       returns a socket of the specified type. See "SOCKET API" below

           $ctx->proxy($frontend, $backend);

           $ctx->proxy($frontend, $backend, $capture);

       sets up and runs a "zmq_proxy". For zmq 2.x this will use a "ZMQ_STREAMER" device to
       simulate the proxy. The optional $capture is only supported for zmq >= 3.x however

       zmq 2.x only

           $ctx->device($type, $frontend, $backend);

       sets up and runs a "zmq_device" with specified frontend and backend sockets

       destroy the underlying zmq context. In general you shouldn't have to call this directly as
       it is called automatically for you when the object gets reaped

       See "CLEANUP" below


       The following API is available on socket objects created by "$ctx->socket".

       For core attributes and functions, common across all versions of zeromq, convenience
       methods are provided. Otherwise, generic get/set methods are provided that will work
       independent of version.

       As attributes are constantly being added/removed from zeromq, it is unlikely the 'static'
       accessors will grow much beyond the current set.

           my ($major, $minor, $patch) = $socket->version();

       same as Context "version" above


       does socket connect on the specified endpoint

       requires zmq >= 3.x


       does socket disconnect on the specified endpoint


       does socket bind on the specified endpoint

       requires zmq >= 3.x


       does socket unbind on the specified endpoint

   get_linger, set_linger
           my $linger = $socket->get_linger();


       get or set the socket linger period. Default: 0 (no linger)

       See "CLEANUP" below

   get_identity, set_identity
           my $ident = $socket->get_identity();


       get or set the socket identity for request/reply patterns

           my $fd = $socket->get_fd();

       get the file descriptor associated with the socket

           my $option_value = $socket->get($option_name, $option_type);

           my $linger = $socket->get(ZMQ_LINGER, 'int');

       generic method to get the value for any socket option. $option_type is the type associated
       with $option_value in the zeromq API ("zmq_getsockopt" man page)

           $socket->set($option_name, $option_type, $option_value);

           $socket->set(ZMQ_IDENTITY, 'binary', 'foo');

       generic method to set the value for any socket option.  $option_type is the type
       associated with $option_value in the zeromq API ("zmq_setsockopt" man page)


       add $topic to the subscription list


       remove $topic from the subscription list


           $socket->send($msg, $flags);

       sends a message using the optional flags


           $socket->send($parts_aref, $flags);

       given an array ref of message parts, sends the multipart message using the optional flags.
       ZMQ_SNDMORE semantics are handled for you

           my $msg = $socket->recv();

           my $msg = $socket->recv($flags);

       receives a message using the optional flags

           my @parts = $socket->recv_multipart();

           my @parts = $socket->recv_multipart($flags);

       receives a multipart message, returning an array of parts. ZMQ_RCVMORE semantics are
       handled for you

   has_pollin, has_pollout
           while ( $socket->has_pollin ) { ... }

       checks ZMQ_EVENTS for ZMQ_POLLIN and ZMQ_POLLOUT respectively, and returns true/false
       depending on the state

       close the underlying zmq socket. In general you shouldn't have to call this directly as it
       is called automatically for you when the object gets reaped

       See "CLEANUP" below



       controls whether error handling should be exceptional or not. This is set to true by
       default. See "ERROR HANDLING" below

       returns true or false depending on whether the last socket operation had an error. This is
       really just an alias for "last_errno"

       returns the system "errno" set by the last socket operation, or 0 if there was no error

       returns the human readable system error message associated with the socket "last_errno"


       With respect to cleanup "ZMQ::FFI" follows either the zeromq guide
       <> recommendations or the behavior of
       other zmq bindings.  That is:

       ·   it uses 0 linger by default (this is the default used by czmq
           <> and jzmq <>)

       ·   during object destruction it will call close/destroy for you

       ·   it arranges the reference hierarchy such that sockets will be properly
                 cleaned up before their associated contexts

       ·   it detects fork/thread situations and ensures sockets/contexts are only
                 cleaned up in their originating process/thread

       ·   it guards against double closes/destroys

       Given the above you're probably better off letting "ZMQ::FFI" handle cleanup for you. But
       if for some reason you want to do explicit cleanup yourself you can. All the below will
       accomplish the same thing:

           # implicit cleanup
               my $context = ZMQ::FFI->new();
               my $socket  = $ctx->socket($type);
               # close/destroy called in destructors at end of scope

           # explicit cleanup

           # ditto
           undef $socket;
           undef $context;

       Regarding "linger", you can always set this to a value you prefer if you don't like the
       default. Once set the new value will be used when the socket is subsequently closed
       (either implicitly or explicitly):

           $socket->set_linger(-1); # infinite linger
                                    # $context->destroy will block forever
                                    # (or until all pending messages have been sent)


       By default, ZMQ::FFI checks the return codes of underlying zmq functions for you, and in
       the case of an error it will die with the human readable system error message.

           # dies with 'zmq_socket: Invalid argument'

       Usually this is what you want, but not always. Some zmq operations can return errors that
       are not fatal and should be handled. For example using "ZMQ_DONTWAIT" with send/recv can
       return "EAGAIN" and simply means try again, not die.

       For situations such as this you can turn off exceptional error handling by setting
       "die_on_error" to 0. It is then for you to check and manage any zmq errors by checking

           use Errno qw(EAGAIN);

           my $ctx = ZMQ::FFI->new();
           my $s   = $ctx->socket(ZMQ_DEALER);

           $s->die_on_error(0); # turn off exceptional error handling

           while (1) {
               my $msg = $s->recv(ZMQ_DONTWAIT);

               if ($s->last_errno == EAGAIN) {
                   sleep 1;
               elsif ($s->last_errno) {
                   die $s->last_strerror;
               else {
                   warn "recvd: $msg";

           $s->die_on_error(1); # turn back on exceptional error handling


       ZMQ::FFI uses FFI::Platypus on the backend. In addition to a friendly, usable interface,
       FFI::Platypus's killer feature is "attach". "attach" makes it possible to bind ffi
       functions in memory as first class Perl xsubs. This results in dramatic performance gains
       and gives you the flexibility of ffi with performance approaching that of XS.

       Testing indicates FFI::Platypus xsubs are around 30% slower than "real" XS xsubs. That may
       sound like a lot, but to put it in perspective that means, for zeromq, the XS bindings can
       send 10 million messages 1-2 seconds faster than the ffi ones.

       If you really care about 1-2 seconds over 10 million messages you should be writing your
       solution in C anyways. An equivalent C implementation will be several hundred percent
       faster or more.

       Keep in mind also that the small speed bump you get using XS can easily be wiped out by
       crappy and poorly optimized Perl code.

       Now that Perl finally has a great ffi interface, it is hard to make the case to continue
       using XS. The slight speed bump just isn't worth giving up the convenience, flexibility,
       and portability of ffi.

       You can find the detailed performance results that informed this section at:


       "ZMQ::FFI" is free as in beer in addition to being free as in speech. While I've done my
       best to ensure it's tasty, high quality beer, it probably isn't perfect.  If you encounter
       problems, or otherwise see room for improvement, please open an issue (or even better a
       pull request!) on github <>


       ·   ZMQ::FFI::Constants

       ·   ZMQ::FFI::Util

       ·   FFI::Platypus

       ·   FFI::Raw

       ·   ZMQ::LibZMQ3


       Dylan Cali <>


       This software is copyright (c) 2019 by Dylan Cali.

       This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as
       the Perl 5 programming language system itself.