Provided by: libjemalloc-dev_5.1.0-3_amd64 bug

NAME

       jemalloc - general purpose memory allocation functions

LIBRARY

       This manual describes jemalloc 5.1.0-0-g61efbda7098de6fe64c362d309824864308c36d4. More
       information can be found at the jemalloc website[1].

SYNOPSIS

       #include <jemalloc/jemalloc.h>

   Standard API
       void *malloc(size_t size);

       void *calloc(size_t number, size_t size);

       int posix_memalign(void **ptr, size_t alignment, size_t size);

       void *aligned_alloc(size_t alignment, size_t size);

       void *realloc(void *ptr, size_t size);

       void free(void *ptr);

   Non-standard API
       void *mallocx(size_t size, int flags);

       void *rallocx(void *ptr, size_t size, int flags);

       size_t xallocx(void *ptr, size_t size, size_t extra, int flags);

       size_t sallocx(void *ptr, int flags);

       void dallocx(void *ptr, int flags);

       void sdallocx(void *ptr, size_t size, int flags);

       size_t nallocx(size_t size, int flags);

       int mallctl(const char *name, void *oldp, size_t *oldlenp, void *newp, size_t newlen);

       int mallctlnametomib(const char *name, size_t *mibp, size_t *miblenp);

       int mallctlbymib(const size_t *mib, size_t miblen, void *oldp, size_t *oldlenp,
                        void *newp, size_t newlen);

       void malloc_stats_print(void (*write_cb) (void *, const char *), void *cbopaque,
                               const char *opts);

       size_t malloc_usable_size(const void *ptr);

       void (*malloc_message)(void *cbopaque, const char *s);

       const char *malloc_conf;

DESCRIPTION

   Standard API
       The malloc() function allocates size bytes of uninitialized memory. The allocated space is
       suitably aligned (after possible pointer coercion) for storage of any type of object.

       The calloc() function allocates space for number objects, each size bytes in length. The
       result is identical to calling malloc() with an argument of number * size, with the
       exception that the allocated memory is explicitly initialized to zero bytes.

       The posix_memalign() function allocates size bytes of memory such that the allocation's
       base address is a multiple of alignment, and returns the allocation in the value pointed
       to by ptr. The requested alignment must be a power of 2 at least as large as sizeof(void
       *).

       The aligned_alloc() function allocates size bytes of memory such that the allocation's
       base address is a multiple of alignment. The requested alignment must be a power of 2.
       Behavior is undefined if size is not an integral multiple of alignment.

       The realloc() function changes the size of the previously allocated memory referenced by
       ptr to size bytes. The contents of the memory are unchanged up to the lesser of the new
       and old sizes. If the new size is larger, the contents of the newly allocated portion of
       the memory are undefined. Upon success, the memory referenced by ptr is freed and a
       pointer to the newly allocated memory is returned. Note that realloc() may move the memory
       allocation, resulting in a different return value than ptr. If ptr is NULL, the realloc()
       function behaves identically to malloc() for the specified size.

       The free() function causes the allocated memory referenced by ptr to be made available for
       future allocations. If ptr is NULL, no action occurs.

   Non-standard API
       The mallocx(), rallocx(), xallocx(), sallocx(), dallocx(), sdallocx(), and nallocx()
       functions all have a flags argument that can be used to specify options. The functions
       only check the options that are contextually relevant. Use bitwise or (|) operations to
       specify one or more of the following:

       MALLOCX_LG_ALIGN(la)
           Align the memory allocation to start at an address that is a multiple of (1 << la).
           This macro does not validate that la is within the valid range.

       MALLOCX_ALIGN(a)
           Align the memory allocation to start at an address that is a multiple of a, where a is
           a power of two. This macro does not validate that a is a power of 2.

       MALLOCX_ZERO
           Initialize newly allocated memory to contain zero bytes. In the growing reallocation
           case, the real size prior to reallocation defines the boundary between untouched bytes
           and those that are initialized to contain zero bytes. If this macro is absent, newly
           allocated memory is uninitialized.

       MALLOCX_TCACHE(tc)
           Use the thread-specific cache (tcache) specified by the identifier tc, which must have
           been acquired via the tcache.create mallctl. This macro does not validate that tc
           specifies a valid identifier.

       MALLOCX_TCACHE_NONE
           Do not use a thread-specific cache (tcache). Unless MALLOCX_TCACHE(tc) or
           MALLOCX_TCACHE_NONE is specified, an automatically managed tcache will be used under
           many circumstances. This macro cannot be used in the same flags argument as
           MALLOCX_TCACHE(tc).

       MALLOCX_ARENA(a)
           Use the arena specified by the index a. This macro has no effect for regions that were
           allocated via an arena other than the one specified. This macro does not validate that
           a specifies an arena index in the valid range.

       The mallocx() function allocates at least size bytes of memory, and returns a pointer to
       the base address of the allocation. Behavior is undefined if size is 0.

       The rallocx() function resizes the allocation at ptr to be at least size bytes, and
       returns a pointer to the base address of the resulting allocation, which may or may not
       have moved from its original location. Behavior is undefined if size is 0.

       The xallocx() function resizes the allocation at ptr in place to be at least size bytes,
       and returns the real size of the allocation. If extra is non-zero, an attempt is made to
       resize the allocation to be at least (size + extra) bytes, though inability to allocate
       the extra byte(s) will not by itself result in failure to resize. Behavior is undefined if
       size is 0, or if (size + extra > SIZE_T_MAX).

       The sallocx() function returns the real size of the allocation at ptr.

       The dallocx() function causes the memory referenced by ptr to be made available for future
       allocations.

       The sdallocx() function is an extension of dallocx() with a size parameter to allow the
       caller to pass in the allocation size as an optimization. The minimum valid input size is
       the original requested size of the allocation, and the maximum valid input size is the
       corresponding value returned by nallocx() or sallocx().

       The nallocx() function allocates no memory, but it performs the same size computation as
       the mallocx() function, and returns the real size of the allocation that would result from
       the equivalent mallocx() function call, or 0 if the inputs exceed the maximum supported
       size class and/or alignment. Behavior is undefined if size is 0.

       The mallctl() function provides a general interface for introspecting the memory
       allocator, as well as setting modifiable parameters and triggering actions. The
       period-separated name argument specifies a location in a tree-structured namespace; see
       the MALLCTL NAMESPACE section for documentation on the tree contents. To read a value,
       pass a pointer via oldp to adequate space to contain the value, and a pointer to its
       length via oldlenp; otherwise pass NULL and NULL. Similarly, to write a value, pass a
       pointer to the value via newp, and its length via newlen; otherwise pass NULL and 0.

       The mallctlnametomib() function provides a way to avoid repeated name lookups for
       applications that repeatedly query the same portion of the namespace, by translating a
       name to a “Management Information Base” (MIB) that can be passed repeatedly to
       mallctlbymib(). Upon successful return from mallctlnametomib(), mibp contains an array of
       *miblenp integers, where *miblenp is the lesser of the number of components in name and
       the input value of *miblenp. Thus it is possible to pass a *miblenp that is smaller than
       the number of period-separated name components, which results in a partial MIB that can be
       used as the basis for constructing a complete MIB. For name components that are integers
       (e.g. the 2 in arenas.bin.2.size), the corresponding MIB component will always be that
       integer. Therefore, it is legitimate to construct code like the following:

           unsigned nbins, i;
           size_t mib[4];
           size_t len, miblen;

           len = sizeof(nbins);
           mallctl("arenas.nbins", &nbins, &len, NULL, 0);

           miblen = 4;
           mallctlnametomib("arenas.bin.0.size", mib, &miblen);
           for (i = 0; i < nbins; i++) {
                size_t bin_size;

                mib[2] = i;
                len = sizeof(bin_size);
                mallctlbymib(mib, miblen, (void *)&bin_size, &len, NULL, 0);
                /* Do something with bin_size... */
           }

       The malloc_stats_print() function writes summary statistics via the write_cb callback
       function pointer and cbopaque data passed to write_cb, or malloc_message() if write_cb is
       NULL. The statistics are presented in human-readable form unless “J” is specified as a
       character within the opts string, in which case the statistics are presented in JSON
       format[2]. This function can be called repeatedly. General information that never changes
       during execution can be omitted by specifying “g” as a character within the opts string.
       Note that malloc_message() uses the mallctl*() functions internally, so inconsistent
       statistics can be reported if multiple threads use these functions simultaneously. If
       --enable-stats is specified during configuration, “m”, “d”, and “a” can be specified to
       omit merged arena, destroyed merged arena, and per arena statistics, respectively; “b” and
       “l” can be specified to omit per size class statistics for bins and large objects,
       respectively; “x” can be specified to omit all mutex statistics. Unrecognized characters
       are silently ignored. Note that thread caching may prevent some statistics from being
       completely up to date, since extra locking would be required to merge counters that track
       thread cache operations.

       The malloc_usable_size() function returns the usable size of the allocation pointed to by
       ptr. The return value may be larger than the size that was requested during allocation.
       The malloc_usable_size() function is not a mechanism for in-place realloc(); rather it is
       provided solely as a tool for introspection purposes. Any discrepancy between the
       requested allocation size and the size reported by malloc_usable_size() should not be
       depended on, since such behavior is entirely implementation-dependent.

TUNING

       Once, when the first call is made to one of the memory allocation routines, the allocator
       initializes its internals based in part on various options that can be specified at
       compile- or run-time.

       The string specified via --with-malloc-conf, the string pointed to by the global variable
       malloc_conf, the “name” of the file referenced by the symbolic link named
       /etc/malloc.conf, and the value of the environment variable MALLOC_CONF, will be
       interpreted, in that order, from left to right as options. Note that malloc_conf may be
       read before main() is entered, so the declaration of malloc_conf should specify an
       initializer that contains the final value to be read by jemalloc.  --with-malloc-conf and
       malloc_conf are compile-time mechanisms, whereas /etc/malloc.conf and MALLOC_CONF can be
       safely set any time prior to program invocation.

       An options string is a comma-separated list of option:value pairs. There is one key
       corresponding to each opt.*  mallctl (see the MALLCTL NAMESPACE section for options
       documentation). For example, abort:true,narenas:1 sets the opt.abort and opt.narenas
       options. Some options have boolean values (true/false), others have integer values (base
       8, 10, or 16, depending on prefix), and yet others have raw string values.

IMPLEMENTATION NOTES

       Traditionally, allocators have used sbrk(2) to obtain memory, which is suboptimal for
       several reasons, including race conditions, increased fragmentation, and artificial
       limitations on maximum usable memory. If sbrk(2) is supported by the operating system,
       this allocator uses both mmap(2) and sbrk(2), in that order of preference; otherwise only
       mmap(2) is used.

       This allocator uses multiple arenas in order to reduce lock contention for threaded
       programs on multi-processor systems. This works well with regard to threading scalability,
       but incurs some costs. There is a small fixed per-arena overhead, and additionally, arenas
       manage memory completely independently of each other, which means a small fixed increase
       in overall memory fragmentation. These overheads are not generally an issue, given the
       number of arenas normally used. Note that using substantially more arenas than the default
       is not likely to improve performance, mainly due to reduced cache performance. However, it
       may make sense to reduce the number of arenas if an application does not make much use of
       the allocation functions.

       In addition to multiple arenas, this allocator supports thread-specific caching, in order
       to make it possible to completely avoid synchronization for most allocation requests. Such
       caching allows very fast allocation in the common case, but it increases memory usage and
       fragmentation, since a bounded number of objects can remain allocated in each thread
       cache.

       Memory is conceptually broken into extents. Extents are always aligned to multiples of the
       page size. This alignment makes it possible to find metadata for user objects quickly.
       User objects are broken into two categories according to size: small and large. Contiguous
       small objects comprise a slab, which resides within a single extent, whereas large objects
       each have their own extents backing them.

       Small objects are managed in groups by slabs. Each slab maintains a bitmap to track which
       regions are in use. Allocation requests that are no more than half the quantum (8 or 16,
       depending on architecture) are rounded up to the nearest power of two that is at least
       sizeof(double). All other object size classes are multiples of the quantum, spaced such
       that there are four size classes for each doubling in size, which limits internal
       fragmentation to approximately 20% for all but the smallest size classes. Small size
       classes are smaller than four times the page size, and large size classes extend from four
       times the page size up to the largest size class that does not exceed PTRDIFF_MAX.

       Allocations are packed tightly together, which can be an issue for multi-threaded
       applications. If you need to assure that allocations do not suffer from cacheline sharing,
       round your allocation requests up to the nearest multiple of the cacheline size, or
       specify cacheline alignment when allocating.

       The realloc(), rallocx(), and xallocx() functions may resize allocations without moving
       them under limited circumstances. Unlike the *allocx() API, the standard API does not
       officially round up the usable size of an allocation to the nearest size class, so
       technically it is necessary to call realloc() to grow e.g. a 9-byte allocation to 16
       bytes, or shrink a 16-byte allocation to 9 bytes. Growth and shrinkage trivially succeeds
       in place as long as the pre-size and post-size both round up to the same size class. No
       other API guarantees are made regarding in-place resizing, but the current implementation
       also tries to resize large allocations in place, as long as the pre-size and post-size are
       both large. For shrinkage to succeed, the extent allocator must support splitting (see
       arena.<i>.extent_hooks). Growth only succeeds if the trailing memory is currently
       available, and the extent allocator supports merging.

       Assuming 4 KiB pages and a 16-byte quantum on a 64-bit system, the size classes in each
       category are as shown in Table 1.

       Table 1. Size classes
       ┌─────────┬─────────┬──────────────────────────┐
       │CategorySpacingSize                     │
       ├─────────┼─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │      lg │ [8]                      │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │      16 │ [16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96, │
       │         │         │ 112, 128]                │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │      32 │ [160, 192, 224, 256]     │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │      64 │ [320, 384, 448, 512]     │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │Small    │     128 │ [640, 768, 896, 1024]    │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │     256 │ [1280, 1536, 1792, 2048] │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │     512 │ [2560, 3072, 3584, 4096] │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │   1 KiB │ [5 KiB, 6 KiB, 7 KiB, 8  │
       │         │         │ KiB]                     │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │   2 KiB │ [10 KiB, 12 KiB, 14 KiB] │
       ├─────────┼─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │   2 KiB │ [16 KiB]                 │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │   4 KiB │ [20 KiB, 24 KiB, 28 KiB, │
       │         │         │ 32 KiB]                  │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │   8 KiB │ [40 KiB, 48 KiB, 54 KiB, │
       │         │         │ 64 KiB]                  │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │  16 KiB │ [80 KiB, 96 KiB, 112     │
       │         │         │ KiB, 128 KiB]            │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │  32 KiB │ [160 KiB, 192 KiB, 224   │
       │         │         │ KiB, 256 KiB]            │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │  64 KiB │ [320 KiB, 384 KiB, 448   │
       │         │         │ KiB, 512 KiB]            │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │ 128 KiB │ [640 KiB, 768 KiB, 896   │
       │         │         │ KiB, 1 MiB]              │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │ 256 KiB │ [1280 KiB, 1536 KiB,     │
       │Large    │         │ 1792 KiB, 2 MiB]         │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │ 512 KiB │ [2560 KiB, 3 MiB, 3584   │
       │         │         │ KiB, 4 MiB]              │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │   1 MiB │ [5 MiB, 6 MiB, 7 MiB, 8  │
       │         │         │ MiB]                     │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │   2 MiB │ [10 MiB, 12 MiB, 14 MiB, │
       │         │         │ 16 MiB]                  │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │   4 MiB │ [20 MiB, 24 MiB, 28 MiB, │
       │         │         │ 32 MiB]                  │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │   8 MiB │ [40 MiB, 48 MiB, 56 MiB, │
       │         │         │ 64 MiB]                  │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │     ... │ ...                      │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │ 512 PiB │ [2560 PiB, 3 EiB, 3584   │
       │         │         │ PiB, 4 EiB]              │
       │         ├─────────┼──────────────────────────┤
       │         │   1 EiB │ [5 EiB, 6 EiB, 7 EiB]    │
       └─────────┴─────────┴──────────────────────────┘

MALLCTL NAMESPACE

       The following names are defined in the namespace accessible via the mallctl*() functions.
       Value types are specified in parentheses, their readable/writable statuses are encoded as
       rw, r-, -w, or --, and required build configuration flags follow, if any. A name element
       encoded as <i> or <j> indicates an integer component, where the integer varies from 0 to
       some upper value that must be determined via introspection. In the case of
       stats.arenas.<i>.*  and arena.<i>.{initialized,purge,decay,dss}, <i> equal to
       MALLCTL_ARENAS_ALL can be used to operate on all arenas or access the summation of
       statistics from all arenas; similarly <i> equal to MALLCTL_ARENAS_DESTROYED can be used to
       access the summation of statistics from all destroyed arenas. These constants can be
       utilized either via mallctlnametomib() followed by mallctlbymib(), or via code such as the
       following:

           #define STRINGIFY_HELPER(x) #x
           #define STRINGIFY(x) STRINGIFY_HELPER(x)

           mallctl("arena." STRINGIFY(MALLCTL_ARENAS_ALL) ".decay",
               NULL, NULL, NULL, 0);

       Take special note of the epoch mallctl, which controls refreshing of cached dynamic
       statistics.

       version (const char *) r-
           Return the jemalloc version string.

       epoch (uint64_t) rw
           If a value is passed in, refresh the data from which the mallctl*() functions report
           values, and increment the epoch. Return the current epoch. This is useful for
           detecting whether another thread caused a refresh.

       background_thread (bool) rw
           Enable/disable internal background worker threads. When set to true, background
           threads are created on demand (the number of background threads will be no more than
           the number of CPUs or active arenas). Threads run periodically, and handle purging
           asynchronously. When switching off, background threads are terminated synchronously.
           Note that after fork(2) function, the state in the child process will be disabled
           regardless the state in parent process. See stats.background_thread for related stats.
           opt.background_thread can be used to set the default option. This option is only
           available on selected pthread-based platforms.

       max_background_threads (size_t) rw
           Maximum number of background worker threads that will be created. This value is capped
           at opt.max_background_threads at startup.

       config.cache_oblivious (bool) r-
           --enable-cache-oblivious was specified during build configuration.

       config.debug (bool) r-
           --enable-debug was specified during build configuration.

       config.fill (bool) r-
           --enable-fill was specified during build configuration.

       config.lazy_lock (bool) r-
           --enable-lazy-lock was specified during build configuration.

       config.malloc_conf (const char *) r-
           Embedded configure-time-specified run-time options string, empty unless
           --with-malloc-conf was specified during build configuration.

       config.prof (bool) r-
           --enable-prof was specified during build configuration.

       config.prof_libgcc (bool) r-
           --disable-prof-libgcc was not specified during build configuration.

       config.prof_libunwind (bool) r-
           --enable-prof-libunwind was specified during build configuration.

       config.stats (bool) r-
           --enable-stats was specified during build configuration.

       config.utrace (bool) r-
           --enable-utrace was specified during build configuration.

       config.xmalloc (bool) r-
           --enable-xmalloc was specified during build configuration.

       opt.abort (bool) r-
           Abort-on-warning enabled/disabled. If true, most warnings are fatal. Note that runtime
           option warnings are not included (see opt.abort_conf for that). The process will call
           abort(3) in these cases. This option is disabled by default unless --enable-debug is
           specified during configuration, in which case it is enabled by default.

       opt.abort_conf (bool) r-
           Abort-on-invalid-configuration enabled/disabled. If true, invalid runtime options are
           fatal. The process will call abort(3) in these cases. This option is disabled by
           default unless --enable-debug is specified during configuration, in which case it is
           enabled by default.

       opt.metadata_thp (const char *) r-
           Controls whether to allow jemalloc to use transparent huge page (THP) for internal
           metadata (see stats.metadata).  “always” allows such usage.  “auto” uses no THP
           initially, but may begin to do so when metadata usage reaches certain level. The
           default is “disabled”.

       opt.retain (bool) r-
           If true, retain unused virtual memory for later reuse rather than discarding it by
           calling munmap(2) or equivalent (see stats.retained for related details). This option
           is disabled by default unless discarding virtual memory is known to trigger
           platform-specific performance problems, e.g. for [64-bit] Linux, which has a quirk in
           its virtual memory allocation algorithm that causes semi-permanent VM map holes under
           normal jemalloc operation. Although munmap(2) causes issues on 32-bit Linux as well,
           retaining virtual memory for 32-bit Linux is disabled by default due to the practical
           possibility of address space exhaustion.

       opt.dss (const char *) r-
           dss (sbrk(2)) allocation precedence as related to mmap(2) allocation. The following
           settings are supported if sbrk(2) is supported by the operating system: “disabled”,
           “primary”, and “secondary”; otherwise only “disabled” is supported. The default is
           “secondary” if sbrk(2) is supported by the operating system; “disabled” otherwise.

       opt.narenas (unsigned) r-
           Maximum number of arenas to use for automatic multiplexing of threads and arenas. The
           default is four times the number of CPUs, or one if there is a single CPU.

       opt.percpu_arena (const char *) r-
           Per CPU arena mode. Use the “percpu” setting to enable this feature, which uses number
           of CPUs to determine number of arenas, and bind threads to arenas dynamically based on
           the CPU the thread runs on currently.  “phycpu” setting uses one arena per physical
           CPU, which means the two hyper threads on the same CPU share one arena. Note that no
           runtime checking regarding the availability of hyper threading is done at the moment.
           When set to “disabled”, narenas and thread to arena association will not be impacted
           by this option. The default is “disabled”.

       opt.background_thread (const bool) r-
           Internal background worker threads enabled/disabled. Because of potential circular
           dependencies, enabling background thread using this option may cause crash or deadlock
           during initialization. For a reliable way to use this feature, see background_thread
           for dynamic control options and details. This option is disabled by default.

       opt.max_background_threads (const size_t) r-
           Maximum number of background threads that will be created if background_thread is set.
           Defaults to number of cpus.

       opt.dirty_decay_ms (ssize_t) r-
           Approximate time in milliseconds from the creation of a set of unused dirty pages
           until an equivalent set of unused dirty pages is purged (i.e. converted to muzzy via
           e.g.  madvise(...MADV_FREE) if supported by the operating system, or converted to
           clean otherwise) and/or reused. Dirty pages are defined as previously having been
           potentially written to by the application, and therefore consuming physical memory,
           yet having no current use. The pages are incrementally purged according to a sigmoidal
           decay curve that starts and ends with zero purge rate. A decay time of 0 causes all
           unused dirty pages to be purged immediately upon creation. A decay time of -1 disables
           purging. The default decay time is 10 seconds. See arenas.dirty_decay_ms and
           arena.<i>.dirty_decay_ms for related dynamic control options. See opt.muzzy_decay_ms
           for a description of muzzy pages.

       opt.muzzy_decay_ms (ssize_t) r-
           Approximate time in milliseconds from the creation of a set of unused muzzy pages
           until an equivalent set of unused muzzy pages is purged (i.e. converted to clean)
           and/or reused. Muzzy pages are defined as previously having been unused dirty pages
           that were subsequently purged in a manner that left them subject to the reclamation
           whims of the operating system (e.g.  madvise(...MADV_FREE)), and therefore in an
           indeterminate state. The pages are incrementally purged according to a sigmoidal decay
           curve that starts and ends with zero purge rate. A decay time of 0 causes all unused
           muzzy pages to be purged immediately upon creation. A decay time of -1 disables
           purging. The default decay time is 10 seconds. See arenas.muzzy_decay_ms and
           arena.<i>.muzzy_decay_ms for related dynamic control options.

       opt.lg_extent_max_active_fit (size_t) r-
           When reusing dirty extents, this determines the (log base 2 of the) maximum ratio
           between the size of the active extent selected (to split off from) and the size of the
           requested allocation. This prevents the splitting of large active extents for smaller
           allocations, which can reduce fragmentation over the long run (especially for
           non-active extents). Lower value may reduce fragmentation, at the cost of extra active
           extents. The default value is 6, which gives a maximum ratio of 64 (2^6).

       opt.stats_print (bool) r-
           Enable/disable statistics printing at exit. If enabled, the malloc_stats_print()
           function is called at program exit via an atexit(3) function.  opt.stats_print_opts
           can be combined to specify output options. If --enable-stats is specified during
           configuration, this has the potential to cause deadlock for a multi-threaded process
           that exits while one or more threads are executing in the memory allocation functions.
           Furthermore, atexit() may allocate memory during application initialization and then
           deadlock internally when jemalloc in turn calls atexit(), so this option is not
           universally usable (though the application can register its own atexit() function with
           equivalent functionality). Therefore, this option should only be used with care; it is
           primarily intended as a performance tuning aid during application development. This
           option is disabled by default.

       opt.stats_print_opts (const char *) r-
           Options (the opts string) to pass to the malloc_stats_print() at exit (enabled through
           opt.stats_print). See available options in malloc_stats_print(). Has no effect unless
           opt.stats_print is enabled. The default is “”.

       opt.junk (const char *) r- [--enable-fill]
           Junk filling. If set to “alloc”, each byte of uninitialized allocated memory will be
           initialized to 0xa5. If set to “free”, all deallocated memory will be initialized to
           0x5a. If set to “true”, both allocated and deallocated memory will be initialized, and
           if set to “false”, junk filling be disabled entirely. This is intended for debugging
           and will impact performance negatively. This option is “false” by default unless
           --enable-debug is specified during configuration, in which case it is “true” by
           default.

       opt.zero (bool) r- [--enable-fill]
           Zero filling enabled/disabled. If enabled, each byte of uninitialized allocated memory
           will be initialized to 0. Note that this initialization only happens once for each
           byte, so realloc() and rallocx() calls do not zero memory that was previously
           allocated. This is intended for debugging and will impact performance negatively. This
           option is disabled by default.

       opt.utrace (bool) r- [--enable-utrace]
           Allocation tracing based on utrace(2) enabled/disabled. This option is disabled by
           default.

       opt.xmalloc (bool) r- [--enable-xmalloc]
           Abort-on-out-of-memory enabled/disabled. If enabled, rather than returning failure for
           any allocation function, display a diagnostic message on STDERR_FILENO and cause the
           program to drop core (using abort(3)). If an application is designed to depend on this
           behavior, set the option at compile time by including the following in the source
           code:

               malloc_conf = "xmalloc:true";

           This option is disabled by default.

       opt.tcache (bool) r-
           Thread-specific caching (tcache) enabled/disabled. When there are multiple threads,
           each thread uses a tcache for objects up to a certain size. Thread-specific caching
           allows many allocations to be satisfied without performing any thread synchronization,
           at the cost of increased memory use. See the opt.lg_tcache_max option for related
           tuning information. This option is enabled by default.

       opt.lg_tcache_max (size_t) r-
           Maximum size class (log base 2) to cache in the thread-specific cache (tcache). At a
           minimum, all small size classes are cached, and at a maximum all large size classes
           are cached. The default maximum is 32 KiB (2^15).

       opt.thp (const char *) r-
           Transparent hugepage (THP) mode. Settings "always", "never" and "default" are
           available if THP is supported by the operating system. The "always" setting enables
           transparent hugepage for all user memory mappings with MADV_HUGEPAGE; "never" ensures
           no transparent hugepage with MADV_NOHUGEPAGE; the default setting "default" makes no
           changes. Note that: this option does not affect THP for jemalloc internal metadata
           (see opt.metadata_thp); in addition, for arenas with customized extent_hooks, this
           option is bypassed as it is implemented as part of the default extent hooks.

       opt.prof (bool) r- [--enable-prof]
           Memory profiling enabled/disabled. If enabled, profile memory allocation activity. See
           the opt.prof_active option for on-the-fly activation/deactivation. See the
           opt.lg_prof_sample option for probabilistic sampling control. See the opt.prof_accum
           option for control of cumulative sample reporting. See the opt.lg_prof_interval option
           for information on interval-triggered profile dumping, the opt.prof_gdump option for
           information on high-water-triggered profile dumping, and the opt.prof_final option for
           final profile dumping. Profile output is compatible with the jeprof command, which is
           based on the pprof that is developed as part of the gperftools package[3]. See HEAP
           PROFILE FORMAT for heap profile format documentation.

       opt.prof_prefix (const char *) r- [--enable-prof]
           Filename prefix for profile dumps. If the prefix is set to the empty string, no
           automatic dumps will occur; this is primarily useful for disabling the automatic final
           heap dump (which also disables leak reporting, if enabled). The default prefix is
           jeprof.

       opt.prof_active (bool) r- [--enable-prof]
           Profiling activated/deactivated. This is a secondary control mechanism that makes it
           possible to start the application with profiling enabled (see the opt.prof option) but
           inactive, then toggle profiling at any time during program execution with the
           prof.active mallctl. This option is enabled by default.

       opt.prof_thread_active_init (bool) r- [--enable-prof]
           Initial setting for thread.prof.active in newly created threads. The initial setting
           for newly created threads can also be changed during execution via the
           prof.thread_active_init mallctl. This option is enabled by default.

       opt.lg_prof_sample (size_t) r- [--enable-prof]
           Average interval (log base 2) between allocation samples, as measured in bytes of
           allocation activity. Increasing the sampling interval decreases profile fidelity, but
           also decreases the computational overhead. The default sample interval is 512 KiB
           (2^19 B).

       opt.prof_accum (bool) r- [--enable-prof]
           Reporting of cumulative object/byte counts in profile dumps enabled/disabled. If this
           option is enabled, every unique backtrace must be stored for the duration of
           execution. Depending on the application, this can impose a large memory overhead, and
           the cumulative counts are not always of interest. This option is disabled by default.

       opt.lg_prof_interval (ssize_t) r- [--enable-prof]
           Average interval (log base 2) between memory profile dumps, as measured in bytes of
           allocation activity. The actual interval between dumps may be sporadic because
           decentralized allocation counters are used to avoid synchronization bottlenecks.
           Profiles are dumped to files named according to the pattern
           <prefix>.<pid>.<seq>.i<iseq>.heap, where <prefix> is controlled by the opt.prof_prefix
           option. By default, interval-triggered profile dumping is disabled (encoded as -1).

       opt.prof_gdump (bool) r- [--enable-prof]
           Set the initial state of prof.gdump, which when enabled triggers a memory profile dump
           every time the total virtual memory exceeds the previous maximum. This option is
           disabled by default.

       opt.prof_final (bool) r- [--enable-prof]
           Use an atexit(3) function to dump final memory usage to a file named according to the
           pattern <prefix>.<pid>.<seq>.f.heap, where <prefix> is controlled by the
           opt.prof_prefix option. Note that atexit() may allocate memory during application
           initialization and then deadlock internally when jemalloc in turn calls atexit(), so
           this option is not universally usable (though the application can register its own
           atexit() function with equivalent functionality). This option is disabled by default.

       opt.prof_leak (bool) r- [--enable-prof]
           Leak reporting enabled/disabled. If enabled, use an atexit(3) function to report
           memory leaks detected by allocation sampling. See the opt.prof option for information
           on analyzing heap profile output. This option is disabled by default.

       thread.arena (unsigned) rw
           Get or set the arena associated with the calling thread. If the specified arena was
           not initialized beforehand (see the arena.i.initialized mallctl), it will be
           automatically initialized as a side effect of calling this interface.

       thread.allocated (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Get the total number of bytes ever allocated by the calling thread. This counter has
           the potential to wrap around; it is up to the application to appropriately interpret
           the counter in such cases.

       thread.allocatedp (uint64_t *) r- [--enable-stats]
           Get a pointer to the the value that is returned by the thread.allocated mallctl. This
           is useful for avoiding the overhead of repeated mallctl*() calls.

       thread.deallocated (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Get the total number of bytes ever deallocated by the calling thread. This counter has
           the potential to wrap around; it is up to the application to appropriately interpret
           the counter in such cases.

       thread.deallocatedp (uint64_t *) r- [--enable-stats]
           Get a pointer to the the value that is returned by the thread.deallocated mallctl.
           This is useful for avoiding the overhead of repeated mallctl*() calls.

       thread.tcache.enabled (bool) rw
           Enable/disable calling thread's tcache. The tcache is implicitly flushed as a side
           effect of becoming disabled (see thread.tcache.flush).

       thread.tcache.flush (void) --
           Flush calling thread's thread-specific cache (tcache). This interface releases all
           cached objects and internal data structures associated with the calling thread's
           tcache. Ordinarily, this interface need not be called, since automatic periodic
           incremental garbage collection occurs, and the thread cache is automatically discarded
           when a thread exits. However, garbage collection is triggered by allocation activity,
           so it is possible for a thread that stops allocating/deallocating to retain its cache
           indefinitely, in which case the developer may find manual flushing useful.

       thread.prof.name (const char *) r- or -w [--enable-prof]
           Get/set the descriptive name associated with the calling thread in memory profile
           dumps. An internal copy of the name string is created, so the input string need not be
           maintained after this interface completes execution. The output string of this
           interface should be copied for non-ephemeral uses, because multiple implementation
           details can cause asynchronous string deallocation. Furthermore, each invocation of
           this interface can only read or write; simultaneous read/write is not supported due to
           string lifetime limitations. The name string must be nil-terminated and comprised only
           of characters in the sets recognized by isgraph(3) and isblank(3).

       thread.prof.active (bool) rw [--enable-prof]
           Control whether sampling is currently active for the calling thread. This is an
           activation mechanism in addition to prof.active; both must be active for the calling
           thread to sample. This flag is enabled by default.

       tcache.create (unsigned) r-
           Create an explicit thread-specific cache (tcache) and return an identifier that can be
           passed to the MALLOCX_TCACHE(tc) macro to explicitly use the specified cache rather
           than the automatically managed one that is used by default. Each explicit cache can be
           used by only one thread at a time; the application must assure that this constraint
           holds.

       tcache.flush (unsigned) -w
           Flush the specified thread-specific cache (tcache). The same considerations apply to
           this interface as to thread.tcache.flush, except that the tcache will never be
           automatically discarded.

       tcache.destroy (unsigned) -w
           Flush the specified thread-specific cache (tcache) and make the identifier available
           for use during a future tcache creation.

       arena.<i>.initialized (bool) r-
           Get whether the specified arena's statistics are initialized (i.e. the arena was
           initialized prior to the current epoch). This interface can also be nominally used to
           query whether the merged statistics corresponding to MALLCTL_ARENAS_ALL are
           initialized (always true).

       arena.<i>.decay (void) --
           Trigger decay-based purging of unused dirty/muzzy pages for arena <i>, or for all
           arenas if <i> equals MALLCTL_ARENAS_ALL. The proportion of unused dirty/muzzy pages to
           be purged depends on the current time; see opt.dirty_decay_ms and opt.muzy_decay_ms
           for details.

       arena.<i>.purge (void) --
           Purge all unused dirty pages for arena <i>, or for all arenas if <i> equals
           MALLCTL_ARENAS_ALL.

       arena.<i>.reset (void) --
           Discard all of the arena's extant allocations. This interface can only be used with
           arenas explicitly created via arenas.create. None of the arena's discarded/cached
           allocations may accessed afterward. As part of this requirement, all thread caches
           which were used to allocate/deallocate in conjunction with the arena must be flushed
           beforehand.

       arena.<i>.destroy (void) --
           Destroy the arena. Discard all of the arena's extant allocations using the same
           mechanism as for arena.<i>.reset (with all the same constraints and side effects),
           merge the arena stats into those accessible at arena index MALLCTL_ARENAS_DESTROYED,
           and then completely discard all metadata associated with the arena. Future calls to
           arenas.create may recycle the arena index. Destruction will fail if any threads are
           currently associated with the arena as a result of calls to thread.arena.

       arena.<i>.dss (const char *) rw
           Set the precedence of dss allocation as related to mmap allocation for arena <i>, or
           for all arenas if <i> equals MALLCTL_ARENAS_ALL. See opt.dss for supported settings.

       arena.<i>.dirty_decay_ms (ssize_t) rw
           Current per-arena approximate time in milliseconds from the creation of a set of
           unused dirty pages until an equivalent set of unused dirty pages is purged and/or
           reused. Each time this interface is set, all currently unused dirty pages are
           considered to have fully decayed, which causes immediate purging of all unused dirty
           pages unless the decay time is set to -1 (i.e. purging disabled). See
           opt.dirty_decay_ms for additional information.

       arena.<i>.muzzy_decay_ms (ssize_t) rw
           Current per-arena approximate time in milliseconds from the creation of a set of
           unused muzzy pages until an equivalent set of unused muzzy pages is purged and/or
           reused. Each time this interface is set, all currently unused muzzy pages are
           considered to have fully decayed, which causes immediate purging of all unused muzzy
           pages unless the decay time is set to -1 (i.e. purging disabled). See
           opt.muzzy_decay_ms for additional information.

       arena.<i>.retain_grow_limit (size_t) rw
           Maximum size to grow retained region (only relevant when opt.retain is enabled). This
           controls the maximum increment to expand virtual memory, or allocation through
           arena.<i>extent_hooks. In particular, if customized extent hooks reserve physical
           memory (e.g. 1G huge pages), this is useful to control the allocation hook's input
           size. The default is no limit.

       arena.<i>.extent_hooks (extent_hooks_t *) rw
           Get or set the extent management hook functions for arena <i>. The functions must be
           capable of operating on all extant extents associated with arena <i>, usually by
           passing unknown extents to the replaced functions. In practice, it is feasible to
           control allocation for arenas explicitly created via arenas.create such that all
           extents originate from an application-supplied extent allocator (by specifying the
           custom extent hook functions during arena creation), but the automatically created
           arenas will have already created extents prior to the application having an
           opportunity to take over extent allocation.

               typedef extent_hooks_s extent_hooks_t;
               struct extent_hooks_s {
                    extent_alloc_t      *alloc;
                    extent_dalloc_t          *dalloc;
                    extent_destroy_t    *destroy;
                    extent_commit_t          *commit;
                    extent_decommit_t   *decommit;
                    extent_purge_t      *purge_lazy;
                    extent_purge_t      *purge_forced;
                    extent_split_t      *split;
                    extent_merge_t      *merge;
               };

           The extent_hooks_t structure comprises function pointers which are described
           individually below. jemalloc uses these functions to manage extent lifetime, which
           starts off with allocation of mapped committed memory, in the simplest case followed
           by deallocation. However, there are performance and platform reasons to retain extents
           for later reuse. Cleanup attempts cascade from deallocation to decommit to forced
           purging to lazy purging, which gives the extent management functions opportunities to
           reject the most permanent cleanup operations in favor of less permanent (and often
           less costly) operations. All operations except allocation can be universally opted out
           of by setting the hook pointers to NULL, or selectively opted out of by returning
           failure. Note that once the extent hook is set, the structure is accessed directly by
           the associated arenas, so it must remain valid for the entire lifetime of the arenas.

           typedef void *(extent_alloc_t)(extent_hooks_t *extent_hooks, void *new_addr,
                                          size_t size, size_t alignment, bool *zero,
                                          bool *commit, unsigned arena_ind);

           An extent allocation function conforms to the extent_alloc_t type and upon success
           returns a pointer to size bytes of mapped memory on behalf of arena arena_ind such
           that the extent's base address is a multiple of alignment, as well as setting *zero to
           indicate whether the extent is zeroed and *commit to indicate whether the extent is
           committed. Upon error the function returns NULL and leaves *zero and *commit
           unmodified. The size parameter is always a multiple of the page size. The alignment
           parameter is always a power of two at least as large as the page size. Zeroing is
           mandatory if *zero is true upon function entry. Committing is mandatory if *commit is
           true upon function entry. If new_addr is not NULL, the returned pointer must be
           new_addr on success or NULL on error. Committed memory may be committed in absolute
           terms as on a system that does not overcommit, or in implicit terms as on a system
           that overcommits and satisfies physical memory needs on demand via soft page faults.
           Note that replacing the default extent allocation function makes the arena's
           arena.<i>.dss setting irrelevant.

           typedef bool (extent_dalloc_t)(extent_hooks_t *extent_hooks, void *addr, size_t size,
                                          bool committed, unsigned arena_ind);

           An extent deallocation function conforms to the extent_dalloc_t type and deallocates
           an extent at given addr and size with committed/decommited memory as indicated, on
           behalf of arena arena_ind, returning false upon success. If the function returns true,
           this indicates opt-out from deallocation; the virtual memory mapping associated with
           the extent remains mapped, in the same commit state, and available for future use, in
           which case it will be automatically retained for later reuse.

           typedef void (extent_destroy_t)(extent_hooks_t *extent_hooks, void *addr, size_t size,
                                           bool committed, unsigned arena_ind);

           An extent destruction function conforms to the extent_destroy_t type and
           unconditionally destroys an extent at given addr and size with committed/decommited
           memory as indicated, on behalf of arena arena_ind. This function may be called to
           destroy retained extents during arena destruction (see arena.<i>.destroy).

           typedef bool (extent_commit_t)(extent_hooks_t *extent_hooks, void *addr, size_t size,
                                          size_t offset, size_t length, unsigned arena_ind);

           An extent commit function conforms to the extent_commit_t type and commits zeroed
           physical memory to back pages within an extent at given addr and size at offset bytes,
           extending for length on behalf of arena arena_ind, returning false upon success.
           Committed memory may be committed in absolute terms as on a system that does not
           overcommit, or in implicit terms as on a system that overcommits and satisfies
           physical memory needs on demand via soft page faults. If the function returns true,
           this indicates insufficient physical memory to satisfy the request.

           typedef bool (extent_decommit_t)(extent_hooks_t *extent_hooks, void *addr,
                                            size_t size, size_t offset, size_t length,
                                            unsigned arena_ind);

           An extent decommit function conforms to the extent_decommit_t type and decommits any
           physical memory that is backing pages within an extent at given addr and size at
           offset bytes, extending for length on behalf of arena arena_ind, returning false upon
           success, in which case the pages will be committed via the extent commit function
           before being reused. If the function returns true, this indicates opt-out from
           decommit; the memory remains committed and available for future use, in which case it
           will be automatically retained for later reuse.

           typedef bool (extent_purge_t)(extent_hooks_t *extent_hooks, void *addr, size_t size,
                                         size_t offset, size_t length, unsigned arena_ind);

           An extent purge function conforms to the extent_purge_t type and discards physical
           pages within the virtual memory mapping associated with an extent at given addr and
           size at offset bytes, extending for length on behalf of arena arena_ind. A lazy extent
           purge function (e.g. implemented via madvise(...MADV_FREE)) can delay purging
           indefinitely and leave the pages within the purged virtual memory range in an
           indeterminite state, whereas a forced extent purge function immediately purges, and
           the pages within the virtual memory range will be zero-filled the next time they are
           accessed. If the function returns true, this indicates failure to purge.

           typedef bool (extent_split_t)(extent_hooks_t *extent_hooks, void *addr, size_t size,
                                         size_t size_a, size_t size_b, bool committed,
                                         unsigned arena_ind);

           An extent split function conforms to the extent_split_t type and optionally splits an
           extent at given addr and size into two adjacent extents, the first of size_a bytes,
           and the second of size_b bytes, operating on committed/decommitted memory as
           indicated, on behalf of arena arena_ind, returning false upon success. If the function
           returns true, this indicates that the extent remains unsplit and therefore should
           continue to be operated on as a whole.

           typedef bool (extent_merge_t)(extent_hooks_t *extent_hooks, void *addr_a,
                                         size_t size_a, void *addr_b, size_t size_b,
                                         bool committed, unsigned arena_ind);

           An extent merge function conforms to the extent_merge_t type and optionally merges
           adjacent extents, at given addr_a and size_a with given addr_b and size_b into one
           contiguous extent, operating on committed/decommitted memory as indicated, on behalf
           of arena arena_ind, returning false upon success. If the function returns true, this
           indicates that the extents remain distinct mappings and therefore should continue to
           be operated on independently.

       arenas.narenas (unsigned) r-
           Current limit on number of arenas.

       arenas.dirty_decay_ms (ssize_t) rw
           Current default per-arena approximate time in milliseconds from the creation of a set
           of unused dirty pages until an equivalent set of unused dirty pages is purged and/or
           reused, used to initialize arena.<i>.dirty_decay_ms during arena creation. See
           opt.dirty_decay_ms for additional information.

       arenas.muzzy_decay_ms (ssize_t) rw
           Current default per-arena approximate time in milliseconds from the creation of a set
           of unused muzzy pages until an equivalent set of unused muzzy pages is purged and/or
           reused, used to initialize arena.<i>.muzzy_decay_ms during arena creation. See
           opt.muzzy_decay_ms for additional information.

       arenas.quantum (size_t) r-
           Quantum size.

       arenas.page (size_t) r-
           Page size.

       arenas.tcache_max (size_t) r-
           Maximum thread-cached size class.

       arenas.nbins (unsigned) r-
           Number of bin size classes.

       arenas.nhbins (unsigned) r-
           Total number of thread cache bin size classes.

       arenas.bin.<i>.size (size_t) r-
           Maximum size supported by size class.

       arenas.bin.<i>.nregs (uint32_t) r-
           Number of regions per slab.

       arenas.bin.<i>.slab_size (size_t) r-
           Number of bytes per slab.

       arenas.nlextents (unsigned) r-
           Total number of large size classes.

       arenas.lextent.<i>.size (size_t) r-
           Maximum size supported by this large size class.

       arenas.create (unsigned, extent_hooks_t *) rw
           Explicitly create a new arena outside the range of automatically managed arenas, with
           optionally specified extent hooks, and return the new arena index.

       arenas.lookup (unsigned, void*) rw
           Index of the arena to which an allocation belongs to.

       prof.thread_active_init (bool) rw [--enable-prof]
           Control the initial setting for thread.prof.active in newly created threads. See the
           opt.prof_thread_active_init option for additional information.

       prof.active (bool) rw [--enable-prof]
           Control whether sampling is currently active. See the opt.prof_active option for
           additional information, as well as the interrelated thread.prof.active mallctl.

       prof.dump (const char *) -w [--enable-prof]
           Dump a memory profile to the specified file, or if NULL is specified, to a file
           according to the pattern <prefix>.<pid>.<seq>.m<mseq>.heap, where <prefix> is
           controlled by the opt.prof_prefix option.

       prof.gdump (bool) rw [--enable-prof]
           When enabled, trigger a memory profile dump every time the total virtual memory
           exceeds the previous maximum. Profiles are dumped to files named according to the
           pattern <prefix>.<pid>.<seq>.u<useq>.heap, where <prefix> is controlled by the
           opt.prof_prefix option.

       prof.reset (size_t) -w [--enable-prof]
           Reset all memory profile statistics, and optionally update the sample rate (see
           opt.lg_prof_sample and prof.lg_sample).

       prof.lg_sample (size_t) r- [--enable-prof]
           Get the current sample rate (see opt.lg_prof_sample).

       prof.interval (uint64_t) r- [--enable-prof]
           Average number of bytes allocated between interval-based profile dumps. See the
           opt.lg_prof_interval option for additional information.

       stats.allocated (size_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Total number of bytes allocated by the application.

       stats.active (size_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Total number of bytes in active pages allocated by the application. This is a multiple
           of the page size, and greater than or equal to stats.allocated. This does not include
           stats.arenas.<i>.pdirty, stats.arenas.<i>.pmuzzy, nor pages entirely devoted to
           allocator metadata.

       stats.metadata (size_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Total number of bytes dedicated to metadata, which comprise base allocations used for
           bootstrap-sensitive allocator metadata structures (see stats.arenas.<i>.base) and
           internal allocations (see stats.arenas.<i>.internal). Transparent huge page (enabled
           with opt.metadata_thp) usage is not considered.

       stats.metadata_thp (size_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Number of transparent huge pages (THP) used for metadata. See stats.metadata and
           opt.metadata_thp) for details.

       stats.resident (size_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Maximum number of bytes in physically resident data pages mapped by the allocator,
           comprising all pages dedicated to allocator metadata, pages backing active
           allocations, and unused dirty pages. This is a maximum rather than precise because
           pages may not actually be physically resident if they correspond to demand-zeroed
           virtual memory that has not yet been touched. This is a multiple of the page size, and
           is larger than stats.active.

       stats.mapped (size_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Total number of bytes in active extents mapped by the allocator. This is larger than
           stats.active. This does not include inactive extents, even those that contain unused
           dirty pages, which means that there is no strict ordering between this and
           stats.resident.

       stats.retained (size_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Total number of bytes in virtual memory mappings that were retained rather than being
           returned to the operating system via e.g.  munmap(2) or similar. Retained virtual
           memory is typically untouched, decommitted, or purged, so it has no strongly
           associated physical memory (see extent hooks for details). Retained memory is excluded
           from mapped memory statistics, e.g.  stats.mapped.

       stats.background_thread.num_threads (size_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Number of background threads running currently.

       stats.background_thread.num_runs (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Total number of runs from all background threads.

       stats.background_thread.run_interval (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Average run interval in nanoseconds of background threads.

       stats.mutexes.ctl.{counter}; (counter specific type) r- [--enable-stats]
           Statistics on ctl mutex (global scope; mallctl related).  {counter} is one of the
           counters below:

               num_ops (uint64_t): Total number of lock acquisition operations on this mutex.

               num_spin_acq (uint64_t): Number of times the mutex was spin-acquired. When the
               mutex is currently locked and cannot be acquired immediately, a short period of
               spin-retry within jemalloc will be performed. Acquired through spin generally
               means the contention was lightweight and not causing context switches.

               num_wait (uint64_t): Number of times the mutex was wait-acquired, which means the
               mutex contention was not solved by spin-retry, and blocking operation was likely
               involved in order to acquire the mutex. This event generally implies higher cost /
               longer delay, and should be investigated if it happens often.

               max_wait_time (uint64_t): Maximum length of time in nanoseconds spent on a single
               wait-acquired lock operation. Note that to avoid profiling overhead on the common
               path, this does not consider spin-acquired cases.

               total_wait_time (uint64_t): Cumulative time in nanoseconds spent on wait-acquired
               lock operations. Similarly, spin-acquired cases are not considered.

               max_num_thds (uint32_t): Maximum number of threads waiting on this mutex
               simultaneously. Similarly, spin-acquired cases are not considered.

               num_owner_switch (uint64_t): Number of times the current mutex owner is different
               from the previous one. This event does not generally imply an issue; rather it is
               an indicator of how often the protected data are accessed by different threads.

       stats.mutexes.background_thread.{counter} (counter specific type) r- [--enable-stats]
           Statistics on background_thread mutex (global scope; background_thread related).
           {counter} is one of the counters in mutex profiling counters.

       stats.mutexes.prof.{counter} (counter specific type) r- [--enable-stats]
           Statistics on prof mutex (global scope; profiling related).  {counter} is one of the
           counters in mutex profiling counters.

       stats.mutexes.reset (void) -- [--enable-stats]
           Reset all mutex profile statistics, including global mutexes, arena mutexes and bin
           mutexes.

       stats.arenas.<i>.dss (const char *) r-
           dss (sbrk(2)) allocation precedence as related to mmap(2) allocation. See opt.dss for
           details.

       stats.arenas.<i>.dirty_decay_ms (ssize_t) r-
           Approximate time in milliseconds from the creation of a set of unused dirty pages
           until an equivalent set of unused dirty pages is purged and/or reused. See
           opt.dirty_decay_ms for details.

       stats.arenas.<i>.muzzy_decay_ms (ssize_t) r-
           Approximate time in milliseconds from the creation of a set of unused muzzy pages
           until an equivalent set of unused muzzy pages is purged and/or reused. See
           opt.muzzy_decay_ms for details.

       stats.arenas.<i>.nthreads (unsigned) r-
           Number of threads currently assigned to arena.

       stats.arenas.<i>.uptime (uint64_t) r-
           Time elapsed (in nanoseconds) since the arena was created. If <i> equals 0 or
           MALLCTL_ARENAS_ALL, this is the uptime since malloc initialization.

       stats.arenas.<i>.pactive (size_t) r-
           Number of pages in active extents.

       stats.arenas.<i>.pdirty (size_t) r-
           Number of pages within unused extents that are potentially dirty, and for which
           madvise() or similar has not been called. See opt.dirty_decay_ms for a description of
           dirty pages.

       stats.arenas.<i>.pmuzzy (size_t) r-
           Number of pages within unused extents that are muzzy. See opt.muzzy_decay_ms for a
           description of muzzy pages.

       stats.arenas.<i>.mapped (size_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Number of mapped bytes.

       stats.arenas.<i>.retained (size_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Number of retained bytes. See stats.retained for details.

       stats.arenas.<i>.base (size_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Number of bytes dedicated to bootstrap-sensitive allocator metadata structures.

       stats.arenas.<i>.internal (size_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Number of bytes dedicated to internal allocations. Internal allocations differ from
           application-originated allocations in that they are for internal use, and that they
           are omitted from heap profiles.

       stats.arenas.<i>.metadata_thp (size_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Number of transparent huge pages (THP) used for metadata. See opt.metadata_thp for
           details.

       stats.arenas.<i>.resident (size_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Maximum number of bytes in physically resident data pages mapped by the arena,
           comprising all pages dedicated to allocator metadata, pages backing active
           allocations, and unused dirty pages. This is a maximum rather than precise because
           pages may not actually be physically resident if they correspond to demand-zeroed
           virtual memory that has not yet been touched. This is a multiple of the page size.

       stats.arenas.<i>.dirty_npurge (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Number of dirty page purge sweeps performed.

       stats.arenas.<i>.dirty_nmadvise (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Number of madvise() or similar calls made to purge dirty pages.

       stats.arenas.<i>.dirty_purged (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Number of dirty pages purged.

       stats.arenas.<i>.muzzy_npurge (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Number of muzzy page purge sweeps performed.

       stats.arenas.<i>.muzzy_nmadvise (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Number of madvise() or similar calls made to purge muzzy pages.

       stats.arenas.<i>.muzzy_purged (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Number of muzzy pages purged.

       stats.arenas.<i>.small.allocated (size_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Number of bytes currently allocated by small objects.

       stats.arenas.<i>.small.nmalloc (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Cumulative number of times a small allocation was requested from the arena's bins,
           whether to fill the relevant tcache if opt.tcache is enabled, or to directly satisfy
           an allocation request otherwise.

       stats.arenas.<i>.small.ndalloc (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Cumulative number of times a small allocation was returned to the arena's bins,
           whether to flush the relevant tcache if opt.tcache is enabled, or to directly
           deallocate an allocation otherwise.

       stats.arenas.<i>.small.nrequests (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Cumulative number of allocation requests satisfied by all bin size classes.

       stats.arenas.<i>.large.allocated (size_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Number of bytes currently allocated by large objects.

       stats.arenas.<i>.large.nmalloc (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Cumulative number of times a large extent was allocated from the arena, whether to
           fill the relevant tcache if opt.tcache is enabled and the size class is within the
           range being cached, or to directly satisfy an allocation request otherwise.

       stats.arenas.<i>.large.ndalloc (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Cumulative number of times a large extent was returned to the arena, whether to flush
           the relevant tcache if opt.tcache is enabled and the size class is within the range
           being cached, or to directly deallocate an allocation otherwise.

       stats.arenas.<i>.large.nrequests (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Cumulative number of allocation requests satisfied by all large size classes.

       stats.arenas.<i>.bins.<j>.nmalloc (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Cumulative number of times a bin region of the corresponding size class was allocated
           from the arena, whether to fill the relevant tcache if opt.tcache is enabled, or to
           directly satisfy an allocation request otherwise.

       stats.arenas.<i>.bins.<j>.ndalloc (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Cumulative number of times a bin region of the corresponding size class was returned
           to the arena, whether to flush the relevant tcache if opt.tcache is enabled, or to
           directly deallocate an allocation otherwise.

       stats.arenas.<i>.bins.<j>.nrequests (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Cumulative number of allocation requests satisfied by bin regions of the corresponding
           size class.

       stats.arenas.<i>.bins.<j>.curregs (size_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Current number of regions for this size class.

       stats.arenas.<i>.bins.<j>.nfills (uint64_t) r-
           Cumulative number of tcache fills.

       stats.arenas.<i>.bins.<j>.nflushes (uint64_t) r-
           Cumulative number of tcache flushes.

       stats.arenas.<i>.bins.<j>.nslabs (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Cumulative number of slabs created.

       stats.arenas.<i>.bins.<j>.nreslabs (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Cumulative number of times the current slab from which to allocate changed.

       stats.arenas.<i>.bins.<j>.curslabs (size_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Current number of slabs.

       stats.arenas.<i>.bins.<j>.mutex.{counter} (counter specific type) r- [--enable-stats]
           Statistics on arena.<i>.bins.<j> mutex (arena bin scope; bin operation related).
           {counter} is one of the counters in mutex profiling counters.

       stats.arenas.<i>.lextents.<j>.nmalloc (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Cumulative number of times a large extent of the corresponding size class was
           allocated from the arena, whether to fill the relevant tcache if opt.tcache is enabled
           and the size class is within the range being cached, or to directly satisfy an
           allocation request otherwise.

       stats.arenas.<i>.lextents.<j>.ndalloc (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Cumulative number of times a large extent of the corresponding size class was returned
           to the arena, whether to flush the relevant tcache if opt.tcache is enabled and the
           size class is within the range being cached, or to directly deallocate an allocation
           otherwise.

       stats.arenas.<i>.lextents.<j>.nrequests (uint64_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Cumulative number of allocation requests satisfied by large extents of the
           corresponding size class.

       stats.arenas.<i>.lextents.<j>.curlextents (size_t) r- [--enable-stats]
           Current number of large allocations for this size class.

       stats.arenas.<i>.mutexes.large.{counter} (counter specific type) r- [--enable-stats]
           Statistics on arena.<i>.large mutex (arena scope; large allocation related).
           {counter} is one of the counters in mutex profiling counters.

       stats.arenas.<i>.mutexes.extent_avail.{counter} (counter specific type) r-
       [--enable-stats]
           Statistics on arena.<i>.extent_avail mutex (arena scope; extent avail related).
           {counter} is one of the counters in mutex profiling counters.

       stats.arenas.<i>.mutexes.extents_dirty.{counter} (counter specific type) r-
       [--enable-stats]
           Statistics on arena.<i>.extents_dirty mutex (arena scope; dirty extents related).
           {counter} is one of the counters in mutex profiling counters.

       stats.arenas.<i>.mutexes.extents_muzzy.{counter} (counter specific type) r-
       [--enable-stats]
           Statistics on arena.<i>.extents_muzzy mutex (arena scope; muzzy extents related).
           {counter} is one of the counters in mutex profiling counters.

       stats.arenas.<i>.mutexes.extents_retained.{counter} (counter specific type) r-
       [--enable-stats]
           Statistics on arena.<i>.extents_retained mutex (arena scope; retained extents
           related).  {counter} is one of the counters in mutex profiling counters.

       stats.arenas.<i>.mutexes.decay_dirty.{counter} (counter specific type) r- [--enable-stats]
           Statistics on arena.<i>.decay_dirty mutex (arena scope; decay for dirty pages
           related).  {counter} is one of the counters in mutex profiling counters.

       stats.arenas.<i>.mutexes.decay_muzzy.{counter} (counter specific type) r- [--enable-stats]
           Statistics on arena.<i>.decay_muzzy mutex (arena scope; decay for muzzy pages
           related).  {counter} is one of the counters in mutex profiling counters.

       stats.arenas.<i>.mutexes.base.{counter} (counter specific type) r- [--enable-stats]
           Statistics on arena.<i>.base mutex (arena scope; base allocator related).  {counter}
           is one of the counters in mutex profiling counters.

       stats.arenas.<i>.mutexes.tcache_list.{counter} (counter specific type) r- [--enable-stats]
           Statistics on arena.<i>.tcache_list mutex (arena scope; tcache to arena association
           related). This mutex is expected to be accessed less often.  {counter} is one of the
           counters in mutex profiling counters.

HEAP PROFILE FORMAT

       Although the heap profiling functionality was originally designed to be compatible with
       the pprof command that is developed as part of the gperftools package[3], the addition of
       per thread heap profiling functionality required a different heap profile format. The
       jeprof command is derived from pprof, with enhancements to support the heap profile format
       described here.

       In the following hypothetical heap profile, [...]  indicates elision for the sake of
       compactness.

           heap_v2/524288
             t*: 28106: 56637512 [0: 0]
             [...]
             t3: 352: 16777344 [0: 0]
             [...]
             t99: 17754: 29341640 [0: 0]
             [...]
           @ 0x5f86da8 0x5f5a1dc [...] 0x29e4d4e 0xa200316 0xabb2988 [...]
             t*: 13: 6688 [0: 0]
             t3: 12: 6496 [0: ]
             t99: 1: 192 [0: 0]
           [...]

           MAPPED_LIBRARIES:
           [...]

       The following matches the above heap profile, but most tokens are replaced with
       <description> to indicate descriptions of the corresponding fields.

           <heap_profile_format_version>/<mean_sample_interval>
             <aggregate>: <curobjs>: <curbytes> [<cumobjs>: <cumbytes>]
             [...]
             <thread_3_aggregate>: <curobjs>: <curbytes>[<cumobjs>: <cumbytes>]
             [...]
             <thread_99_aggregate>: <curobjs>: <curbytes>[<cumobjs>: <cumbytes>]
             [...]
           @ <top_frame> <frame> [...] <frame> <frame> <frame> [...]
             <backtrace_aggregate>: <curobjs>: <curbytes> [<cumobjs>: <cumbytes>]
             <backtrace_thread_3>: <curobjs>: <curbytes> [<cumobjs>: <cumbytes>]
             <backtrace_thread_99>: <curobjs>: <curbytes> [<cumobjs>: <cumbytes>]
           [...]

           MAPPED_LIBRARIES:
           </proc/<pid>/maps>

DEBUGGING MALLOC PROBLEMS

       When debugging, it is a good idea to configure/build jemalloc with the --enable-debug and
       --enable-fill options, and recompile the program with suitable options and symbols for
       debugger support. When so configured, jemalloc incorporates a wide variety of run-time
       assertions that catch application errors such as double-free, write-after-free, etc.

       Programs often accidentally depend on “uninitialized” memory actually being filled with
       zero bytes. Junk filling (see the opt.junk option) tends to expose such bugs in the form
       of obviously incorrect results and/or coredumps. Conversely, zero filling (see the
       opt.zero option) eliminates the symptoms of such bugs. Between these two options, it is
       usually possible to quickly detect, diagnose, and eliminate such bugs.

       This implementation does not provide much detail about the problems it detects, because
       the performance impact for storing such information would be prohibitive.

DIAGNOSTIC MESSAGES

       If any of the memory allocation/deallocation functions detect an error or warning
       condition, a message will be printed to file descriptor STDERR_FILENO. Errors will result
       in the process dumping core. If the opt.abort option is set, most warnings are treated as
       errors.

       The malloc_message variable allows the programmer to override the function which emits the
       text strings forming the errors and warnings if for some reason the STDERR_FILENO file
       descriptor is not suitable for this.  malloc_message() takes the cbopaque pointer argument
       that is NULL unless overridden by the arguments in a call to malloc_stats_print(),
       followed by a string pointer. Please note that doing anything which tries to allocate
       memory in this function is likely to result in a crash or deadlock.

       All messages are prefixed by “<jemalloc>: ”.

RETURN VALUES

   Standard API
       The malloc() and calloc() functions return a pointer to the allocated memory if
       successful; otherwise a NULL pointer is returned and errno is set to ENOMEM.

       The posix_memalign() function returns the value 0 if successful; otherwise it returns an
       error value. The posix_memalign() function will fail if:

       EINVAL
           The alignment parameter is not a power of 2 at least as large as sizeof(void *).

       ENOMEM
           Memory allocation error.

       The aligned_alloc() function returns a pointer to the allocated memory if successful;
       otherwise a NULL pointer is returned and errno is set. The aligned_alloc() function will
       fail if:

       EINVAL
           The alignment parameter is not a power of 2.

       ENOMEM
           Memory allocation error.

       The realloc() function returns a pointer, possibly identical to ptr, to the allocated
       memory if successful; otherwise a NULL pointer is returned, and errno is set to ENOMEM if
       the error was the result of an allocation failure. The realloc() function always leaves
       the original buffer intact when an error occurs.

       The free() function returns no value.

   Non-standard API
       The mallocx() and rallocx() functions return a pointer to the allocated memory if
       successful; otherwise a NULL pointer is returned to indicate insufficient contiguous
       memory was available to service the allocation request.

       The xallocx() function returns the real size of the resulting resized allocation pointed
       to by ptr, which is a value less than size if the allocation could not be adequately grown
       in place.

       The sallocx() function returns the real size of the allocation pointed to by ptr.

       The nallocx() returns the real size that would result from a successful equivalent
       mallocx() function call, or zero if insufficient memory is available to perform the size
       computation.

       The mallctl(), mallctlnametomib(), and mallctlbymib() functions return 0 on success;
       otherwise they return an error value. The functions will fail if:

       EINVAL
           newp is not NULL, and newlen is too large or too small. Alternatively, *oldlenp is too
           large or too small; in this case as much data as possible are read despite the error.

       ENOENT
           name or mib specifies an unknown/invalid value.

       EPERM
           Attempt to read or write void value, or attempt to write read-only value.

       EAGAIN
           A memory allocation failure occurred.

       EFAULT
           An interface with side effects failed in some way not directly related to mallctl*()
           read/write processing.

       The malloc_usable_size() function returns the usable size of the allocation pointed to by
       ptr.

ENVIRONMENT

       The following environment variable affects the execution of the allocation functions:

       MALLOC_CONF
           If the environment variable MALLOC_CONF is set, the characters it contains will be
           interpreted as options.

EXAMPLES

       To dump core whenever a problem occurs:

           ln -s 'abort:true' /etc/malloc.conf

       To specify in the source that only one arena should be automatically created:

           malloc_conf = "narenas:1";

SEE ALSO

       madvise(2), mmap(2), sbrk(2), utrace(2), alloca(3), atexit(3), getpagesize(3)

STANDARDS

       The malloc(), calloc(), realloc(), and free() functions conform to ISO/IEC 9899:1990 (“ISO
       C90”).

       The posix_memalign() function conforms to IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 (“POSIX.1”).

AUTHOR

       Jason Evans

NOTES

        1. jemalloc website
           http://jemalloc.net/

        2. JSON format
           http://www.json.org/

        3. gperftools package
           http://code.google.com/p/gperftools/