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NAME

       log, logf, logl - natural logarithmic function

SYNOPSIS

       #include <math.h>

       double log(double x);
       float logf(float x);
       long double logl(long double x);

       Link with -lm.

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       logf(), logl():
           _ISOC99_SOURCE || _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200112L
               || /* Since glibc 2.19: */ _DEFAULT_SOURCE
               || /* Glibc versions <= 2.19: */ _BSD_SOURCE || _SVID_SOURCE

DESCRIPTION

       These functions return the natural logarithm of x.

RETURN VALUE

       On success, these functions return the natural logarithm of x.

       If x is a NaN, a NaN is returned.

       If x is 1, the result is +0.

       If x is positive infinity, positive infinity is returned.

       If x is zero, then a pole error occurs, and the functions return -HUGE_VAL, -HUGE_VALF, or
       -HUGE_VALL, respectively.

       If x is negative (including negative infinity), then a domain error occurs, and a NaN (not
       a number) is returned.

ERRORS

       See  math_error(7)  for information on how to determine whether an error has occurred when
       calling these functions.

       The following errors can occur:

       Domain error: x is negative
              errno is set to EDOM.  An invalid floating-point exception (FE_INVALID) is raised.

       Pole error: x is zero
              errno is set to ERANGE.  A divide-by-zero floating-point  exception  (FE_DIVBYZERO)
              is raised.

ATTRIBUTES

       For an explanation of the terms used in this section, see attributes(7).

       ┌──────────────────────┬───────────────┬─────────┐
       │InterfaceAttributeValue   │
       ├──────────────────────┼───────────────┼─────────┤
       │log(), logf(), logl() │ Thread safety │ MT-Safe │
       └──────────────────────┴───────────────┴─────────┘

CONFORMING TO

       C99, POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008.

       The variant returning double also conforms to SVr4, 4.3BSD, C89.

BUGS

       In  glibc  2.5  and  earlier, taking the log() of a NaN produces a bogus invalid floating-
       point (FE_INVALID) exception.

SEE ALSO

       cbrt(3), clog(3), log10(3), log1p(3), log2(3), sqrt(3)

COLOPHON

       This page is part of release 5.02 of the Linux man-pages project.  A  description  of  the
       project,  information  about  reporting  bugs, and the latest version of this page, can be
       found at https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

                                            2017-09-15                                     LOG(3)